India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol,[a] free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly election. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI.

Before the amendment in 2016 (came into force with effect from 1 January 2014), if a political party failed to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lost their status as a recognised Party. In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election. Therefore, a political party shall retain the recognised Party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.

As per latest publication dated 23 September 2021 from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2858, with 8 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.[3] All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry have elected governments unless President's rule is imposed under certain condition.

National parties

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[4]

8 recognised national parties
Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) Number of states and union territories in government Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
All India Trinamool Congress
All India Trinamool Congress flag (2).svg
All India Trinamool Congress symbol.svg
Centre-left Secularism and Progressivism 1998
(25 years ago)
 (1998)
Chairperson Mamata Banerjee
1 / 31
23 / 543
13 / 245
228 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bahujan Samaj Party
Elephant Bahujan Samaj Party.svg
Indian Election Symbol Elephant.png
Centre-left Social equality,
Social justice, and
Self-respect
1984
(39 years ago)
 (1984)
President Mayawati
0 / 31
10 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,036
1 / 426
Bharatiya Janata Party
BJP Flag.svg
Lotos flower symbol.svg
Right-wing Hindutva,
Nationalism,
Conservatism, and
Social conservatism
1980
(43 years ago)
 (1980)
President
J. P. Nadda
16 / 31
303 / 543
92 / 245
1,383 / 4,036
167 / 426
Communist Party of India
CPI-banner.svg
CPI symbol.svg
Left-wing Communism,
Marxism–Leninism,
Socialism, and
Secularism
1925
(98 years ago)
 (1925)
General Secretary D. Raja
3 / 31
2 / 543
2 / 245
21 / 4,036
2 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
CPI-M-flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Hammer Sickle and Star.png
Left-wing Communism,
Marxism–Leninism,
Secularism,
Social equality,
Democracy, and
Socialism
1964
(59 years ago)
 (1964)
General Secretary Sitaram Yechury
3 / 31
3 / 543
5 / 245
86 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress Flag.svg
Hand INC.svg
Centre to
centre-left
Big tent,
Civic nationalism,
Social liberalism,
Secularism, and
Social Democracy
1885
(138 years ago)
 (1885)
President Mallikarjun Kharge
6 / 31
52 / 543
31 / 245
650 / 4,036
45 / 426
Nationalist Congress Party
Flag of Nationalist Congress Party.svg
Nationalist Congress Party Election Symbol.png
Centre Indian nationalism,
Secularism
1999
(24 years ago)
 (1999)
President Sharad Pawar
0 / 31
4 / 543
4 / 245
56 / 4,036
11 / 426
National People's Party
NPP Flag.jpg
Indian Election Symbol Book.svg
Centre-left Regionalism and
Ethnocentrism
2013
(10 years ago)
 (2013)
President Conrad Sangma
3 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
31 / 4,036
0 / 426

Parties pending for national party status

Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) Number of states and union territories in government Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
Aam Aadmi Party
Aam Aadmi Party Flag.svg
AAP Symbol.png
Centre Socialism,
Anti-corruption,
Secularism,
Humanism, and
Patriotism
2012
(11 years ago)
 (2012)
National Convenor Arvind Kejriwal
2 / 31
0 / 543
10 / 245
161 / 4,036
0 / 426

State parties

A registered party is recognised as a state party only if it fulfils any one of the five conditions listed below:[4]

52 recognised state parties[3]
Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) State(s) States
governed
Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
State Party in 3 States
Janata Dal (Secular)
Indian election symbol female farmer.svg
Centre to Centre-left Secularism 1999 H. D. Deve Gowda Arunachal Pradesh
Karnataka
Kerala
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
34 / 4,036
13 / 426
Janata Dal (United)
Janata Dal (United) Flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Arrow.svg
Centre-left Socialism[5]
Secularism[5]
Integral humanism
2003 Nitish Kumar Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Manipur
1 / 31
16 / 543
5 / 245
46 / 4,036
23 / 426
State Party in 2 States
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
AIADMK OfficialFlag Vector.svg
Two Leaves
Centre-left Populism
Socialism
Secularism
Dravidianism
Tamil nationalism[6][7]
1972 Edappadi K. Palaniswami Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
0 / 31
1 / 543
4 / 245
63 / 4,036
0 / 426
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Flag DMK.svg
Indian election symbol rising sun.svg
Centre-left Social democracy[8]
Dravidianism
Social justice[8]
Federalism
1949 M. K. Stalin Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
1 / 31
24 / 543
10 / 245
131 / 4,036
0 / 426
Naga People's Front
Flag of the Naga People
Indian Election Symbol Cock.png
Regionalism 2002 T. R. Zeliang Manipur
Nagaland
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Janata Dal
RJD Flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Hurricane Lamp.png
Centre-left Socialism 1997 Lalu Prasad Yadav
Tejashwi Yadav
Bihar
Jharkhand
3 / 31
0 / 543
6 / 245
81 / 4,036
5 / 426
Revolutionary Socialist Party
RSP-flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Spade and Stoker.png
Far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism[9]
Revolutionary socialism
1940 Manoj Bhattacharya[10] Kerala
West Bengal
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party Flag.png
Indian Election Symbol Cycle.png
Centre[11] Populism[12]
Economic liberalism[13]
1982 N. Chandrababu Naidu Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
23 / 4,036
15 / 426
State Party in 1 State
All India Forward Bloc
Indian Election Symbol Lion.svg
Left-wing Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Anti-imperialism
Marxism[14]
1939 Debabrata Biswas West Bengal
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen logo.svg
kite
Right-wing[15] Composite nationalism[16]
Minority rights[17]
Dalit Rights[18]
Constitutionalism[19]
1958 Asaduddin Owaisi Telangana
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
14 / 4,036
2 / 426
All India N.R. Congress
All India N.R. Congress.png
Indian Election Symbol Jug.svg
Centre Social democracy
Populism
2011 N. Rangaswamy Puducherry
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
All India United Democratic Front
Indian Election Symbol Lock And Key.svg
2005 Badruddin Ajmal Assam
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
All Jharkhand Students Union
ANSU Party flag.jpg
Indian Election Symbol Banana.svg
1986 Sudesh Mahto Jharkhand
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Apna Dal (Sonelal)
Apna dal Flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Cup and Saucer.jpg
Centre-right Kurmis Interest 2016 Anupriya Patel Uttar Pradesh
1 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
12 / 4,036
1 / 426
Asom Gana Parishad
Indian Election Symbol Elephant.png
Centre-right Regionalism
Anti-Bengali sentiment
1985 Atul Bora Assam
1 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
9 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bharat Rashtra Samithi
Bharat Rashtra Samithi Flag.png
Indian Election Symbol Car.jpg
Centre[20] Regionalism[21]
Populism[22]
Conservatism
Separatism
2001 K. Chandrashekar Rao Telangana
1 / 31
9 / 543
7 / 245
104 / 4,036
35 / 426
Biju Janata Dal
Biju Janata Dal Flag.jpg
Indian Election Symbol Conch.svg

Centre-left
Regionalism[23]
Populism
Secularism[23]
Liberalism[24]
Economic nationalism[25]
1997 Naveen Patnaik Odisha
1 / 31
12 / 543
9 / 245
114 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bodoland People's Front
BPF-Flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Nangol.svg
Secularism
Democratic socialism[26]
2005 Hagrama Mohilary Assam
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation
CPIML LIBERATION FLAG.png
Flag Logo of CPIML.png
Far-left Communism[27]
Marxism–Leninism
Maoism[27]
1974 Dipankar Bhattacharya Bihar
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
13 / 4,036
0 / 426
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam flag.PNG
Indian Election Symbol Nagara.svg
Centre to
centre-left
Social welfare
Populism
Secularism
Social democracy
2005 Vijayakanth Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Goa Forward Party
Goa Forward Party Flag.jpg
Indian election symbol Coconut.svg
Regionalism 2016 Vijai Sardesai Goa
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Hill State People's Democratic Party
Indian Election Symbol Lion.svg
1968 Meghalaya
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian National Lok Dal
Indian National Lok Dal Flag.svg
INLD1.svg
Centre Social liberalism
Regionalism
1996 Om Prakash Chautala Haryana
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian Union Muslim League
Flag of the Indian Union Muslim League.svg
Indian Election Symbol Lader.svg
Muslim interests
Social conservatism
1948 Hyderali Shihab Thangal Kerala
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura
Flag green yellow.svg
Indian Election symbol Dao.svg
Centre-right Regionalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-immigration
2009 N.C. Debbarma Tripura
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference
JKNC-flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Plough.png
Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy
Secularism
1932 Farooq Abdullah Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
3 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party
Indian Election Symbol Cycle.png
Democracy[28][29]
Anti-corruption[28][29]
Secularism[30]
Women's rights
1982 Bhim Singh Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party
Indian Election Symbol Ink Pot and Pen.png
Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy[31]
Regionalism
1999 Mehbooba Mufti Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Janta Congress Chhattisgarh
Indian Election Symbol Farmer Ploughing (within Square).jpg
Left-wing Social justice
Feminism
Direct democracy
Agrarianism
2016 Renu Jogi Chhattisgarh
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jannayak Janta Party
Indian election symbol Key.svg
Democratic socialism 2018 Dushyant Chautala Haryana
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha
Indian Election Symbol Bow And Arrow.svg
1972 Shibu Soren
Hemant Soren
Jharkhand
1 / 31
1 / 543
2 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
Kerala Congress (M)
Kerala-Congress-flag.svg
Indian election symbol two leaves.svg
Welfare[32]
Democratic socialism[33]
1979 Jose K. Mani Kerala
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas)
Lok Janshakti Party Flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Bungalow.png
2000 Chirag Paswan Bihar
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena
Mns-symbol-railway-engine.png
Far-right Hindutva[34]
Right-wing populism[35]
Regionalism[36][37]
Ultranationalism[38][37]
Marathi interests[37]
2006 Raj Thackeray Maharashtra
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
Indian Election Symbol Lion.svg
Centre Populism
Regionalism
1963 Deepak Dhavalikar Goa
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Mizo National Front
Election Symbol Star.svg
1961 Zoramthanga Mizoram
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
28 / 4,036
0 / 426
Mizoram People's Conference
Bulb Election Symbol.svg
1975 Lalhmangaiha Sailo Mizoram
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party
Partyrop.png
Indian Election Symbol Crown.png
Regionalism 2017 Neiphiu Rio Nagaland
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
21 / 4,036
0 / 426
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Pmk flag.jpg
Mango
Centre Populism 1989 S. Ramadoss Puducherry
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Democratic Alliance Crown 2012 B.D. Behring Manipur
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Democratic Front
Candle - Election Symbol.png
2017 Ivanlum Marbaniang Meghalaya
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
4 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Party of Arunachal
Indian Election Symbol Maize.svg
Regionalism 1977 Kamen Ringu Arunachal Pradesh
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Lok Dal
Rashtriya Lok Dal Flag new.jpg
Indian Election Symbol Hand Pump.png
1996 Jayant Chaudhary Uttar Pradesh
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party
Logo Rashtriya Loktantrik party.png
Water bottle RLP election symbol.svg
2020 Hanuman Beniwal Rajasthan
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party Flag.jpg
Indian Election Symbol Cycle.png
Centre-left[39]
to left[40][41]
Social democracy[42]
Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism[43]
Social conservatism
1992 Akhilesh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
0 / 31
3 / 543
3 / 245
113 / 4,036
9 / 426
Shiromani Akali Dal
SAD flag.svg
Shiromani Akali Dal symbol.svg
Centre-right Punjabiyat[44][45]
Conservatism[46]
Federalism[47][48]
1920 Sukhbir Singh Badal Punjab
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Sikkim Democratic Front
Sikkim-Democratic-Front-flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Umberlla.png
Centre-left
to left-wing
Democratic socialism 1993 Pawan Kumar Chamling Sikkim
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha flag.png
Symbol SKM.png
Democratic socialism 2013 Prem Singh Tamang Sikkim
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
19 / 4,036
0 / 426
United Democratic Party
Indian Election Symbol Drums.png
Regionalism
Populism
1997 Metbah Lyngdoh Meghalaya
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
8 / 4,036
0 / 426
United People's Party Liberal Tractor Centre Regionalism 2015 Urkhao Gwra Brahma Assam
1 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,036
0 / 426
YSR Congress Party
Indian Election Symbol Ceiling Fan.svg
Centre-left[49] Populism[12]
Regionalism
2011 Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy Andhra Pradesh
1 / 31
22 / 543
9 / 245
151 / 4,036
32 / 426
Zoram Nationalist Party
Indian Election Symbol Sun without Rays.png
1997 Lalduhoma Mizoram
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426

Unrecognised parties

Notable Registered Unrecognised Political Parties (RUPPs)[3]
Party Founded Leader(s) State(s) Flag
Dravidar Kazhagam 1944 K. Veeramani Tamil Nadu, Puducherry

Flag of Dravidar Kazagam.svg

Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) 1948 Provash Ghosh All-India
SUCI flag.svg
Kerala Congress 1964 P. J. Joseph Kerala
Manipur Peoples Party 1968 Sovakiran N. Manipur
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal 1979 Kashi Singh Airy Uttarakhand
Lokdal 1980 Charan Singh Uttar Pradesh
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi 1982 Thol. Thirumavalavan Tamil Nadu
Amra Bangali 1983 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar West Bengal
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh 1983 Sundar Shaekhar Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (B) 1989 R. Balakrishna Pillai Kerala
Gondwana Ganatantra Party 1991 Hira Singh Markam Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (Jacob) 1991 Anoop Jacob Kerala
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1992 Vaiko Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Samata Party 1994 Uday Mandal[50] Bihar
Manipur[51]
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar) 1994 Simranjit Singh Mann Punjab
Puthiya Tamilagam 1996 K. Krishnasamy Tamil Nadu
Tamil Maanila Congress 1996 G. K. Vasan Tamil Nadu
Kongunadu Makkal Katchi 2000 A. M. Raja Tamil Nadu
Ittehad-e-Millat Council 2001 Tauqeer Raza Khan Uttar Pradesh
People's Democratic Front 2001 Ajoy Biswas Tripura
Tamil Nadu Kongu Ilaingar Peravai 2001 U. Thaniyarasu Tamil Nadu
Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party 2002 Om Prakash Rajbhar Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 2003 Mahadev Jankar Maharashtra
Kerala
Lok Satta Party 2006 Jaya Prakash Narayana Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Loksatta party flag.svg
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha 2007 Bimal Gurung West Bengal
Peace Party of India 2008 Mohamed Ayub Uttar Pradesh
Rashtriya Ulama Council 2008 Aamir Rashadi Madni Uttar Pradesh
Manithaneya Makkal Katchi 2009 M. H. Jawahirullah Tamil Nadu
Naam Tamilar Katchi 2009 Senthamizhan Seeman Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi 2010 T.R. Pachamuthu Tamil Nadu
Quami Ekta Dal 2010 Mukhtar Ansari Uttar Pradesh
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic 2010 Devendra Prasad Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Hindu Sena 2011 Vishnu Gupta New Delhi
Socialist Party (India) 2011 Thampan Thomas
Welfare Party of India 2011 S. Q. R. Ilyas Kerala
Bahujan Mukti Party 2012 V. L. Matang Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Indian Gandhiyan Party 2012 Aashin U S Kerala
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi 2013 E. R. Eswaran Tamil Nadu
Odisha Janmorcha 2013 Pyarimohan Mohapatra Odisha
Jana Sena Party 2014 Pawan Kalyan Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Janasena Party Flag.png
Param Digvijay Dal 2014 Krishna Mohan Shankar Yogi Uttar Pradesh
All India Hindustan Congress Party 2015 Buddh Prakash Sharma Gujarat
Rajasthan
Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik[52] 2015 Pappu Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Jan Shakti Party of India[53] 2015 Gurjeet Singh Azad Punjab
Hindustani Awam Morcha[54] 2015 Jitan Ram Manjhi Bihar
Goa Suraksha Manch 2016 Subhash Velingkar Goa
NISHAD Party 2016 Sanjay Nishad Uttar Pradesh
Swaraj India 2016 Yogendra Yadav Haryana
Karnataka
Maharashtra
All India Mahila Empowerment Party 2017 Nowhera Shaik Telangana
Karnataka
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazagam 2018 T. T. V. Dhinakaran Tamil Nadu
Jansatta Dal Loktantrik 2018 Raghuraj Pratap Singh Uttar Pradesh
Loktantrik Janata Dal 2018 Sharad Yadav Bihar
Kerala
Makkal Needhi Maiam 2018 Kamal Haasan Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) 2018 Shivpal Singh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi 2018 Prakash Ambedkar Maharashtra
Vikassheel Insaan Party 2018 Mukesh Sahani Bihar
Lok Insaaf Party 2019 Simarjit Singh Bains Punjab
Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party 2020 Altaf Bukhari Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party 2020 Mir Junaid Jammu and Kashmir
Plurals Party 2020 Pushpam Priya Choudhary Bihar
Raijor Dol 2020 Akhil Gogoi Assam
Rashtriya Jan Jan Party 2020 Ashutosh Kumar Bihar
Indian Secular Front 2021 Nawsad Siddique West Bengal
The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance 2021 Pradyot Manikya Debbarma Tripura
YSR Telangana Party 2021 Y. S. Sharmila Telangana
Ysrtp.jpg
Revolutionary Goans Party 2022 Viresh Borkar Goa

See also

Notes

  1. ^ If a party is recognised as a national or state party, its symbol is reserved for its exclusive use in the country or in the state.[1][2]

References

  1. ^ "Names of National State, registered-unrecognised parties and the list of free symbols" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 12 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  2. ^ "State Party List" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "List of Political Parties & Symbol MAIN Notification". Election Commission of India. 23 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b "The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014.
  6. ^ Price, P. (1996). Revolution and Rank in Tamil Nationalism. The Journal of Asian Studies, 55(2), 359-383. doi:10.2307/2943363
  7. ^ Pamela Price (1999) Relating to leadership in the Tamil nationalist movement: C.N. Annadurai in person‐centred propaganda, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 22:2, 149-174, doi:10.1080/00856409908723369
  8. ^ a b Kannan, Ramya (8 August 2018). "M. Karunanidhi: From health care to community living, his schemes were aimed at social equality". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  9. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-997489-4.
  10. ^ "Indian citizenship act against humanity: Manoj Bhattacharya". prothomalo.com.
  11. ^ "Tumultuous transition". 27 May 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Encyclopedia Britannica".
  13. ^ Price, Pamela; Srinivas, Dusi (August 2014). Piliavsky, Anastasia (ed.). "Patronage and autonomy in India's deepening democracy". Cambridge University Press: 217–236. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107296930.011. ISBN 9781107296930.
  14. ^ "Party constitution". India: All India Forward Bloc. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Though BJP and AIMIM are ideologically apart they share a few similarities".
  16. ^ "Will fight back to save India's composite culture, Constitution: Asaduddin Owaisi". 26 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Minority Upliftment".
  18. ^ "AIMIM eyes minorities and Dalits in Malda".
  19. ^ "AIMIM want to confront Hindu nationalism with Indian Constitution: Owaisi". Business Standard India. 8 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Centrist polity of TRS".
  21. ^ Hyderabad, K. VENKATESHWARLU in (23 April 2004). "Regionalism and sub-regionalism". Frontline. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  22. ^ "One year of Telangana a mixed bag for KCR". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018. The Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), led by Chandrasekhar Rao, took over the reins of the new state amid euphoria and high expectations. ... Blending boldness with populism, KCR has earned the reputation for being a tough task master
  23. ^ a b "Biju Janata Dal". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  24. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014. Founded in December 1997, the Biju Janata Dal or the BJD is a regional political party of India. Having split from the larger faction Janata Dal, the party stands by democracy and liberalism.
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Praty State and State Presidents List

Further reading