India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol,[a] free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India.[3]

Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly election. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI. Before the amendment in 2016 (came into force with effect from 1 January 2014), if a political party failed to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lost their status as a Recognised Party.[3] In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election. Therefore, a political party shall retain the Recognised Party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.[4][5]

As per latest publication dated 23 September 2021 from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2858, with 8 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.[6] All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry have elected governments unless President's rule is imposed under certain conditions.

National parties

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[7]

  1. The party wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha from at least three different states.[8]
  2. At a general election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in any four or more states and in addition it wins four Lok Sabha seats.
  3. The party gets recognition as a state party in four states.
8 recognised national parties[6]
Alliance Party Abbr. Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) Election
symbol
Seats in
Lok Sabha
Seats in
Rajya Sabha
Seats in State
Assemblies
Seats in State
Councils
FF
All India Trinamool Congress
English: All India Grassroots Congress
AITC Centre-left Secularism
Populism
Progressivism
Anti-communism
1 January 1998
(23 years ago)
 (1998-01-01)
Mamata Banerjee
22 / 543
12 / 245
236 / 4,036
0 / 426
BSP+SAD
Bahujan Samaj Party
English: People in Majority Party
BSP Centre-left Social equality
Social justice
Secularism
Self-respect
Human Rights
14 April 1984
(37 years ago)
 (1984-04-14)
Mayawati
10 / 543
3 / 245
8 / 4,036
6 / 426
NDA
Bharatiya Janata Party
English: Indian People's Party
BJP Right-wing Hindutva
Integral humanism
Conservatism
Social conservatism
Neoliberalism[b]
Right-wing populism
6 April 1980
(41 years ago)
 (1980-04-06)
J. P. Nadda
301 / 543
97 / 245
1,434 / 4,036
110 / 426
Other
Communist Party of India CPI Left-wing Communism
Marxism–Leninism
26 December 1925
(95 years ago)
 (1925-12-26)
D. Raja
2 / 543
1 / 245
21 / 4,036
2 / 426
Other
Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(M) Left-wing Communism
Marxism-Leninism
7 November 1964
(57 years ago)
 (1964-11-07)
Sitaram Yechury
3 / 543
6 / 245
88 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA
Indian National Congress INC Centre to
centre-left
Big tent
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Liberal nationalism
Secularism
Progressivism
National conservatism
28 December 1885
(135 years ago)
 (1885-12-28)
Rahul Gandhi
53 / 543
34 / 245
765 / 4,036
43 / 426
UPA
Nationalist Congress Party NCP Liberalism 10 June 1999
(22 years ago)
 (1999-06-10)
Sharad Pawar
5 / 543
4 / 245
59 / 4,036
11 / 426
NDA
National People's Party NPP Regionalism
Ethnocentrism
6 January 2013
(8 years ago)
 (2013-01-06)
Conrad Sangma
1 / 543
1 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426

State parties

A party has to fulfill any of the following conditions for recognition as a state party:

  1. A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to the state legislative assembly and win at least 2 seats in that state assembly.
  2. A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to Lok Sabha and win at least 1 seat in Lok Sabha.
  3. A party should win minimum three percent of the total number of seats or a minimum of three seats in the Legislative Assembly, which ever is higher.
  4. A party should win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to that State.
  5. Under the liberalised criteria, one more clause that it will be eligible for recognition as state party if it secures 8% or more of the total valid votes polled in the state.
54 recognised state parties[6]
Alliance Party Abbr. Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) Recognised in Election
symbol
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assembly
seats
State
Council
seats
FF
Aam Aadmi Party
English: Common Man's Party
AAP Centre to
centre-left
Populism
Liberal socialism
Civic nationalism
2012 Arvind Kejriwal Punjab
Delhi
1 / 543
3 / 245
78 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
English: All India Anna Dravidian Progressive Federation

AIADMK Centre to
centre-left
Democratic socialism
Populism
Federalism
1972 O. Panneerselvam Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
1 / 543
5 / 245
66 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other All India Forward Bloc AIFB Left-wing Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Anti-imperialism
Marxism[9]
1939 Debabrata Biswas West Bengal
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen
English: All India Council for Unity of Muslims
AIMIM Islamism
Social justice
Secularism (Lopsided)
Muslim Empowerment
1927 Asaduddin Owaisi Telangana
2 / 543
0 / 245
14 / 4,036
2 / 426
Other All India N.R. Congress AINRC Centre Social democracy
Populism
2011 N. Rangaswamy Puducherry
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
All India United Democratic Front AIUDF 2005 Badruddin Ajmal Assam
1 / 543
0 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA All Jharkhand Students Union AJSU 1986 Sudesh Mahto Jharkhand
1 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA Asom Gana Parishad
English: Assam People's Council
AGP Centre-right Regionalism
Anti-Bengali sentiment
1985 Atul Bora Assam
0 / 543
1 / 245
9 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Biju Janata Dal
English: Biju People's Party
BJD Centre to
centre-left
Regionalism[10]
Populism[11]
Secularism[10][11]
Liberalism[11][12]
1997 Naveen Patnaik Odisha
12 / 543
9 / 245
113 / 4,036
0 / 426
None
Bodoland People's Front BPF Secularism
Democratic socialism[13]
2005 Hagrama Mohilary Assam
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation CPI(ML)L Far-left Communism[14]
Marxism–Leninism
Maoism[15]
1974 Dipankar Bhattacharya Bihar
0 / 543
0 / 245
13 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam
English: National Progressive Dravidian Federation
DMDK Centre Social welfare
Populism
Secularism
Social democracy
2005 Vijayakanth Tamil Nadu
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
English: Dravidian Progressive Federation
DMK Social democracy[16]
Dravidianism[citation needed]
Social justice[16]
1949 M. K. Stalin Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
24 / 543
10 / 245
131 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA
Goa Forward Party GFP Regionalism 2016 Vijai Sardesai Goa
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA Hill State People's Democratic Party HSPDP 1968 Meghalaya
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
TF
Indian National Lok Dal
English: Indian National People's Party
INLD Centre Social liberalism
Regionalism
1996 Om Prakash Chautala Haryana
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA
Indian Union Muslim League IUML Muslim interests
Social conservatism
1948 Hyderali Shihab Thangal Kerala
3 / 543
1 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura IPFT Regionalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-immigration
2009 Mevar Kumar Jamatia Tripura
0 / 543
0 / 245
7 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference JKNC Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy
Secularism
1932 Farooq Abdullah Jammu and Kashmir
3 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party JKNPP Democracy[17][18]
Anti-corruption[19][20]
Secularism[21]
Women's rights[22]
1982 Bhim Singh Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party JKPDP Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy[23]
Regionalism
1999 Mehbooba Mufti Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA Janta Congress Chhattisgarh
English: People's Congress Chhattisgarh
JCC Left-wing Social justice
Feminism
Direct democracy
Agrarianism
2016 Renu Jogi Chhattisgarh Farmer
ploughing
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Janata Dal (Secular)
English: People's Party (Secular)
JD(S) Centre-left Social democracy[24]
Secularism[24]
1999 H. D. Deve Gowda Arunachal Pradesh
Karnataka
Kerala
1 / 543
1 / 245
34 / 4,036
13 / 426
NDA
Janata Dal (United)
English: People's Party (United)
JD(U) Centre-left Socialism[25]
Secularism[25]
Integral humanism[26]
2003 Nitish Kumar Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
16 / 543
5 / 245
46 / 4,036
23 / 426
NDA Jannayak Janta Party
English: Mass Hero People's Party
JJP Democratic socialism 2018 Dushyant Chautala Haryana
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA Jharkhand Mukti Morcha
English: Jharkhand Liberation Front
JMM 1972 Shibu Soren
Hemant Soren
Jharkhand
1 / 543
1 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
LDF
Kerala Congress (M) KC(M) Welfare[27]
Democratic socialism[28]
1979 Jose K. Mani Kerala
1 / 543
0 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
Lok Janshakti Party
English: People's Manpower Party
LJP 2000 Chirag Paswan Bihar
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena
English: Maharashtra Reformation Army
MNS Far-right Hindutva[29]
Right-wing populism[30]
Regionalism[31][32]
Ultranationalism[33][32]
Marathi interests[32]
2006 Raj Thackeray Maharashtra
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
English: Maharashtrian Gomantak Party
MGP Centre Populism
Regionalism
1963 Deepak Dhavalikar Goa
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA Mizo National Front MNF 1961 Zoramthanga Mizoram
1 / 543
1 / 245
28 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Mizoram People's Conference MPC 1975 Lalhmangaiha Sailo Mizoram
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
Naga People's Front NPF Regionalism 2002 T. R. Zeliang Manipur
Nagaland
1 / 543
1 / 245
29 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party NDPP Regionalism 2017 Neiphiu Rio Nagaland
1 / 543
0 / 245
21 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
Pattali Makkal Katchi
English: Working People's Party
PMK Populism 1989 S. Ramadoss Puducherry

Tamil nadu

0 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA People's Democratic Alliance PDA 2012 B.D. Behring Manipur Crown
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA People's Democratic Front PDF 2017 Ivanlum Marbaniang Meghalaya
0 / 543
0 / 245
4 / 4,036
0 / 426
FF People's Party of Arunachal PPA Regionalism 1977 Kamen Ringu Arunachal Pradesh
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
Rashtriya Janata Dal
English: National People's Party
RJD Centre-left Socialism 1997 Lalu Prasad Yadav
Tejashwi Yadav
Bihar
Jharkhand
0 / 543
5 / 245
76 / 4,036
5 / 426
SP+
Rashtriya Lok Dal
English: National People's Party
RLD 1996 Jayant Chaudhary Uttar Pradesh
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party
English: National Democratic Party
RLP 2020 Hanuman Beniwal Rajasthan
1 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
UPA
Revolutionary Socialist Party RSP Left-wing Communism
Marxism–Leninism[34]
Revolutionary socialism
1940 Manoj Bhattacharya[35] Kerala
West Bengal
1 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
SP+
Samajwadi Party
English: Socialist Party
SP Centre-right
to centre-left
Social democracy[36]
Democratic socialism[37]
Left-wing populism[37][38]
Social conservatism[37]
1992 Akhilesh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
5 / 543
5 / 245
47 / 4,036
48 / 426
SAD+
BSP
Shiromani Akali Dal
English: Supreme Akali Party
SAD Centre-right Punjabiyat[39][40]
Conservatism[41]
Federalism[42][43]
1920 Sukhbir Singh Badal Punjab
2 / 543
3 / 245
14 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
Shiv Sena
English: Army of Shivaji
SS Right-wing
to far-right
Conservatism
Hindutva
Ultranationalism
Right-wing populism
1966 Uddhav Thackeray Maharashtra
19 / 543
3 / 245
57 / 4,036
16 / 426
Other
Sikkim Democratic Front SDF Centre-left
to left-wing
Democratic socialism 1993 Pawan Kumar Chamling Sikkim
0 / 543
1 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha
English: Sikkim Revolutionary Front
SKM Democratic socialism 2013 Prem Singh Tamang Sikkim
1 / 543
0 / 245
19 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other
Telangana Rashtra Samithi
English: Telangana State Council
TRS Centre-right Regionalism[44][11]
Populism[45]
Federalism[46]
Economic liberalism[47]
Conservatism[11]
2001 K. Chandrashekar Rao Telangana
Andhra Pradesh
9 / 543
7 / 245
103 / 4,036
28 / 426
Other
Telugu Desam Party
English: Party of the Telugu Land
TDP Regionalism[48][49]
Populism[48][49]
Economic liberalism[50]
1982 N. Chandrababu Naidu Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
3 / 543
1 / 245
23 / 4,036
15 / 426
Other United Democratic Party UDP Regionalism
Populism
1997 Metbah Lyngdoh Meghalaya
0 / 543
0 / 245
8 / 4,036
0 / 426
NDA
United People's Party Liberal UPPL Centre Regionalism 2015 Urkhao Gwra Brahma Assam Tractor
0 / 543
0 / 245
7 / 4,036
0 / 426
Other Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party
English: Youth Labour Farmers Congress Party
YSRCP 2011 Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
22 / 543
6 / 245
151 / 4,036
19 / 426
Other Zoram Nationalist Party ZNP 1997 Lalduhawma Mizoram
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426

Unrecognised parties

Unrecognised registered notable parties[6]
Name Abbreviation Founded Current leader(s) Recognised in
Revolutionary Communist Party of India RCPI 1934 Saumyendranath Tagore Assam
West Bengal[51]
Democratic Party of India DPI 1961 Capt. G S Rathee Delhi
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Karnataka
Kerala
Maharashtra
Nagaland
Punjab
Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh[52]
United Goans Party UGP 1963 Jack de Sequeira Goa
Manipur Peoples Party MPP 1968 Sovakiran N. Manipur
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi VCK 1972 Thol. Thirumavalavan Tamil Nadu
Socialist Republican Party (Kerala) SRP 1977 O V Sreedath Kerala
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal UKD 1979 Kashi Singh Airy Uttarakhand
Gorkha National Liberation Front GNLF 1980 Subhash Ghisingh West Bengal
Lokdal LD 1980 Charan Singh Uttar Pradesh
Amra Bangali AMB 1983 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar West Bengal
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh BMSM 1983 Sundar Shaekhar Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (B) KC(B) 1989 R. Balakrishna Pillai Kerala
Gondwana Ganatantra Party GGP 1991 Hira Singh Markam Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (Jacob) KC(J) 1991 Anoop Jacob Kerala
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam MDMK 1992 Vaiko Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Samata Party SAP 1994 Uday Mondal[53] Bihar
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Puthiya Tamilagam PTK 1996 K. Krishnasamy Tamil Nadu
Tamil Maanila Congress TMC(M) 1996 G. K. Vasan Tamil Nadu
Kongunadu Makkal Katchi KMK 2000 A. M. Raja Tamil Nadu
Ittehad-e-Millat Council IEMC 2001 Tauqeer Raza Khan Uttar Pradesh
People's Democratic Front PDF 2001 Ajoy Biswas Tripura
Tamil Nadu Kongu Ilaingar Peravai KIP 2001 U. Thaniyarasu Tamil Nadu
Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party SBSP 2002 Om Prakash Rajbhar Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha RSP 2003 Mahadev Jankar Maharashtra
Kerala
Lok Satta Party LSP 2006 Jaya Prakash Narayana Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha GJM 2007 Bimal Gurung West Bengal
Peace Party of India PECP 2008 Mohamed Ayub Uttar Pradesh
Rashtriya Ulama Council RUC 2008 Aamir Rashadi Madni Uttar Pradesh
Manithaneya Makkal Katchi MMK 2009 M. H. Jawahirullah Tamil Nadu
Social Democratic Party of India SDPI 2009 M. K. Faizy
Naam Tamilar Katchi NTK 2009 Senthamizhan Seeman Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi IJK 2010 T.R. Pachamuthu Tamil Nadu
Quami Ekta Dal QED 2010 Mukhtar Ansari Uttar Pradesh
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic SJDD 2010 Devendra Prasad Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Hindu Sena HS 2011 Vishnu Gupta New Delhi
Welfare Party of India WPI 2011 S. Q. R. Ilyas
Bahujan Mukti Party BMP 2012 V. L. Matang Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Indian Gandhiyan Party IGP 2012 Aashin U S Kerala
The Imperial Party of India IMPERIAL 2012 S S Kanwar (Adv) Madhya Pradesh
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi KMDK 2013 E. R. Eswaran Tamil Nadu
Odisha Janmorcha OJM 2013 Pyarimohan Mohapatra Odisha
Jana Sena Party JSP 2014 Pawan Kalyan Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Param Digvijay Dal PDD 2014 Adhyatmik Neta Krishna Mohan Shankar Yogi Uttar Pradesh
All India Hindustan Congress Party AIHCP 2015 Buddh Prakash Sharma
Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik[54] JAP 2015 Pappu Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Jan Shakti Party of India[55] JSPI 2015 Gurjeet Singh Azad Punjab
Hindustani Awam Morcha[56] HAM 2015 Jitan Ram Manjhi Bihar
Apna Dal (Sonelal) AD(S) 2016 Anupriya Patel Uttar Pradesh
Goa Suraksha Manch GSM 2016 Subhash Velingkar Goa
NISHAD Party NISHAD 2016 Sanjay Nishad Uttar Pradesh
Swaraj India SI 2016 Yogendra Yadav
All India Mahila Empowerment Party AIMEP 2017 Nowhera Shaik Telangana
Karnataka
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazagam AMMK 2018 T. T. V. Dhinakaran Tamil Nadu
Jansatta Dal Loktantrik JSD (L) 2018 Raghuraj Pratap Singh Uttar Pradesh
Loktantrik Janata Dal LJD 2018 Sharad Yadav Bihar
Kerala
Makkal Needhi Maiam MNM 2018 Kamal Haasan Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) PSP(L) 2018 Shivpal Singh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
Shiromani Akali Dal (Taksali) SAD(T) 2018 Ranjit Singh Brahmpura Punjab
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi VBA 2018 Prakash Ambedkar Maharashtra
Vikassheel Insaan Party VIP 2018 Mukesh Sahani Bihar
Lok Insaaf Party LIP 2019 Simarjit Singh Bains Punjab
Rashtriya Secular Majlis Party RSMP 2019 MD Asharul Haque Bihar
West Bengal
Uttar Pradesh
Nawan Punjab Party NPP 2019 Dharamvir Gandhi Punjab
Punjab Ekta Party PEP 2019 Sukhpal Singh Khaira Punjab
Tipu Sultan Party TSP 2019 Shaikh Sadeque
Azad Samaj Party ASP 2020 Chandrashekhar Azad Ravan
Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party JKAP 2020 Altaf Bukhari Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party JKWP 2020 Mir Junaid Jammu and Kashmir
Plurals Party PP 2020 Pushpam Priya Choudhary Bihar
Raijor Dol RD 2020 Akhil Gogoi Assam
Rashtriya Jan Jan Party RJJP 2020 Ashutosh Kumar Bihar
Shiromani Akali Dal (Democratic) SAD(D) 2020 Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa Punjab
Indian Secular Front ISF 2021 Nawsad Siddique West Bengal
The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance TIPRA 2021 Pradyot Manikya Debbarma Tripura
Punjab Lok Congress PLC 2021 Amarinder Singh Punjab

See also

Notes

  1. ^ If a party is recognised as a national or state party, its symbol is reserved for its exclusive use in the country or in the state.[1][2]
  2. ^ Neoliberalism includes ideologies of – Economic liberalism, Political globalization, Economic globalization and Privatisation

References

  1. ^ Laws/OrdersNotifications/year2014/EnglishNotification_12032014.pdf "Names of National State, registered-unrecognised parties and the list of free symbols" Check |archive-url= value (help) (PDF). Election Commission of India. 12 March 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  2. ^ "State Party List" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Registration of political Parties". FAQs. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  4. ^ "Amendment of Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968- revised Para 6C relating to Conditions for continued recognition as a National or State Party". Election Commission of India. 22 August 2016.
  5. ^ "EC to review status of State and national parties every 10 years". Business Line. 22 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d "List of Political Parties & Symbol MAIN Notification". Election Commission of India. 23 September 2021.
  7. ^ "Dynamics of elevation of political parties to State or National Party". Press Information Bureau. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  8. ^ "When is a Political Party recognized as a National or State Party?". FACTLY. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  9. ^ "Party constitution". India: All India Forward Bloc. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Biju Janata Dal". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Biju Janata Dal (BJD)". elections.in.
  12. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014. Founded in December 1997, the Biju Janata Dal or the BJD is a regional political party of India. Having split from the larger faction Janata Dal, the party stands by democracy and liberalism.
  13. ^ "IDEOLOGY & FLAG". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  14. ^ "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  15. ^ "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  16. ^ a b Kannan, Ramya (8 August 2018). "M. Karunanidhi: From health care to community living, his schemes were aimed at social equality". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  17. ^ "History". JK Panthers Party. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  18. ^ PTI (9 November 2010). "SC upholds freeze on delimitation in J&K till 2026". The Hindu.
  19. ^ "History". JK Panthers Party. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  20. ^ PTI (9 November 2010). "SC upholds freeze on delimitation in J&K till 2026". The Hindu.
  21. ^ "Headlines Today". Panther party MLAs disrupt house in Jammu and Kashmir assembly. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015 – via youtube.com.
  22. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party (JKNPP)". elections.in. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  23. ^ Jammu Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party. "Self Rule". Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Janata Dal (Secular) JD(S)". elections.in. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  25. ^ a b "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014.
  26. ^ About Janta Dal United (JDU). "Janta Dal United (JD(U)) – Party History, Symbol, Founders, Election Results and News". Elections.in. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  27. ^ "KM Mani: The man behind the 'Theory of the Toiling Class'". The New Indian Express. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  28. ^ "K M Mani honoured at British Parliament Hall". The New Indian Express. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  29. ^ "Raj Thackeray goes right ahead with 'Hindutva'and development agenda for MNS". CanIndia. 23 January 2020.
  30. ^ Bedi, Tarini (2016). The Dashing Ladies of Shiv Sena. SUNY Press. p. 42.
  31. ^ "Munde still keen on alliance with MNS". Hindustan Times. 2 March 2011.
  32. ^ a b c "Maharashtra Navnirman Sena". Election MS. 29 March 2019.
  33. ^ "How Pakistan Fell in Love With Bollywood". Foreign Policy. 15 March 2010.
  34. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-997489-4.
  35. ^ "Indian citizenship act against humanity: Manoj Bhattacharya". prothomalo.com.
  36. ^ Singh, Mahendra Prasad; Saxena, Rekha (2003). India at the Polls: Parliamentary Elections in the Federal Phase. Orient Blackswan. p. 78. ISBN 978-8-125-02328-9.
  37. ^ a b c "Samajwadi Party (SP)". elections.in. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  38. ^ "Mulayam's son Prateek Yadav attracts eye balls during ride in Rs 5 crore Lamborghini". Zee News. 14 January 2017.
  39. ^ "SAD aims to widen reach, to contest UP poll". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  40. ^ Pandher, Sarabjit (3 September 2013). "In post-Independence India, the SAD launched the Punjabi Suba morcha in the 1960s, seeking the re-organisation of Punjab on linguistic basis". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  41. ^ Grover, Verinder (1996). Encyclopaedia of India and Her States: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab, Volume 4. Deep & Deep. p. 578.
  42. ^ "Parkash Singh Badal calls for 'genuinely federal structure' for country". The Economic Times. 7 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  43. ^ Bharti, Vishav (6 August 2019). "Article 370: SAD 'dumps' its core ideology of federalism". The Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  44. ^ Hyderabad, K. VENKATESHWARLU in (23 April 2004). "Regionalism and sub-regionalism". Frontline. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  45. ^ "One year of Telangana a mixed bag for KCR". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018. The Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), led by Chandrasekhar Rao, took over the reins of the new state amid euphoria and high expectations. ... Blending boldness with populism, KCR has earned the reputation for being a tough task master
  46. ^ "PM only paying lip-service to federalism: TRS". Moneycontrol.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019. We would have believed, we would have hoped that he being former Chief Minister himself would have empowered states much much more because stronger the states, stronger the country; that's true federalism; can't just be federalism for lip-service.
  47. ^ "'BLF to challenge TRS, BJP's neo-liberal agenda'". The Hindu. speakers expressed their firm belief in a Bahujan Left Front (BLF) to bring an end to the pro-liberal economic policies of Telangana Rashtra Samithi government.
  48. ^ a b "Encyclopedia Britannica".
  49. ^ a b "Telugu Desam Party (TDP)". Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  50. ^ Price, Pamela; Srinivas, Dusi (August 2014). Piliavsky, Anastasia (ed.). "Patronage and autonomy in India's deepening democracy". Cambridge University Press: 217–236. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107296930.011. ISBN 9781107296930.
  51. ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  52. ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  53. ^ "महंगाई व बेरोजगारी के खिलाफ किया प्रदर्शन". www.livehindustan.com. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  54. ^ "Allotment of Common Symbol -10B letter dt 15.9.15" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  55. ^ "June 2015 Notification" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  56. ^ "Manjhi's HAM recognised by poll panel". The Statesman. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.

Further reading