India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol,[A] free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India.[1]

Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly election. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI. If a political party fails to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lose their status as a Recognised Party.[1] In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election. Therefore, a political party shall retain the Recognised Party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.[2][3]

This listing is according to the 2019 Indian general election and Legislative Assembly elections. As per latest publication from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2698, with 8 national parties, 52 state parties and 2638 unrecognised parties.[4][5][6][7][8]

All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry have elected governments unless President's rule is imposed under certain conditions.

National parties

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[9]
  1. A party should win 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha from at least three different states.[10]
  2. At a general election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in any four or more states and in addition it wins four Lok Sabha seats.
  3. A party gets recognition as a state party in four states.
8 recognised national parties[4][6][11][12][13]
Name Abbreviation Ideology Founded Founder(s) Party Leader [D] Party symbol Headquarters
All India Trinamool Congress[E] AITC (popularly as TMC) Socialism

Secularism

Anti-communism

1 January 1998
Kolkata office: 36G, Topsia Road, Kolkata-700039
Central office: 30B, Harish Chatterjee Street, Kolkata-700026
New Delhi office: 61, South Avenue, New Delhi-110011
Bahujan Samaj Party BSP Social equality

Social justice

Self-respect

14 April 1984
12, Gurdwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi-110001 (Delhi)
Bharatiya Janata Party BJP


Hindu Nationalism

Integral humanism

Conservatism

Right-wing populism

6 April 1980
6-A, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, Mandi House, New Delhi-110002 (Delhi)
Communist Party of India CPI Communism

Marxism–Leninism

26 December 1925
Ajoy Bhavan, 15, Indrajit Gupta Marg, New Delhi-110002, (Delhi)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(M) Communism

Marxism

7 November 1964
27-29, A. K. Gopalan Bhavan, Bhai Vir Singh Marg, New Delhi-110001 (Delhi)
Indian National Congress INC Big Tent


Social democracy


Democratic socialism


Social liberalism


Secularism


Progressivism

28 December 1885
24, Akbar Road, New Delhi-110001 (Delhi)
National People's Party[E] NPP Tribal-Centrism 6 January 2013
M. G. Avenue, Floor, MDU Building, Imphal- 795001 (Manipur)
Nationalist Congress Party NCP Liberalism 10 June 1999
10, Bishambhar Marg, New Delhi-110001 (Delhi)

A party recognised as a National party can be derecognised if it fails to maintain the criteria. For example, RJD received the status of recognised national level party in 2008,[14] but was derecognised in 2010.[15]

State parties

A party has to fulfill any of the following conditions for recognition as a state party:
  1. A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to the state legislative assembly and win at least 2 seats in that state assembly.
  2. A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to Lok Sabha and win at least 1 seat in Lok Sabha.
  3. A party should win minimum three percent of the total number of seats or a minimum of three seats in the Legislative Assembly, which ever is higher.
  4. A party should win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to that State.
  5. Under the liberalised criteria, one more clause that it will be eligible for recognition as state party if it secures 8% or more of the total valid votes polled in the state.[16]
51 recognised state parties[4][6][7][8]
Name Abbreviation Foundation
year
Current leader(s) Recognised in State/Union Territory Symbol
Aam Aadmi Party AAP 2012
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam AIADMK 1972
All India Forward Bloc AIFB 1939
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen AI MIM 1927
All India N.R. Congress AINRC 2011
All India United Democratic Front AIUDF 2004
All Jharkhand Students Union AJSU 1986
Asom Gana Parishad AGP 1985
Biju Janata Dal BJD 1997
Bodoland People's Front BPF 1985
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation CPI(ML)L 1974
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam DMDK 2006
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DMK 1949
Goa Forward Party GFP 2016
Hill State People's Democratic Party HSPDP 1968
Indian National Lok Dal INLD 1999
Indian Union Muslim League IUML 1948
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura IPFT 2009
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference JKNC 1932
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party JKNPP 1982
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party JKPDP 1998
Janta Congress Chhattisgarh JCC 2016 Farmer Ploughing (within square farm)
Janata Dal (Secular) JD(S) 1999
Janata Dal (United) JD(U) 1999
Jannayak Janta Party JJP 2018
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha JMM 1972
Kerala Congress (M) KC(M) 1979
Lok Janshakti Party LJP 2000
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena MNS 2006
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party MGP 1963
Mizo National Front MNF 1959
Mizoram People's Conference MPC 1972
  • Lalhmangaiha Sailo
Naga People's Front NPF 2002
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party NDPP 2018 Globe
Pattali Makkal Katchi PMK 1989

People's Democratic Alliance PDA 2012 Crown
People's Democratic Front PDF 2017
  • P. N. Syiem
Candles
People's Party of Arunachal PPA 1987
Rashtriya Janata Dal RJD 1997
Rashtriya Lok Dal RLD 1998
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party RLP 2018
Revolutionary Socialist Party RSP 1940
Samajwadi Party SP 1992
Shiromani Akali Dal SAD 1920
Shiv Sena SS 1966
Sikkim Democratic Front SDF 1993
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha SKM 2013 Table lamp
Telangana Rashtra Samithi TRS 2001
Telugu Desam Party TDP 1982
United Democratic Party UDP 1972
Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party YSRCP 2011
Zoram People's Movement ZPM 2017

Unrecognised parties

Unrecognised registered notable parties[C][4][5][6][7]
Name Abbreviation Foundation
year
Current leader(s) States/UT
Revolutionary Communist Party of India RCPI 1934 Saumyendranath Tagore
Samata Party SAP 1994 Uday Mandal[18]
Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League ABGL 1943 Bharati Tamang
Naam Tamilar Katchi NTK 1958 Senthamizhan Seeman
United Goans Party UGP 1963 Jack de Sequeira
Manipur Peoples Party MPP 1968 Sovakiran N.
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi VCK 1972 Thol. Thirumavalavan
Socialist Republican Party (Kerala) SRP 1977 O V Sreedath
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal UKD 1979 Kashi Singh Airy
Gorkha National Liberation Front GNLF 1980 Subhash Ghisingh
Lokdal LD 1980 Charan Singh
Amra Bangali AMB 1983 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh BMSM 1983 Sundar Shaekhar
Kerala Congress (B) KC(B) 1989 R. Balakrishna Pillai
Gondwana Ganatantra Party GGP 1991 Hira Singh Markam
Kerala Congress (Jacob) KC(J) 1991 Anoop Jacob
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam MDMK 1992 Vaiko
Puthiya Tamilagam PTK 1996 K. Krishnasamy
Tamil Maanila Congress TMC(M) 1996 G. K. Vasan
Kongunadu Makkal Katchi KMK 2000 A. M. Raja
Ittehad-e-Millat Council IEMC 2001 Tauqeer Raza Khan
People's Democratic Front PDF 2001 Ajoy Biswas
Tamil Nadu Kongu Ilaingar Peravai KIP 2001 U. Thaniyarasu
Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party SBSP 2002 Om Prakash Rajbhar
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha RSP 2003 Mahadev Jankar
Lok Satta Party LSP 2006 Jaya Prakash Narayana
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha GJM 2007 Bimal Gurung
Peace Party of India PECP 2008 Mohamed Ayub
Rashtriya Ulama Council RUC 2008 Aamir Rashadi Madni
Manithaneya Makkal Katchi MMK 2009 M. H. Jawahirullah
Social Democratic Party of India SDPI 2009 M. K. Faizy
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi IJK 2010 T.R. Pachamuthu
Quami Ekta Dal QED 2010 Mukhtar Ansari
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic SJDD 2010 Devendra Prasad Yadav
Hindu Sena HS 2011 Vishnu Gupta
Welfare Party of India WPI 2011 S. Q. R. Ilyas
Bahujan Mukti Party BMP 2012 V. L. Matang
Indian Gandhiyan Party IGP 2012 Aashin U S
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi KMDK 2013 E. R. Eswaran
Odisha Janmorcha OJM 2013 Pyarimohan Mohapatra
Jana Sena Party JSP 2014 Pawan Kalyan
Param Digvijay Dal PDD 2014 Adhyatmik Neta Krishna Mohan Shankar Yogi
All India Hindustan Congress Party AIHCP 2015 Buddh Prakash Sharma
Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik[19] JAP 2015 Pappu Yadav
Jan Shakti Party of India[20] JSPI 2015 Gurjeet Singh Azad
Hindustani Awam Morcha[21] HAM 2015 Jitan Ram Manjhi
Apna Dal (Sonelal) AD(S) 2016 Anupriya Patel
Goa Suraksha Manch GSM 2016 Subhash Velingkar
NISHAD Party NISHAD 2016 Sanjay Nishad
Swaraj India SI 2016 Yogendra Yadav
All India Mahila Empowerment Party AIMEP 2017 Nowhera Shaik
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazagam AMMK 2018 T. T. V. Dhinakaran
Jansatta Dal Loktantrik JSD (L) 2018 Raghuraj Pratap Singh
Loktantrik Janata Dal LJD 2018 Sharad Yadav
Makkal Needhi Maiam MNM 2018 Kamal Haasan
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) PSP(L) 2018 Shivpal Singh Yadav
Shiromani Akali Dal (Taksali) SAD(T) 2018 Ranjit Singh Brahmpura
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi VBA 2018 Prakash Ambedkar
Vikassheel Insaan Party VIP 2018 Mukesh Sahani
Lok Insaaf Party LIP 2019 Simarjit Singh Bains
Nawan Punjab Party NPP 2019 Dharamvir Gandhi
Punjab Ekta Party PEP 2019 Sukhpal Singh Khaira
Azad Samaj Party ASP 2020 Chandrashekhar Azad Ravan
Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party JKAP 2020 Altaf Bukhari
Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party JKWP 2020 Mir Junaid
Raijor Dol RD 2020 Akhil Gogoi
Rashtriya Jan Jan Party RJJP 2020 Ashutosh Kumar
Shiromani Akali Dal (Democratic) SAD(D) 2020 Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa
Indian Secular Front ISF 2021 Nawsad Siddique

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "Registration of political Parties". FAQs. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  2. ^ "Amendment of Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968- revised Para 6C relating to Conditions for continued recognition as a National or State Party". Election Commission of India. 22 August 2016.
  3. ^ "EC to review status of State and national parties every 10 years". Business Line. 22 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d "List of Political Parties & Symbol MAIN Notification". Election Commission of India. 15 March 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Amendment Notificaiton - List of Registered Unrecognised Parties and Symbols after 15 March 2019". Election Commission of India. 1 April 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "Amendment Notificaiton - List of Registered Recognised Parties and Symbols & List of Registered Unrecognised Parties and Symbols after 1 April 2019". Election Commission of India. 25 September 2019.
  7. ^ a b c "Amending notification regarding political parties and their eletion symbol dated 10.01.2020". Election Commission of India. 15 January 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Merger of Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik), a recognized State Party in the State of Jharkhand with the Bharatiya Janata Party". Election Commission of India. 6 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Dynamics of elevation of political parties to State or National Party". Press Information Bureau. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  10. ^ "When is a Political Party recognized as a National or State Party?". FACTLY. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Recognition of All India Trinamool Congress as National Party". eci.gov.in. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Amending notification regarding political parties and their election symbols dated 25.09.2019". eci.gov.in. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  13. ^ Jain, Bharti (16 September 2019). "'National party' status of NCP, TMC and CPI to stay for now | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  14. ^ "RJD gets 'national' tag - India - The Times of India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 25 June 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  15. ^ Balaji, J. (30 July 2010). "RJD-derecognised-as-national-party". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  16. ^ "Amendment of the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968. Allotment of common symbol to candidates of registered un-recognized political parties". Press Information Bureau. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  17. ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  18. ^ "महंगाई व बेरोजगारी के खिलाफ किया प्रदर्शन". www.livehindustan.com. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  19. ^ "Allotment of Common Symbol -10B letter dt 15.9.15" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  20. ^ "June 2015 Notification" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  21. ^ "Manjhi's HAM recognised by poll panel". The Statesman. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  22. ^ "Names of National State, registered-unrecognised parties and the list of free symbols" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 12 March 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  23. ^ "State Party List" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2017.

Further reading