India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords to national-level and state-level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol,[a] free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state, or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered parties are upgraded as recognised national parties or state parties by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election. The recognised party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI.

Before the amendment in 2016 (which came into force on 1 January 2014), in a political party failed to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lost their status as a recognised party. In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election. Therefore, a political party shall retain the recognised party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.

As per latest publications dated 23 March 2024 from Election Commission of India, and subsequent notifications, there are 6 national parties,[1] 57 state parties,[2][b] and 2,764 unrecognised parties.[6] All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi, and Puducherry have elected governments unless President's rule is imposed under certain condition.

National parties

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[7]

6 recognised national parties[1]
Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader Government in states/UTs Seats
Chief ministers Alliance partner Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
assemblies
State
councils
Aam Aadmi Party Centre-left Indian nationalism

Progressivism
Welfarism
Anti-corruption

November 2012
(11 years ago)
 (November 2012)
Arvind Kejriwal
2 / 31
0 / 31
3 / 543
10 / 245
160 / 4,123
0 / 426
Bahujan Samaj Party Centre-left Constitutionalism
Republicanism
Ambedkarism
Progressivism
Secularism
Egalitarianism
April 1984
(40 years ago)
 (April 1984)
Mayawati
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,123
0 / 426
Bharatiya Janata Party Right-wing to far-right Conservatism (India)

Hindutva
Hindu nationalism
Integral humanism
Right-wing populism
Neoliberalism

April 1980
(44 years ago)
 (April 1980)
J. P. Nadda
12 / 31
5 / 31
240 / 543
93 / 245
1,481 / 4,123
165 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Left-wing to far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism
November 1964
(59 years ago)
 (November 1964)
Sitaram Yechury
1 / 31
2 / 31
4 / 543
5 / 245
79 / 4,123
0 / 426
Indian National Congress Centre Big tent
Secularism
Civic nationalism
December 1885
(138 years ago)
 (December 1885)
Mallikarjun Kharge
3 / 31
3 / 31
102 / 543
29 / 245
676 / 4,123
55 / 426
National People's Party Centre-right Christian democracy
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
January 2013
(11 years ago)
 (January 2013)
Conrad Sangma
1 / 31
3 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
44 / 4,123
0 / 426

Regional parties

A registered party is recognised as a state party only if it fulfils any one of the four conditions listed below:[7]

60 recognised state parties[2][b]
Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) State(s) Government in states/UTs Seats
Chief minister Alliance partner Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
assemblies
State
councils
State party in three or more states
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen kite Right-wing Majority:
Muslim nationalism[8]

Conservatism
Minority politics[9]

Factions:
Dalit Rights[10]
Right-wing populism

1927 Asaduddin Owaisi Bihar
Maharashtra
Telangana
0 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,123
2 / 426
Communist Party of India Left-wing to far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism
1925 D. Raja Kerala
Manipur
Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
4 / 31
2 / 543
2 / 245
22 / 4,123
1 / 426
Rashtriya Janata Dal Left-wing Socialism (India)
Left-wing populism
1997 Lalu Prasad Yadav
Tejashwi Yadav
Bihar
Jharkhand
Kerala
0 / 31
2 / 31
4 / 543
6 / 245
81 / 4,123
5 / 426
State party in two states
All India Trinamool Congress Centre to centre-right Bengali nationalism
Regionalism
Populism
Welfarism
Economic liberalism
Anti-communism
1998 Mamata Banerjee Meghalaya
West Bengal
1 / 31
0 / 31
29 / 543
13 / 245
228 / 4,123
0 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Far-left Communism[11]
Marxism–Leninism
Maoism[11]
1974 Dipankar Bhattacharya Bihar
Jharkhand
0 / 31
1 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
14 / 4,123
0 / 426
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Left-wing Dravidianism[12]
Tamil nationalism[13]
Regionalism[14][15][16]
Socialism[17]
Left-wing populism[18]
Social justice[17]
Anti-Brahminism[19]
1949 M. K. Stalin Puducherry
Tamil Nadu
1 / 31
0 / 31
22 / 543
10 / 245
138 / 4,123
0 / 426
Indian Union Muslim League Right-wing Muslim nationalism
Conservatism
Islamic modernism[20]
1948 Hyderali Shihab Thangal Kerala
Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
15 / 4,123
0 / 426
Janata Dal (Secular) Left-wing Socialism (India) 1999 H. D. Deve Gowda Karnataka
Kerala
0 / 31
1 / 31
2 / 543
1 / 245
21 / 4,123
8 / 426
Janata Dal (United) Centre-left Democratic socialism[21]
Populism
2003 Nitish Kumar Bihar
Manipur
1 / 31
0 / 31
12 / 543
5 / 245
46 / 4,123
26 / 426
Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas) Regionalism 2021 Chirag Paswan Bihar
Nagaland
0 / 31
1 / 31
5 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,123
0 / 426
Naga People's Front Centre-right Naga nationalism
Regionalism
Conservatism

Christian right

2002 Kuzholuzo Nienu Manipur
Nagaland
0 / 31
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
7 / 4,123
0 / 426
Nationalist Congress Party Centre Indian nationalism
Gandhism
1999 Ajit Pawar Maharashtra
Nagaland
0 / 31
2 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
49 / 4,123
6 / 426
Nationalist Congress Party (Sharadchandra Pawar) Centre Indian nationalism
Gandhism
2024 Sharad Pawar Maharashtra
Nagaland
0 / 31
2 / 31
8 / 543
2 / 245
14 / 4,123
3 / 426
Samajwadi Party Left-wing Socialism[22]
Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism[23]
1992 Akhilesh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
Gujarat
0 / 31
0 / 31
37 / 543
4 / 245
112 / 4,123
9 / 426
State party in one state
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Two Leaves Centre[24] to centre-left[25] Populism[26]
Socialism[27]
Welfarism[28]
Secularism[29]
Regionalism[30]
Social justice[31]
Tamil nationalism[32][33]
1972 Edappadi K. Palaniswami Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
3 / 245
62 / 4,123
0 / 426
All India Forward Bloc Left-wing Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Marxism[34]
Anti-imperialism
1939 Debabrata Biswas West Bengal
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
All India N.R. Congress Centre-left Social democracy
Populism
2011 N. Rangaswamy Puducherry
1 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,123
0 / 426
All India United Democratic Front 2005 Badruddin Ajmal Assam
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
15 / 4,123
0 / 426
All Jharkhand Students Union 1986 Sudesh Mahto Jharkhand
0 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,123
0 / 426
Apna Dal (Sonelal) Centre-right Kurmis Interest 2016 Anupriya Patel Uttar Pradesh
0 / 31
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
12 / 4,123
1 / 426
Asom Gana Parishad Centre-right Assamese nationalism
Regionalism
Anti-Bengali sentiment
1985 Atul Bora Assam
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
9 / 4,123
0 / 426
Bharat Rashtra Samithi Centre[35] to centre-right Regionalism[36]
Separatism
Federalism
Populism[37]
Neoliberalism
2001 K. Chandrashekar Rao Telangana
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
7 / 245
39 / 4,123
34 / 426
Biju Janata Dal Centre to centre-left Odia nationalism
Regionalism[38]
Social liberalism[39]
Economic nationalism[40]
Populism
1997 Naveen Patnaik Odisha
1 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
9 / 245
111 / 4,123
0 / 426
Bodoland People's Front Centre-left Democratic socialism[41] 2005 Hagrama Mohilary Assam
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,123
0 / 426
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Centre-left Dravidian nationalism
Social democracy
Populism
2005 Premalalatha Vijayakant Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
Goa Forward Party Regionalism 2016 Vijai Sardesai Goa
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,123
0 / 426
Hill State People's Democratic Party 1968 KP Pangniang Meghalaya
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,123
0 / 426
Indian National Lok Dal Regionalism 1996 Om Prakash Chautala Haryana
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,123
0 / 426
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura Centre-right Tripuri nationalism
Regionalism
Anti-immigration
Anti-communism
2009 N.C. Debbarma Tripura
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,123
0 / 426
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Kashmiriyat
Kashmir autonomy
Secularism
1932 Farooq Abdullah Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Kashmiriyat
Kashmir autonomy
Regionalism
1999 Mehbooba Mufti Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
Jana Sena Party
Right-wing Right-wing populism 2014 Pawan Kalyan Andhra Pradesh
0 / 31
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
21 / 4,123
0 / 426
Janta Congress Chhattisgarh Regionalism 2016 Renu Jogi Chhattisgarh
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,123
0 / 426
Jannayak Janta Party Centre-left Democratic socialism 2018 Dushyant Chautala Haryana
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,123
0 / 426
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Regionalism 1972 Shibu Soren
Hemant Soren
Jharkhand
1 / 31
0 / 31
3 / 543
2 / 245
30 / 4,123
0 / 426
Kerala Congress (M) Centre-left Democratic socialism[42]
Welfarism[43]
Christian left
1979 Jose K. Mani Kerala
0 / 31
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,123
0 / 426
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena Far-right Hindutva[44]
Marathi nationalism[45]
Regionalism[46][45]
Ultranationalism[47][45]
Right-wing populism[48]
2006 Raj Thackeray Maharashtra
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,123
0 / 426
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Populism
Regionalism
1963 Deepak Dhavalikar Goa
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,123
0 / 426
Mizo National Front 1961 Zoramthanga Mizoram
0 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
10 / 4,123
0 / 426
Naam Tamilar Katchi Far-right Tamil nationalism
Regionalism
Ultranationalism
Environmentalism
1968 Senthamizhan Seeman Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Regionalism 2017 Neiphiu Rio Nagaland
1 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
25 / 4,123
0 / 426
People's Party of Arunachal Regionalism 1977 Kamen Ringu Arunachal Pradesh
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Regionalism 2018 Hanuman Beniwal Rajasthan
0 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,123
0 / 426
Revolutionary Goans Party Regionalism 2022 Viresh Borkar Goa
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,123
0 / 426
Revolutionary Socialist Party Far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism[49]
Revolutionary socialism
1940 Manoj Bhattacharya[50] Kerala
0 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,123
0 / 426
Shiromani Akali Dal Centre-right Punjabiyat[51][52]
Conservatism[53]
Federalism[54][55]
1920 Sukhbir Singh Badal Punjab
0 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,123
0 / 426
Sikkim Democratic Front Centre-left Democratic socialism 1993 Pawan Kumar Chamling Sikkim
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
1 / 4,123
0 / 426
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Centre-left Democratic socialism 2013 Prem Singh Tamang Sikkim
1 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
31 / 4,123
0 / 426
Shiv Sena Far-right Conservatism
Social conservatism

Hindutva
Hindu nationalism
Marathi nationalism
Regionalism
Ultranationalism
Neo-fascism
Economic Nationalism
Right-wing Populism

1966 Eknath Shinde Maharashtra
1 / 31
0 / 31
7 / 543
0 / 245
40 / 4,123
0 / 426
Shiv Sena (Uddhav Balasaheb Thackeray) Centre-right Conservatism
Soft Hindutva
Marathi nationalism
Regionalism
2022 Uddhav Thackeray Maharashtra
0 / 31
0 / 31
9 / 543
3 / 245
17 / 4,123
12 / 426
Telugu Desam Party Centre[56] to centre-right[57] Telugu nationalism
Federalism
Populism[58]
Economic liberalism[59]
Neoliberalism
1982 N. Chandrababu Naidu Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
0 / 31
0 / 31
16 / 543
1 / 245
135 / 4,123
15 / 426
Tipra Motha Party Far-right Tripuri nationalism
Regionalism
Tipraland statehood
Separatism
Right-wing populism
Anti-immigration
2019 Pradyot Bikram Manikya Deb Barma Tripura
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
13 / 4,123
0 / 426
United Democratic Party Regionalism
Populism
1997 Metbah Lyngdoh Meghalaya
0 / 31
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
11 / 4,123
0 / 426
United People's Party Liberal Regionalism 2015 Urkhao Gwra Brahma Assam
0 / 31
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,123
0 / 426
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi Syncretic Tamil nationalism
Social justice
Anti-casteism
Anti-classism
1982 Thol. Thirumavalavan Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
4 / 4,123
0 / 426
Voice of the People Party Regionalism
Federalism
2021 Ardent Miller Basaiawmoit Meghalaya
0 / 31
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
4 / 4,123
0 / 426
YSR Congress Party Centre to centre-left[60] Regionalism
Populism[58]
Economic nationalism
2011 Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
1 / 31
0 / 31
4 / 543
9 / 245
11 / 4,123
42 / 426
Zoram People's Movement
Centre-right Zoram nationalism
Conservatism
Christian right
2017 Lalduhoma Mizoram
1 / 31
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
27 / 4,123
0 / 426

Unrecognised parties

Notable registered unrecognised political parties (RUPPs)[6]
Party Founded Leader(s) States
Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha 1915 Jagan b All-India
All India Hindustan Congress Party 2015 Buddh Prakash Sharma Gujarat
Rajasthan
All India Mahila Empowerment Party 2017 Nowhera Shaik Telangana
Karnataka
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazhagam 2018 T. T. V. Dhinakaran Tamil Nadu
Amra Bangali 1983 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar West Bengal
Tripura
Azad Adhikar Sena 2022 Amitabh Thakur, Dr Nutan Thakur Uttar Pradesh
Azad Samaj Party (Kanshi Ram) 2020 Chanda Shekhar Azad Uttar Pradesh
Bahujan Mukti Party 2012 V. L. Matang Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh 1983 Sundar Shaekhar Maharashtra
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha 2007 Bimal Gurung West Bengal
Goa Suraksha Manch 2016 Subhash Velingkar Goa
Gondwana Ganatantra Party 1991 Hira Singh Markam Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Maharashtra
Hindu Sena 2011 Vishnu Gupta New Delhi
Hindustani Awam Morcha[61] 2015 Jitan Ram Manjhi Bihar
Indiya Jananayaka Katchi 2010 T. R. Paarivendhar Tamil Nadu
Indian Gandhiyan Party 2012 Aashin U S Kerala
Indian Secular Front 2021 Nawsad Siddique West Bengal
Ittehad-e-Millat Council 2001 Tauqeer Raza Khan Uttar Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party 2020 Altaf Bukhari Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party 2020 Mir Junaid Jammu and Kashmir
Jan Shakti Party of India[62] 2015 Gurjeet Singh Azad Punjab
Jansatta Dal (Loktantrik) 2018 Raghuraj Pratap Singh Uttar Pradesh
Karnataka Rashtra Samithi 2019 Ravi Krishna Reddy Karnataka
Kerala Congress 1964 P. J. Joseph Kerala
Kerala Congress (B) 1989 K B Ganesh Kumar Kerala
Kerala Congress (Jacob) 1991 Anoop Jacob Kerala
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi 2013 E. R. Eswaran Tamil Nadu
Kongunadu Makkal Katchi 2000 A. M. Raja Tamil Nadu
Lok Satta Party 2006 Jaya Prakash Narayana Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Lok Insaaf Party 2019 Simarjit Singh Bains Punjab
Makkal Needhi Maiam 2018 Kamal Haasan Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Manipur Peoples Party 1968 Sovakiran N. Manipur
Manithaneya Makkal Katchi 2009 M. H. Jawahirullah Tamil Nadu
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1992 Vaiko Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
NISHAD Party 2016 Sanjay Nishad Uttar Pradesh
Odisha Jan Morcha 2013 Pyarimohan Mohapatra Odisha
Param Digvijay Dal 2014 Krishna Mohan Shankar Yogi Uttar Pradesh
Pattali Makkal Katchi 1989 S. Ramadoss Puducherry
Tamil Nadu
Peace Party of India 2008 Mohamed Ayub Uttar Pradesh
People's Democratic Alliance (Manipur) 2012 Bd. Behring Anal Manipur
People's Democratic Front 2001 Ajoy Biswas Tripura
Plurals Party 2020 Pushpam Priya Choudhary Bihar
Puthiya Tamilagam 1996 K. Krishnasamy Tamil Nadu
Raijor Dal 2020 Akhil Gogoi Assam
Rashtriya Jan Jan Party 2020 Ashutosh Kumar Bihar
Rashtriya Lok Dal 1996 Jayant Chaudhary Uttar Pradesh
Rajasthan
Rashtriya Mahaswaraj Bhumi Party 2023 Shahid Siddiqui Maharashtra
Gujarat
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 2003 Mahadev Jankar Maharashtra
Kerala
Rashtriya Ulama Council 2008 Aamir Rashadi Madni Uttar Pradesh
Republican Party of India (Athawale) 1999 Ramdas Athawale Nagaland
Right to Recall Party 2019 Rahul Chimanbhai Mehta All-India
Samata Party 1994 Uday Mandal[63] Bihar
Manipur[64]
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar) 1994 Simranjit Singh Mann Punjab
Social Democratic Party of India 2009 M.K. Faizy Karnataka
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Socialist Party (India) 2011 Thampan Thomas Uttar Pradesh
Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) 1948 Provash Ghosh All-India
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party 2002 Om Prakash Rajbhar Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Swaraj Abhiyan 2016 Yogendra Yadav Haryana
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Tamil Maanila Congress 1996 G. K. Vasan Tamil Nadu
Tamilaga Vettri Kazhagam 2024 Vijay Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu Kongu Ilaingar Peravai 2001 U. Thaniyarasu Tamil Nadu
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal 1979 Kashi Singh Airy Uttarakhand
Vanchit Bahujan Aaghadi 2018 Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar Maharashtra
Vikassheel Insaan Party 2018 Mukesh Sahani Bihar
Welfare Party of India 2011 S. Q. R. Ilyas All-India

Defunct political parties

Party flag Election symbol Ideology Founded Dissolved
Gujarat Parivartan Party 2012 2014
Scheduled Castes Federation Social equality
Social justice
1942 1957
Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress 1945 1957
Socialist Party of India Socialism 1948 1952
Lok Sewak Sangh 1948 1971
Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad Hindu nationalism 1948 1971
All India Ganatantra Parishad Liberalism
Agrarianism
1950 1962
Tamil Nadu Toilers' Party 1951 1954
Commonweal Party 1951 1954
People's Democratic Front Communism
Marxism–Leninism
1951 1958
Krishikar Lok Party 1951 1959
Chota Nagpur Santhal Parganas Janata Party Regionalism 1951 1960
Bharatiya Jana Sangh Diya, a traditional oil lamp, was the symbol of the party Hindu nationalism
National conservatism
1951 1977
Praja Socialist Party Socialism 1952 1972
Swatantra Party Liberal conservatism
Secularism
1959 1974
Samyukta Socialist Party Socialism 1964 1977
Bangla Congress 1967 1971
Bharatiya Kranti Dal 1967 1974
Utkal Congress 1969 1974
Indian National Congress (Organisation) 1969 1977
Pragati Legislature Party 1973 1974
Congress for Democracy 1977 1977
Janata Party (Secular) Secularism 1979 1980
Indian Congress (Socialist) 1978 1986
Indian National Congress (U) 1979 1981
Indian National Congress (Jagjivan) 1981 1988
Jan Morcha 1987 1988
Thamizhaga Munnetra Munnani 1988 1989
Janata Dal 1988 1999
Lok Shakti 1998 2003
Lok Janshakti Party Bungalow 2000 2021
Loktantrik Janata Dal 2018 2022

See also

Notes

  1. ^ If a party is recognised as a national or state party, its symbol is reserved for its exclusive use in the country or in the state.[1][2]
  2. ^ a b There were 60 state parties listed in publication issued by the Election Commission of India on 23 March 2024. However 2 out of 60 parties (Rashtriya Lok Samata Party[3] and People's Democratic Front[4]) have merged with other parties. Additionally, the name and symbol of Lok Janshakti Party has been frozen until final order is passed by ECI regarding it's split into two new parties.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b c "List of National Parties" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 26 March 2024. Retrieved 17 April 2024.
  2. ^ a b c "List of State Parties" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 23 March 2024. Retrieved 17 April 2024.
  3. ^ "Upendra Kushwaha's Rashtriya Lok Samata Party merges with JD(U)". The Economic Times. 15 March 2021. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  4. ^ "PDF merges with ruling NPP in Meghalaya". The Economic Times. 7 May 2023. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  5. ^ "Lok Janshakti Party - Interim Order". Election Commission of India. 2 October 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2024.
  6. ^ a b "List of RUPPs" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 27 March 2024. Retrieved 17 April 2024.
  7. ^ a b "The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  8. ^ "Will fight back to save India's composite culture, Constitution: Asaduddin Owaisi". 26 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Minority Upliftment".
  10. ^ "AIMIM eyes minorities and Dalits in Malda".
  11. ^ a b "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  12. ^ Palanithurai 1997, pp. 21–22.
  13. ^ Hardgrave, Robert L. “The DMK and the Politics of Tamil Nationalism.” Pacific Affairs, vol. 37, no. 4, 1964, pp. 396–411. JSTOR, doi:10.2307/2755132. Accessed 6 Jun. 2022.
  14. ^ "DMK has regionalism ideals". Arunachal Times.
  15. ^ "Regionalism, Parties and India's emerging Politics | Heinrich Böll Stiftung". Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  16. ^ "Politics as family enterprise: Nationalist rhythm of BJP is challenge to regionalism". WION. 16 September 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  17. ^ a b
  18. ^ "MK Stalin Balances Key Issues, Populism, and Vendetta Politics in DMK Manifesto". News18. 13 March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2024.
  19. ^ Manoharan, Karthick Ram (29 March 2024). "Did Periyar call for a genocide of Brahmins?". Frontline. Retrieved 12 May 2024.
  20. ^ "Atheist Fundamentalists". The Times of India.
  21. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014.
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Further reading