States and union territories of India
CategoryFederated states
LocationRepublic of India
Number28 States
8 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim – 610,577 (lowest)
Uttar Pradesh – 199,812,341 (highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep – 64,473 (lowest)
Delhi – 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: Goa – 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) (smallest)
Rajasthan – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) (largest)
Union territories: Lakshadweep – 32 km2 (12 sq mi) (smallest)
Ladakh – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) (largest)

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories,[1] with a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.


Administrative divisions of India in 1951
Administrative divisions of India in 1951


Main articles: Presidencies and provinces of British India, Agencies of British India, Residencies of British India, and Princely state

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][excessive citations] The British Raj mostly retained the administrative structure of the preceding Mughal Empire. India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies), directly governed by the British, and princely states, which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.


Main articles: Political integration of India, Instrument of Accession, Annexation of Junagadh, and Annexation of Hyderabad

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[13] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:[citation needed]

States reorganisation (1951–1956)

Main articles: Goa liberation movement, Andhra movement, Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and States Reorganisation Commission

Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[14]

The French enclave of Chandernagore was transferred to West Bengal in 1954. In the same year Pondicherry, comprising the former French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon and Mahé, was transferred to India; this became a union territory in 1962.[15]

Also in 1954, pro-India forces liberated the Portuguese-held enclaves of Dadrá and Nagar Aveli, declaring the short-lived de facto state of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 1961, India annexed it as the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[16][17][18][19]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[20]

As a result of this act:


Main articles: Mahagujarat movement, Punjabi Suba movement, Annexation of Goa, 1967 Goa status referendum, 1975 Sikkimese monarchy referendum, Uttarakhand movement, and Telangana movement

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[21] The former Union Territory of Nagaland achieved statehood on 1 December 1963.[22] The Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[23] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[24][25]

Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969. The north-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[26] Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[27] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while erstwhile union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu's northern exclaves Damão and Diu became a separate union territory as Daman and Diu.[28]

In November 2000, three new states were created, namely:

Pondicherry was renamed Puducherry in 2007 and Orissa was renamed Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 from ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[33][34]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from 31 October 2019.[35] Later that year in November, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, effective from 26 January 2020.[36][37][38]

Current proposals

Main article: Proposed states and union territories of India

States and Union territories

See also: List of state and union territory capitals in India


State ISO Vehicle
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population
(2011)[citation needed]
Additional official
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 162,975 Telugu Urdu[40]
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CT CG Central Raipur[a] 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi Chhattisgarhi
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[41][42]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[43]
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit[44]
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu[45][46]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English[47]
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 26 January 1950 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[48][49]
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi[b]
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OR OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English, Nepali Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TG TS Southern Hyderabad[c] 2 June 2014 35,193,978[54] 112,077[54] Telugu Urdu[55]
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UT UK Central Bhararisain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter)[56]
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[57]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[d] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu
  1. ^ Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
  2. ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  3. ^ Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[50][51][52] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[53] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.[citation needed]
  4. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.

Union territories

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
Zone Capital Largest city UT established Population Area
Additional official
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Southern Port Blair 1 November 1956 380,581 8,249 Hindi English
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Northern Chandigarh 1 November 1966 1,055,450 114 English Punjabi
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DH DD Western Daman 26 January 2020 586,956 603 Gujarati, Marathi, English
Delhi IN-DL DL Northern New Delhi Delhi 1 November 1956 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi,English Punjabi [58]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Northern Srinagar (Summer)[59][60]
Jammu (Winter)[60][61]
Srinagar 31 October 2019 12,258,433 42,241 Kashmiri Dogri,Urdu and English
Ladakh IN-LA LA Northern Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[62]
Leh 31 October 2019 290,492 59,146 Ladakhi Kashmiri and Dogri
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Southern Kavaratti 1 November 1956 64,473 32 Malayalam, English
Puducherry IN-PY PY Southern Puducherry 16 August 1962 1,247,953 492 Tamil, English Telugu, Malayalam, French

Former states and union territories

Former states

Map State Capital Years Present-day state(s)
Ajmer in India (1951).svg
Ajmer State Ajmer 1950–1956 Rajasthan
Andhra-India 1953.svg
Andhra State Kurnool 1953–1956 Andhra Pradesh
Bhopal in India (1951).svg
Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Bilaspur in India (1951).svg
Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1950–1954 Himachal Pradesh
Bombay in India (1951).svg
Bombay State Bombay 1950–1960 Maharashtra, Gujarat, and partially Karnataka
Coorg in India (1951).svg
Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Karnataka
Punjab, India (1956-1966).png
East Punjab Shimla (1947–1953)
Chandigarh (1953–1966)
1947–1966 Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh UT
Hyderabad in India (1951).svg
Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–1956 Telangana, and partially Maharashtra and Karnataka
Jammu and Kashmir in India (de-facto) (claims hatched).svg
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1952–2019 Jammu and Kashmir UT and

Ladakh UT

Kutch in India (1951).svg
Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Gujarat
Madhya Bharat in India (1951).svg
Madhya Bharat Indore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Madras in India (1951).svg
Madras State Madras 1950–1969 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and partially Karnataka and Kerala
Mysore in India (1951).svg
Mysore State Bangalore 1947–1973 Karnataka
PEPSU in India (1951).svg
Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab and Haryana
Saurashtra in India (1951).svg
Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Gujarat
Travancore-Cochin in India (1951).svg
Travancore–Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala and partially Tamil Nadu
Vindhya Pradesh in India (1951).svg
Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh

Former union territories

Map Name Zone Capital Area UT established UT disestablished Now part of
Arunachal Pradesh North-Eastern Itanagar 83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi) 21 January 1972 20 February 1987 As an Indian state
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Western Silvassa 491 km2 (190 sq mi) 11 August 1961 26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
Daman and Diu Western Daman 112 km2 (43 sq mi) 30 May 1987 26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
Goa, Daman and Diu Western Panaji 3,814 km2 (1,473 sq mi) 19 December 1961 30 May 1987 Goa state and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
Himachal Pradesh Northern Shimla 55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi) 1 November 1956 25 January 1971 As an Indian state
Manipur North-Eastern Imphal 22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi) 1 November 1956 21 January 1972 As an Indian state
Mizoram North-Eastern Aizawl 21,087 km2 (8,142 sq mi) 21 January 1972 20 February 1987 As an Indian state
Nagaland North-Eastern Kohima 16,579 km2 (6,401 sq mi) 29 November 1957 1 December 1963 As an Indian state
Tripura North-Eastern Agartala 10,491.65 km2 (4,050.85 sq mi) 1 November 1956 21 January 1972 As an Indian state

Responsibilities and authorities

Main articles: Federalism in India, Union List, State List, and Concurrent List

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[63]

See also


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  12. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. Vol. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
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  63. ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India Archived 31 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998