North-West Frontier Province
شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ (Urdu)
شمال لویدیځ سرحدي ولایت (Pashto)
Province of
British India (1901–1947)
Pakistan (1947–1955; 1970–2010)
1901-1955; 1970–2010
Coat of arms of NWFP
Coat of arms
1901–1947
1901–1947
Location within the British Raj
1947–1955
1970–2010

Location within Pakistan
CapitalPeshawar
Area 
• 1901
100,142[1][2] km2 (38,665 sq mi)
Population 
• 1901
2,041,534
History 
9 November 1901
14 August 1947
14 October 1955
1 July 1970
19 April 2010
Preceded by
Succeeded by
1901:
British Punjab
1950:
Phulra State
1970:
Amb State
Swat State
Dir State
Chitral State
Hazara Tribal Agency
Kohistan Tribal Agency
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Today part ofPakistan
 · Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP; Pashto: شمال لویدیځ سرحدي ولایت, Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) was a province of British India from 1901 to 1947, of the Dominion of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955, and of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan from 1970 to 2010. It was established on 9 November 1901 from the north-western districts of the British Punjab, during the British Raj.[3] Following the referendum in 1947 to join either Pakistan or India, the province voted hugely in favour of joining Pakistan and it acceded accordingly on 14 August 1947. It was dissolved to form a unified province of West Pakistan in 1955 upon promulgation of One Unit Scheme and was reestablished in 1970. It was known by this name until 19 April 2010, when it was dissolved and redesignated as the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa following the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, by President Asif Ali Zardari.

The province covered an area of 70,709 km2 (27,301 sq mi), including much of the current Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province but excluding the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the former princely states of Amb, Chitral, Dir, Phulra and Swat. Its capital was the city of Peshawar, and the province was composed of six divisions (Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hazara, Kohat, Mardan, and Peshawar Division; Malakand was later added as the seventh division). Until 1947, the province was bordered by five princely states to the north, the minor states of the Gilgit Agency to the northeast, the province of Punjab to the east and the province of Balochistan to the south. The Kingdom of Afghanistan lay to the northwest, with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas forming a buffer zone between the two.

History

Formation

The northwestern frontier areas were annexed by the East India Company after the Second Sikh War (1848–49). The territories thenceforth formed a part of Punjab until the province, then known as North West Frontier Province, was created in 1901 from the north-western districts of the Punjab Province.[4] This region, along with the 'Frontier Tribal Areas', acted as a buffer zone with Afghanistan.

Inside Pakistan

Before the Partition of India, the 1947 North-West Frontier Province referendum was held in July 1947 to decide the future of NWFP, in which the people of the province decided in favor of joining Pakistan. Chief Minister Dr Khan Sahib, along with his brother Bacha Khan and the Khudai Khidmatgars, boycotted the referendum, citing that it did not have the options of the NWFP becoming independent or joining Afghanistan.[5][6]

As a separate province, the NWFP lasted until 1955 when it was merged into the new province of West Pakistan, under the One Unit policy announced by Prime Minister Chaudhry Mohammad Ali. It was recreated after the dissolution of the One Unit system and lasted under its old nomenclature until April 2010, when it was renamed the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

Government

The offices of Governor and Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province lasted until 14 October 1955.

Tenure Governors of the North-West Frontier Province[7]
14 August 1947 – 8 April 1948 Sir George Cunningham
8 April 1948 – 16 July 1949 Sir Ambrose Dundas Flux Dundas
16 July 1949 – 14 January 1950 Sahibzada Mohammad Kursheed
14 January 1950 – 21 February 1950 Mohammad Ibrahim Khan Jhagra (acting)
21 February 1950 – 23 November 1951 Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar
24 November 1951 – 17 November 1954 Khwaja Shahabuddin
17 November 1954 – 14 October 1955 Qurban Ali Khan
14 October 1955 North-West Frontier Province dissolved
Tenure Chief Ministers of the North-West Frontier Province[7] Political party
1 April 1937 – 7 September 1937 Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan Non-party government nominee
7 September 1937 – 10 November 1939 Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (1st time) Indian National Congress
10 November 1939 – 25 May 1943 Governor's rule
25 May 1943 – 16 March 1945 Sardar Aurangzeb Khan Muslim League
16 March 1945 – 22 August 1947 Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (2nd time) Indian National Congress
14 August 1947 Independence of Pakistan
23 August 1947 – 23 April 1953 Abdul Qayyum Khan Kashmiri Pakistan Muslim League
23 April 1953 – 18 July 1955 Sardar Abdur Rashid Khan
19 July 1955 – 14 October 1955 Sardar Bahadur Khan

Demographics

Not to be confused with Federally Administered Tribal Areas § Demographics.

Population history
YearPop.±%
18551,144,047—    
18681,339,566+17.1%
18811,575,943+17.6%
18911,857,519+17.9%
19012,050,724+10.4%
19112,196,933+7.1%
19212,251,340+2.5%
19312,425,076+7.7%
19413,038,067+25.3%
Source: Census of India
[8]: 7 [9]: 30 [10]: 345–346 [11][12]

Historical population, language, and religious counts in North-West Frontier Province were enumerated in all districts (Hazara, Mardan, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan), detailed in the population, language, and religious tables above and below. Separate population counts were taken in the Agencies and Tribal Areas, as detailed on the respective article page.

At independence, there was a clear Muslim Pashtun and Hindkowan majority in the North-West Frontier Province, although there were also significant Hindu and Sikh Pashtun, Hindkowan and Punjabi minorities scattered across the province.

Language

The languages of the North-West Frontier Province included Pashto, Hindko, Kohistani and others, although most of the population spoke either Pashto or Lahnda/Western Punjabi (primarily Hindko and Saraiki). Prior to the arrival of the British, the official language, for governmental uses and such, was Persian.

Language in North–West Frontier Province (1931)
Mother
Tongue
1931[11]: 357–359 
Population Percentage
Pashto 1,279,471 52.76%
Western Punjabi
(Lahnda)
[a]
1,034,874 42.67%
Standard Punjabi 68,031 2.81%
Hindustani 19,221 0.79%
English 7,852 0.32%
Persian 6,030 0.25%
Nepali 5,140 0.21%
Kashmiri 1,796 0.07%
Gujari 596 0.02%
Kohistani 377 0.02%
Turkish 62 0.003%
Arabic 24 0.001%
Welsh 19 0.001%
Portuguese 14 0.001%
French 9 0.0004%
Chinese 5 0.0002%
German 3 0.0001%
Greek 2 0.0001%
Scotch 1 0%
Irish 1 0%
Spanish 1 0%
Dutch 1 0%
Japanese 1 0%
Other Indo-Aryan or
Dravidian languages
1,545 0.06%
Total 2,425,076 100%

Districts

Language in the Districts of North–West Frontier Province (1931)[11]: 357–359 
District Pashto Western Punjabi
(Lahnda)
[a]
Standard Punjabi Hindustani English Others Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar District 781,773 80.24% 127,189 13.05% 40,805 4.19% 11,798 1.21% 5,864 0.6% 6,892 0.71% 974,321 100%
Hazara District 29,375 4.38% 625,268 93.31% 5,436 0.81% 4,113 0.61% 257 0.04% 5,668 0.85% 670,117 100%
Dera Ismail Khan District 53,643 19.57% 213,115 77.76% 4,446 1.62% 419 0.15% 336 0.12% 2,105 0.77% 274,064 100%
Bannu District 228,381 84.49% 33,547 12.41% 6,267 2.32% 1,181 0.44% 556 0.21% 369 0.14% 270,301 100%
Kohat District 186,299 78.85% 35,755 15.13% 11,077 4.69% 1,710 0.72% 839 0.36% 593 0.25% 236,273 100%
Total 1,279,471 52.76% 1,034,874 42.67% 68,031 2.81% 19,221 0.79% 7,852 0.32% 15,627 0.64% 2,425,076 100%

Religion

See also: Hinduism in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Religion in North–West Frontier Province (1941)[12]: 22 

  Islam (91.8%)
  Hinduism (5.94%)
  Sikhism (1.91%)
  Christianity (0.36%)
  Others[b] (0.004%)

Religious counts below is for the entirety of NWFP (Hazara, Mardan, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan). The Agencies and Tribal Areas constituted a separate administrative division where religious composition was not enumerated, except at small Trans-Frontier Posts in the region.

Religion in North–West Frontier Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[9]: 95  1891[9]: 95  1901[8]: 34–36  1911[9]: 307–308  1921[10]: 345–346  1931[11]: 373–375  1941[12]: 22 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 1,451,444 92.1% 1,714,490 92.3% 1,890,479 92.19% 2,039,994 92.86% 2,062,786 91.62% 2,227,303 91.84% 2,788,797 91.8%
Hinduism 111,892 7.1% 118,881 6.4% 129,306 6.31% 119,942 5.46% 149,881 6.66% 142,977 5.9% 180,321 5.94%
Sikhism 7,880 0.5% 18,575 1% 25,733 1.25% 30,345 1.38% 28,040 1.25% 42,510 1.75% 57,939 1.91%
Christianity 4,728 0.3% 5,573 0.3% 5,119 0.25% 6,585 0.3% 10,610 0.47% 12,213 0.5% 10,889 0.36%
Jainism 37 0.002% 4 0% 3 0% 0 0% 1 0%
Zoroastrianism 46 0.002% 49 0.002% 20 0.001% 60 0.002% 24 0.001%
Judaism 4 0% 14 0.001% 0 0% 11 0% 71 0.002%
Buddhism 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 2 0% 25 0.001%
Others 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Total Population 1,575,943 100% 1,857,519 100% 2,050,724 100% 2,196,933 100% 2,251,340 100% 2,425,076 100% 3,038,067 100%

Adherents of Islam who were indigenous to frontier regions that continued to have relatively large Hindu populations, and who were also relatively recent converts, were influenced by some traditions of Hinduism; in contrast, Muslims in frontier regions that had been further influenced by orthodox Islam and converted at a much earlier date were noted in their relatively different cultural habits.

"The high road, along which the Mohammedan conquerors and rulers of India passed and repassed lay through the north (the Khyber, Kurram and other routes); and it is probable that Islam never took so firm a hold of the inhabitants of the southern district as of the people to the north of them. In this connection it is interesting to notice that the Mussalman of the Derajat is less strict in his observance of the duties of his religion, such as fasts, prayers and the like, than his northern neighbours. Through Hazara lay the road by which the Emperors of Delhi went to and fro between the capital and their summer retreat in Kashmir, and it was natural that Islam should thoroughly permeate the district. Similarly Kohat, from its situation with regard to the Kurram Valley, which at no very distant period was, nominally at least, a portion of the Afghan kingdom, has been more influenced in the past by its Mohammedan neighbours to the west than have the districts to the south of it. There is no need to consider here the probable date at which the bulk of the Pathans living in the Province, or rather their ancestors, were converted to Islam. It is enough to notice that they had long been Mohammadan when they settled in their present homes, and that their fanaticism and intolerance, especially in the districts where they are strongest, rendered the Province no very inviting place of residence for settlers of a different creed. If no fanaticism in its inhabitants acted as a bar to the settlement of Hindus in Hazara, the absence of any large trade centres was at least equally efficacious. The only other district in which there is a non-Pathan element in the population in any way commensurate to that of Hazara is Dera Ismail Khan. The population here is mainly composed of tribes of Indian origin. Its conversion to Islam is of much later data; fanaticism does not exist, and no particular dislike to the Hindu seems to have existed." [9]: 64–65 

— Excerpt from the Census of India (North-West Frontier Province), 1911 AD

Similarly, adherents of Hinduism who belonged to the various castes and tribes who were indigenous to the frontier regions had considerable Islamic influence, owing to their status as a religious minority in the region for centuries, and thus formed religious syncretism that incorporated aspects from both faiths into their cultures and traditions.

"Hinduism, as it exists in the North-West Frontier Province, is but a pale reflection of the system which flourishes in the United Provinces and other areas to the east. Even of the Derajat, where, as we have seen, the Hindu population is proportionately most numerous, the writer of the Dera Ismail Khan Gazetteer notes, "the Hindus of this district are less particular in the matter of caste prejudices and observances than down country Hindus. Most of them will drink water that has been carried in Mussaks (skins for carrying water) or out of lotas detached from a working well. They habitually ride on donkeys and do a multitude of other things which an orthodox Hindu would shrink from. All idolatrous observances are kept very much in the background. Except a few small images (thakurs) kept in their mandirs they have no idols at all. Nor is it their habit to take their gods about in procession. No one, in fact, sees anything of their worship. They burn their dead, and throw the ashes into the Indus. They always keep a few of the bones, and take them, when the opportunity offers, to the Ganges... There are a good many dharamsalas, mandirs, and dawaras at Dera Ismail Khan and in the cis-Indus tehsils." [9]: 93 

— Excerpt from the Census of India (North-West Frontier Province), 1911 AD

Lastly, decadal census reports throughout the colonial era frequently detailed the difficulty of differentiating adherents of Hinduism with adherents of Sikhism, owing to the traditional ability of the former in assimilating and integrating followers of varied thought into Hinduism.

"The Sikh religion was born out of Hinduism, and fears have been expressed of its being reabsorbed into it. Truly wonderful is the strength and vitality of Hinduism. It is like the boa constrictor of the Indian forests; when a petty enemy appears to worry it, it winds round its opponent, crushes it in its folds, and finally causes it to disappear in its capacious interior. In this way, many centuries ago, Hinduism on its own ground disposed of Buddhism which was largely a Hindu reformation in this way in a prehistoric period it absorbed the religion of the Scythian invaders of Northern India; in this way it has converted educated Islam in India into a semi-paganism; and in this way it is disposing of the reformed and once hopeful religion of Baba Nanak. Hinduism has embraced Sikhism in its folds; the still comparatively young religion is making a vigorous struggle for life, but its ultimate destruction is, it is apprehended, inevitable without State support. Notwithstanding the Sikh Guru's powerful denunciation of Brahmans, secular Sikhs now rarely do anything without their assistance. Brahmans help them to be born, help them to wed, help them to die and help their souls after death to obtain a state of bliss. And Brahmans, with all the deftness of Roman Catholic missionaries in Protestant countries have partially succeeded in persuading the Sikhs to restore to their niches the images of Devi, the Queen of Heaven, and the Saints and gods of the ancient faith." [9]: 62 

— Excerpt from the Census of India (North-West Frontier Province), 1911 AD)

Districts

With rapid population growth occurring across all districts in the province, Mardan District was added to the North–West Frontier Province in 1941.

Religion in the Districts of North–West Frontier Province (1941)[12]: 22–23 
District Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[c] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar District 769,589 90.35% 51,212 6.01% 24,030 2.82% 6,890 0.81% 112[d] 0.01% 851,833 100%
Hazara District 756,004 94.95% 30,267 3.8% 9,220 1.16% 737 0.09% 2[e] 0.0003% 796,230 100%
Mardan District 483,575 95.47% 10,677 2.11% 11,838 2.34% 449 0.09% 0 0% 506,539 100%
Dera Ismail Khan District 255,757 85.79% 39,167 13.14% 2,390 0.8% 810 0.27% 7[f] 0.002% 298,131 100%
Bannu District 257,648 87.06% 31,471 10.63% 6,112 2.07% 699 0.24% 0 0% 295,930 100%
Kohat District 266,224 91.99% 17,527 6.06% 4,349 1.5% 1,304 0.45% 0 0% 289,404 100%
Total 2,788,797 91.8% 180,321 5.94% 57,939 1.91% 10,889 0.36% 121[b] 0.004% 3,038,067 100%
Religion in the Districts of North–West Frontier Province (1931)[11]: 373–375 
District Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[c] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar District 898,683 92.24% 42,321 4.34% 24,271 2.49% 8,974 0.92% 72[g] 0.01% 974,321 100%
Hazara District 636,794 95.03% 25,260 3.77% 7,630 1.14% 432 0.06% 1[h] 0.0001% 670,117 100%
Dera Ismail Khan District 235,707 86% 35,822 13.07% 1,878 0.69% 657 0.24% 0 0% 274,064 100%
Bannu District 237,674 87.93% 26,181 9.69% 5,482 2.03% 964 0.36% 0 0% 270,301 100%
Kohat District 218,445 92.45% 13,393 5.67% 3,249 1.38% 1,186 0.5% 0 0% 236,273 100%
Total 2,227,303 91.84% 142,977 5.9% 42,510 1.75% 12,213 0.5% 73[i] 0.003% 2,425,076 100%
Religion in the Districts of North–West Frontier Province (1921)[10]: 344–346 
District Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[c] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar District 836,222 92.16% 48,144 5.31% 15,326 1.69% 7,652 0.84% 23[j] 0.003% 907,367 100%
Hazara District 591,058 94.97% 26,038 4.18% 4,850 0.78% 403 0.06% 0 0% 622,349 100%
Dera Ismail Khan District 218,315 83.72% 39,311 15.08% 1,904 0.73% 1,237 0.47% 0 0% 260,767 100%
Bannu District 219,695 89.04% 23,509 9.53% 3,286 1.33% 244 0.1% 0 0% 246,734 100%
Kohat District 197,496 92.23% 12,879 6.01% 2,674 1.25% 1,074 0.5% 0 0% 214,123 100%
Total 2,062,786 91.62% 149,881 6.66% 28,040 1.25% 10,610 0.47% 23[j] 0.001% 2,251,340 100%

Tehsils

Religion in the Tehsils of North–West Frontier Province (1941)[12]: 30 
Tehsil Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity [k] Others[l] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar Tehsil 335,871 86.27% 33,551 8.62% 15,454 3.97% 2,618[k] 0.67% 1,835[l] 0.47% 389,329 100%
Abbottabad Tehsil 284,228 92.13% 17,558 5.69% 6,035 1.96% 278[k] 0.09% 419[l] 0.14% 308,518 100%
Mardan Tehsil 281,161 93.91% 8,709 2.91% 9,091 3.04% 360[k] 0.12% 63[l] 0.02% 299,384 100%
Charsadda Tehsil 239,634 98.11% 2,533 1.04% 1,940 0.79% 127[k] 0.05% 12[l] 0.005% 244,246 100%
Mansehra Tehsil 237,306 97.58% 4,910 2.02% 965 0.4% 22[k] 0.01% 0 0% 243,203 100%
Nowshera Tehsil 194,084 88.92% 15,128 6.93% 6,636 3.04% 652[k] 0.3% 1,758[l] 0.81% 218,258 100%
Swabi Tehsil 202,414 97.71% 1,968 0.95% 2,747 1.33% 16[k] 0.01% 10[l] 0.005% 207,155 100%
Haripur Tehsil 178,545 95.04% 7,278 3.87% 2,011 1.07% 14[k] 0.01% 6[l] 0.003% 187,854 100%
Bannu Tehsil 157,097 83.74% 24,517 13.07% 5,285 2.82% 467[k] 0.25% 232[l] 0.12% 187,598 100%
Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil 155,100 82.68% 30,065 16.03% 1,740 0.93% 195[k] 0.1% 485[l] 0.26% 187,585 100%
Kohat Tehsil 100,868 88.01% 9,156 7.99% 3,613 3.15% 596[k] 0.52% 383[l] 0.33% 114,616 100%
Teri Tehsil 110,146 97.73% 2,462 2.18% 86 0.08% 0 0% 15[l] 0.01% 112,709 100%
Marwat Tehsil 100,551 92.82% 6,954 6.42% 817 0.75% 0 0% 0 0% 108,332 100%
Hangu Tehsil 55,210 88.94% 5,909 9.52% 650 1.05% 0 0% 310[l] 0.5% 62,079 100%
Tank Tehsil 49,847 89.55% 5,279 9.48% 401 0.72% 81[k] 0.15% 56[l] 0.1% 55,664 100%
Kulachi Tehsil 50,810 92.58% 3,823 6.97% 249 0.45% 0 0% 0 0% 54,882 100%
Amb Tehsil 47,288 98.69% 433 0.9% 195 0.41% 0 0% 0 0% 47,916 100%
Phulra Tehsil 8,637 98.83% 88 1.01% 14 0.16% 0 0% 0 0% 8,739 100%
Total 2,788,797 91.8% 180,321 5.94% 57,929 1.91% 5,426[k] 0.18% 5,583[l] 0.18% 3,038,067 100%
Religion in the Tehsils of North–West Frontier Province (1931)[11]: 393–396 
Tehsil Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar Tehsil 240,642 86.27% 23,538 8.44% 9,736 3.49% 4,991 1.79% 40[m] 0.01% 278,947 100%
Abbottabad Tehsil 235,454 92.78% 13,378 5.27% 4,599 1.81% 347 0.14% 1[n] 0% 253,779 100%
Mansehra Tehsil 203,374 97.47% 4,308 2.06% 966 0.46% 12 0.01% 0 0% 208,660 100%
Mardan Tehsil 187,180 94.27% 5,941 2.99% 5,174 2.61% 266 0.13% 0 0% 198,561 100%
Charsadda Tehsil 173,970 97.81% 2,145 1.21% 1,653 0.93% 92 0.05% 0 0% 177,860 100%
Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil 143,559 83.94% 25,982 15.19% 894 0.52% 584 0.34% 0 0% 171,019 100%
Haripur Tehsil 160,630 94.64% 7,016 4.13% 2,019 1.19% 70 0.04% 0 0% 169,735 100%
Bannu Tehsil 138,152 85.34% 17,789 10.99% 4,979 3.08% 962 0.59% 0 0% 161,882 100%
Nowshera Tehsil 142,962 89.05% 9,271 5.77% 4,678 2.91% 3,599 2.24% 32[o] 0.02% 160,542 100%
Swabi Tehsil 153,929 97.17% 1,426 0.9% 3,030 1.91% 26 0.02% 0 0% 158,411 100%
Marwat Tehsil 99,522 91.79% 8,392 7.74% 503 0.46% 2 0% 0 0% 108,419 100%
Teri Tehsil 100,179 97.25% 2,788 2.71% 27 0.03% 17 0.02% 0 0% 103,011 100%
Kohat Tehsil 77,408 87.65% 7,615 8.62% 2,184 2.47% 1,103 1.25% 0 0% 88,310 100%
Kulachi Tehsil 46,709 90.08% 4,731 9.12% 410 0.79% 1 0% 0 0% 51,851 100%
Tank Tehsil 45,439 88.76% 5,109 9.98% 574 1.12% 72 0.14% 0 0% 51,194 100%
Hangu Tehsil 40,858 90.89% 2,990 6.65% 1,038 2.31% 66 0.15% 0 0% 44,952 100%
Amb Tehsil 30,742 98.22% 509 1.63% 45 0.14% 3 0.01% 0 0% 31,299 100%
Phulra Tehsil 6,594 99.25% 49 0.74% 1 0.02% 0 0% 0 0% 6,644 100%
Total 2,227,303 91.84% 142,977 5.9% 42,510 1.75% 12,213 0.5% 73[i] 0% 2,425,076 100%
Religion in the Tehsils of North–West Frontier Province (1921)[10]: 510–516 
Tehsil Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar Tehsil 225,897 85.82% 25,414 9.65% 8,223 3.12% 3,671 1.39% 23[j] 0.01% 263,228 100%
Abbottabad Tehsil 214,720 92.54% 13,580 5.85% 3,344 1.44% 390 0.17% 0 0% 232,034 100%
Mansehra Tehsil 195,812 97.48% 4,592 2.29% 468 0.23% 7 0.003% 0 0% 200,879 100%
Mardan Tehsil 161,726 94.22% 6,846 3.99% 2,874 1.67% 196 0.11% 0 0% 171,642 100%
Charsadda Tehsil 161,406 98.16% 2,183 1.33% 787 0.48% 62 0.04% 0 0% 164,438 100%
Haripur Tehsil 153,645 94.85% 7,362 4.54% 968 0.6% 6 0.004% 0 0% 161,981 100%
Swabi Tehsil 155,116 97.41% 3,063 1.92% 1,062 0.67% 1 0.001% 0 0% 159,242 100%
Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil 129,919 83.27% 24,685 15.82% 884 0.57% 529 0.34% 0 0% 156,017 100%
Nowshera Tehsil 132,077 88.75% 10,638 7.15% 2,380 1.6% 3,722 2.5% 0 0% 148,817 100%
Bannu Tehsil 123,384 86.56% 16,130 11.32% 2,777 1.95% 244 0.17% 0 0% 142,535 100%
Marwat Tehsil 96,311 92.43% 7,379 7.08% 509 0.49% 0 0% 0 0% 104,199 100%
Teri Tehsil 89,924 97.49% 2,239 2.43% 45 0.05% 29 0.03% 0 0% 92,237 100%
Kohat Tehsil 67,535 87.51% 6,415 8.31% 2,195 2.84% 1,026 1.33% 0 0% 77,171 100%
Tank Tehsil 47,895 80.31% 10,224 17.14% 811 1.36% 707 1.19% 0 0% 59,637 100%
Kulachi Tehsil 40,501 89.78% 4,402 9.76% 209 0.46% 1 0.002% 0 0% 45,113 100%
Hangu Tehsil 40,037 89.54% 4,225 9.45% 434 0.97% 19 0.04% 0 0% 44,715 100%
Amb Tehsil 21,244 97.66% 440 2.02% 70 0.32% 0 0% 0 0% 21,754 100%
Phulra Tehsil 5,637 98.88% 64 1.12% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 5,701 100%
Total 2,062,786 91.62% 149,881 6.66% 28,040 1.25% 10,610 0.47% 23[j] 0% 2,251,340 100%

Cities

Religion in Urban North–West Frontier Province (1941)[12]: 19 

  Islam (66.26%)
  Hinduism (24.34%)
  Sikhism (7.5%)
  Others (1.9%)
Religion in the Cities of North–West Frontier Province (1941)[12]: 19 
City/Urban Area Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity [k] Others[l] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar[p] 122,972 70.91% 31,630 18.24% 14,245 8.21% 2,586[k] 1.49% 1,987[l] 1.15% 173,420 100%
Dera Ismail Khan[p] 26,424 51.5% 22,815 44.47% 1,412 2.75% 195[k] 0.38% 460[l] 0.9% 51,306 100%
Kohat[p] 32,111 71.39% 8,250 18.34% 3,562 7.92% 445[k] 0.99% 609[l] 1.35% 44,977 100%
Nowshera[q] 28,132 63.9% 9,831 22.33% 4,253 9.66% 412[k] 0.94% 1,394[l] 3.17% 44,022 100%
Mardan[p] 30,301 71.31% 5,851 13.77% 6,014 14.15% 282[k] 0.66% 46[l] 0.11% 42,494 100%
Bannu[p] 10,696 27.78% 22,175 57.59% 4,894 12.71% 467[k] 1.21% 232[l] 0.6% 38,504 100%
Abbottabad[p] 12,192 44.46% 11,886 43.34% 2,680 9.77% 298[k] 1.09% 368[l] 1.34% 27,424 100%
Charsadda 15,747 93.48% 745 4.42% 294 1.75% 54[k] 0.32% 5[l] 0.03% 16,845 100%
Parang 13,494 99.99% 2 0.01% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 13,496 100%
Tangi 12,456 96.51% 444 3.44% 2 0.02% 4[k] 0.03% 0 0% 12,906 100%
Mansehra 8,141 79.68% 1,699 16.63% 375 3.67% 2[k] 0.02% 0 0% 10,217 100%
Lakki[r] 5,883 58.01% 3,710 36.58% 548 5.4% 0 0% 0 0% 10,141 100%
Utmanzai 9,768 96.44% 182 1.8% 171 1.69% 8[k] 0.08% 0 0% 10,129 100%
Haripur 5,174 55.5% 3,113 33.39% 1,035 11.1% 0 0% 0 0% 9,322 100%
Tank[r] 5,531 60.85% 3,296 36.26% 181 1.99% 66[k] 0.73% 15[l] 0.17% 9,089 100%
Risalpur 3,506 38.93% 3,937 43.71% 1,024 11.37% 333[k] 3.7% 207[l] 2.3% 9,007 100%
Kulachi[r] 6,610 74.77% 2,092 23.67% 138 1.56% 0 0% 0 0% 8,840 100%
Baffa[r] 7,166 89.71% 735 9.2% 81 1.01% 6[k] 0.08% 0 0% 7,988 100%
Nawan Shehr[r] 5,075 79.12% 1,030 16.06% 309 4.82% 0 0% 0 0% 6,414 100%
Kot Najibullah 4,228 79.55% 929 17.48% 156 2.94% 2[k] 0.04% 0 0% 5,315 100%
Cherat 270 80.12% 30 8.9% 25 7.42% 0 0% 12[l] 3.56% 337 100%
Total
Urban
Population
365,877 66.26% 134,382 24.34% 41,399 7.5% 5,160[k] 0.93% 5,335[l] 0.97% 552,193 100%

Religion in Urban North–West Frontier Province (1931)[11]: 257–259 

  Islam (66.34%)
  Hinduism (24.12%)
  Sikhism (6.57%)
  Christianity (2.95%)
  Others[i] (0.02%)
Religion in the Cities of North–West Frontier Province (1931)[11]: 257–259 
City/Urban Area Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar[p] 86,369 70.87% 21,973 18.03% 8,630 7.08% 4,854 3.98% 40[m] 0.03% 121,866 100%
Dera Ismail Khan[p] 22,321 55.34% 16,761 41.56% 708 1.76% 541 1.34% 0 0% 40,331 100%
Kohat[p] 24,388 71% 6,709 19.53% 2,152 6.26% 1,101 3.21% 0 0% 34,350 100%
Bannu[p] 10,607 34.73% 15,036 49.24% 3,947 12.92% 949 3.11% 0 0% 30,539 100%
Nowshera[q] 19,662 67.88% 4,675 16.14% 3,042 10.5% 1,560 5.39% 27[s] 0.09% 28,966 100%
Mardan[p] 19,579 74.5% 3,605 13.72% 2,927 11.14% 168 0.64% 0 0% 26,279 100%
Abbottabad[p] 7,026 43.46% 7,753 47.96% 1,039 6.43% 346 2.14% 1[n] 0.01% 16,165 100%
Charsadda 10,703 92.77% 519 4.5% 287 2.49% 28 0.24% 0 0% 11,537 100%
Parang 10,211 99.84% 16 0.16% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 10,227 100%
Tangi 8,320 95.75% 362 4.17% 7 0.08% 0 0% 0 0% 8,689 100%
Kulachi[r] 6,115 72.58% 2,182 25.9% 128 1.52% 0 0% 0 0% 8,425 100%
Risalpur 3,170 39.55% 2,900 36.18% 314 3.92% 1,629 20.32% 3[t] 0.04% 8,016 100%
Lakki[r] 4,630 60.11% 2,805 36.41% 268 3.48% 0 0% 0 0% 7,703 100%
Haripur 4,253 55.57% 2,693 35.19% 696 9.09% 11 0.14% 0 0% 7,653 100%
Baffa[r] 6,409 88.31% 762 10.5% 86 1.19% 0 0% 0 0% 7,257 100%
Tank[r] 3,929 61.19% 2,244 34.95% 240 3.74% 8 0.12% 0 0% 6,421 100%
Mansehra 4,217 72.96% 1,091 18.88% 469 8.11% 3 0.05% 0 0% 5,780 100%
Nawan Shehr[r] 3,884 75.71% 883 17.21% 363 7.08% 0 0% 0 0% 5,130 100%
Cherat 396 46.98% 158 18.74% 74 8.78% 213 25.27% 2[u] 0.24% 843 100%
Total
Urban
Population
256,189 66.34% 93,127 24.12% 25,377 6.57% 11,411 2.95% 73[i] 0.02% 386,177 100%

Religion in Urban North–West Frontier Province (1921)[10]: 340–342 

  Islam (63.28%)
  Hinduism (28.19%)
  Sikhism (5.58%)
  Christianity (2.95%)
  Others[j] (0.01%)
Religion in the Cities of North–West Frontier Province (1921)[10]: 340–342 
City/Urban Area Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[c] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar[p] 73,882 70.73% 20,981 20.09% 6,152 5.89% 3,414 3.27% 23[j] 0.02% 104,452 100%
Dera Ismail Khan[p] 21,056 53.52% 17,077 43.41% 724 1.84% 484 1.23% 0 0% 39,341 100%
Kohat[p] 18,898 67.85% 5,796 20.81% 2,139 7.68% 1,020 3.66% 0 0% 27,853 100%
Nowshera[q] 18,335 66.09% 6,192 22.32% 1,319 4.75% 1,896 6.83% 0 0% 27,742 100%
Bannu[p] 6,376 28.64% 13,222 59.4% 2,421 10.88% 242 1.09% 0 0% 22,261 100%
Abbottabad[p] 5,007 36.76% 7,346 53.94% 879 6.45% 388 2.85% 0 0% 13,620 100%
Mardan[q] 5,890 53.89% 3,220 29.46% 1,679 15.36% 141 1.29% 0 0% 10,930 100%
Tank[q] 6,043 55.72% 4,197 38.7% 344 3.17% 262 2.42% 0 0% 10,846 100%
Charsadda 9,710 94.9% 484 4.73% 30 0.29% 8 0.08% 0 0% 10,232 100%
Parang 9,869 99.83% 16 0.16% 1 0.01% 0 0% 0 0% 9,886 100%
Tangi 9,528 96.8% 314 3.19% 1 0.01% 0 0% 0 0% 9,843 100%
Risalpur 2,721 32.02% 3,369 39.64% 601 7.07% 1,808 21.27% 0 0% 8,499 100%
Kulachi 5,649 71.55% 2,162 27.38% 84 1.06% 0 0% 0 0% 7,895 100%
Baffa 6,703 88.16% 861 11.32% 39 0.51% 0 0% 0 0% 7,603 100%
Lakki 4,463 59.7% 2,543 34.02% 470 6.29% 0 0% 0 0% 7,476 100%
Jamrud 1,507 24.59% 3,114 50.82% 1,254 20.46% 253 4.13% 0 0% 6,128 100%
Haripur 2,907 49.36% 2,636 44.76% 346 5.88% 0 0% 0 0% 5,889 100%
Nawan Shehr 3,794 74.51% 1,052 20.66% 246 4.83% 0 0% 0 0% 5,092 100%
Cherat 173 66.28% 80 30.65% 8 3.07% 0 0% 0 0% 261 100%
Total
Urban
Population
212,511 63.28% 94,662 28.19% 18,737 5.58% 9,916 2.95% 23[j] 0.01% 335,849 100%

Castes and tribes

Castes and Tribes of North-West Frontier Province (1931–1941)
Caste or
Tribe
1931[11]: 377–383  1941[12]: 26 [v]
Pop. % Pop. %
Pathan 905,122 37.32% 795,400 26.18%
Awan 280,995 11.59% 178,896 5.89%
Gujar 121,170 5% 114,746 3.78%
Tanoli 86,003 3.55% 113,850 3.75%
Sayyid 81,972 3.38% 71,271 2.35%
Jat 73,919 3.05% 43,041 1.42%
Arora 60,283 2.49% 17,817 0.59%
Swathi 46,556 1.92% 37,245 1.23%
Tarkhan 45,088 1.86%
Julaha 40,055 1.65%
Dhund 39,322 1.62%
Baluch 37,145 1.53%
Khatri 33,804 1.39% 13,946 0.46%
Lohar 28,968 1.19%
Baghban 28,422 1.17%
Qureshi 27,211 1.12%
Karlal 27,185 1.12%
Mochi 26,628 1.1%
Kumhar 23,109 0.95%
Kashmiri 21,704 0.89%
Nai 17,178 0.71%
Brahman 16,379 0.68% 13,478 0.44%
Mughal 16,047 0.66%
Rajput 14,681 0.61%
Sheikh 13,046 0.54%
Dhobi 11,699 0.48%
Qassab 11,534 0.48%
Mirasi 10,869 0.45%
Sarara 9,984 0.41%
Sonar 9,532 0.39%
Chuhra 8,444 0.35% 3,838 0.13%
Paracha &
Banjara
8,259 0.34%
Teli 7,174 0.3%
Gakhar 7,098 0.29%
Maliar 6,622 0.27%
Mallah 6,578 0.27%
Bhatia 6,522 0.27%
Arain 6,480 0.27%
Mashwani 6,084 0.25%
Rangrez 5,703 0.24%
Turk 5,277 0.22%
Bhatiara 4,998 0.21%
Khoja 4,986 0.21%
Gurkha 4,565 0.19%
Machhi 4,130 0.17%
Chamar 2,901 0.12% 12,990 0.43%
Penjara 2,573 0.11%
Darzi 2,177 0.09%
Jhinwar 1,108 0.05%
Others or
Not Stated
157,787 6.51% 1,621,549 53.37%
Total 2,425,076 100% 3,038,067 100%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Includes Hindko, Peshawari, Derawali, and Tanoli.
  2. ^ a b Included 71 Jews, 25 Buddhists, 24 Parsis (Zoroastrians), and 1 Jain.
  3. ^ a b c d Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated
  4. ^ Including 70 Jews, 24 Parsis (Zoroastrians), and 18 Buddhists
  5. ^ Including 2 Buddhists
  6. ^ Including 5 Buddhists, 1 Jain, and 1 Jew.
  7. ^ Including 59 Parsis (Zoroastrians), 11 Jews, and 2 Buddhists
  8. ^ Including 1 Parsi (Zoroastrian)
  9. ^ a b c d Included 60 Parsis (Zoroastrians), 11 Jews, and 2 Buddhists.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Included 20 Parsis (Zoroastrians) and 3 Jains.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Tehsil and city religious breakdown figures for Christianity only includes local Christians, labeled as "Indian Christians" on census. Does not include Anglo-Indian Christians or British Christians, who were classified under "Other" category.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Including Anglo-Indian Christians, British Christians, Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated
  13. ^ a b Including 27 Parsis (Zoroastrians), 11 Jews, and 2 Buddhists.
  14. ^ a b Including 1 Parsi (Zoroastrian)
  15. ^ Including 32 Parsis (Zoroastrians).
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Includes total Municipality and Cantonment population.
  17. ^ a b c d e Includes total Cantonment and Notified area population.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Includes total Notified area population.
  19. ^ Including 27 Parsis (Zoroastrians)
  20. ^ Including 3 Parsis (Zoroastrians).
  21. ^ Including 2 Parsis (Zoroastrians).
  22. ^ During the 1941 census, many traditional census datasets including caste/tribe enumeration were not extensive due to World War II.

References

  1. ^ Area with Native States in 1901. Province area excluding Native States was 34 169 km2 (13 193 sq mi).
  2. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, p. 46.
  3. ^ Shāh, Sayyid Vaqār ʻAlī (2007). North-West Frontier Province: History and Politics. National Institute of Historical & Cultural Research, Centre of Excellence, Quaid-i-Azam University. p. 15. ISBN 978-969-415-084-0.
  4. ^ "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa | province, Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  5. ^ Meyer, Karl E. (5 August 2008). The Dust of Empire: The Race For Mastery in the Asian Heartland – Karl E. Meyer – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780786724819. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Was Jinnah democratic? – II". Daily Times. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  7. ^ a b Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Pakistan Provinces". Retrieved 3 October 2007.
  8. ^ a b "Census of India 1901. [Vol. 17A]. Imperial tables, I-VIII, X-XV, XVII and XVIII for the Punjab, with the native states under the political control of the Punjab Government, and for the North-west Frontier Province". 1901. JSTOR saoa.crl.25363739. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Census of India 1911. Vol. 13, North-west Frontier Province : part I, Report; part II, Tables". 1911. JSTOR saoa.crl.25394102. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Census of India 1921. Vol. 14, North-west Frontier Province : part I, Report; part II, Tables". 1921. JSTOR saoa.crl.25430163. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mallam, G. L.; Dundas, A. D. F. (1933). "Census of India, 1931, vol. XV. North-west frontier province. Part I-Report. Part II-Tables". Peshawar, Printed by the manager, Government stationery and printing, 1933. JSTOR saoa.crl.25793233. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Census of India, 1941. Vol. 10, North-West Frontier Province". 1941. JSTOR saoa.crl.28215543. Retrieved 23 September 2021.

References