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Jharkhand Mukti Morcha
Jharkhand Liberation Front
AbbreviationJMM
PresidentShibu Soren
ChairpersonHemant Soren
SecretarySupriya Bhattacharya
Lok Sabha LeaderVijay Kumar Hansda
Rajya Sabha LeaderShibu Soren
FounderBinod Bihari Mahato, Shiva Mahto, Shibu Soren, Arun Kumar Roy
Founded15 November 1972; 51 years ago (1972-11-15)
HeadquartersBariatu Road, Ranchi, Jharkhand – 834008
Student wingJharkhand Chhatra Morcha
Youth wingJharkhand Yuva Morcha
Women's wingJharkhand Mahila Morcha
IdeologyRegionalism
Colours  Green
ECI StatusState Party[1]
AllianceIndian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance (2023–present)
Mahagathbandhan (Jharkhand) (2019–present)

UPA (2014–2023)[2]

NDA (2009-2013)
Seats in Lok Sabha
1 / 543
[3]
Seats in Rajya Sabha
2 / 245
[3]
Seats in Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
29 / 81
Number of states and union territories in government
1 / 31
Election symbol

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (lit. Jharkhand Liberation Front; abbr. JMM) is a political party in the Indian state of Jharkhand which was founded by Binod Bihari Mahato.[4] It has one seat in the 17th Lok Sabha. Shibu Soren is the president of the JMM. JMM is also an influential political party in the state of Odisha and parts of neighbouring of states. Its election symbol for Jharkhand is Bow and Arrow.[5]

The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, the 19th century tribal warrior of Jharkhand, who fought against the British rule in present-day Jharkhand.[6] The State of Jharkhand also came into existence on Birsa Munda's birthday in 2000.[7]

Formation

For almost six decades the movement to separate Jharkhand from Bihar had been attempting to gain a foothold. The Jharkhand Party gained political strength but commissions examining the demands for a separate Jharkhand State consistently rejected its demands. Before 1962, the Jharkhand Party held between 23 and 32 seats in the Bihar Legislative Assembly. In 1962, It won 20 seats. Jaipal Singh Munda merged the Jharkhand Party with the Indian National Congress in 1963 and became a minister in Vinodanand Jha's government in Bihar. But other members did not join the Congress.[8]

In the 1967 general election, the party had a very poor showing with only eight Assembly seats. The party soon split into several splinter groups each claiming to be the genuine Jharkhand Party.[citation needed] These included the Jharkhand Party led by N. E. Horo, the Jharkhand Party led by Naren, and the All India Jharkhand Party led by Bagun Sumroi. There was also the Hul Jharkhand Party led by Justin Richard, which further fragmented and became the Bihar Progressive Hul Jharkhand Party led by Shibu Soren.

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha was founded by Soren, Binod Bihari Mahato and Marxist Co-ordination Committee leader A. K. Roy. The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, a 19th-century tribal warrior from Jharkhand, who fought against British rule in the region.[9]

On 4 February 1973, Mahato became president of the party and Soren became its general secretary. Prominent party leaders at that time included Roy, Nirmal Mahto and Tek Lal Mahto, among others.

Early years

In its early years, the JMM under Soren's leadership brought industrial and mining workers who were mainly non-tribals belonging to the Dalit and backward communities such as Surdis, Doms, Dusadh, Kurmi, Koiri, Gowala, and Teli into its fold. However Soren's association with the late politician Gyanranjan brought him close to the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. He won the Dumka Lok Sabha seat in 1972. Irked by Soren's association with the Indian National Congress, a few younger members of the JMM banded together in Jamshedpur and set up the All Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU). This did not affect the growth of the JMM in the 1991 Indian general election, where the party won six seats.

Ram Dayal Munda reignited the movement for Jharkhand by unifying splinter groups among the tribals. Under his guidance the Jharkhand Coordination Committee was constituted in June 1987, comprising 48 organisations and group including the JMM factions. Due to Munda, Shibu Soren, Suraj Mandal, Simon Marandi, Shailendra Mahato, and AJSU leaders like Surya Singh Besra and Prabhakar Tirkey briefly shared a political platform, but the JMM pulled out of JCC as it felt that "the collective leadership was a farce". In 1988 and 1989, the JMM, AJSU and JPP successfully orchestrated so-called bandhs, economic blockades.

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (B)

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (B), a political party in India 1980–1990. JMM(B) was formed when JMM leader Binod Bihari Mahato, following the decision by the JMM to contest elections in alliance with Indian National Congress. Mahato returned to JMM in 1987, after the killing of JMM president Nirmal Mahto, allegedly with Congress activists. JMM(B) merged with JMM in January 1990.

Jharkhand Yuva Morcha

See also: Jharkhand Chhatra Morcha and Jharkhand Yuva Morcha

Jharkhand Yuva Morcha (Jharkhand Youth Front) and Jharkhand Chhatra Morcha (Jharkhand Student Front), the youth and student wings of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, were constituted at a conference in Ranchi 16 October 1991.

List of chief ministers

Main article: List of chief ministers of Jharkhand

No. Chief Minister Portrait Term in Office Assembly
(election)
Constituency
Start End Tenure
1 Shibu Soren 2 March 2005 12 March 2005 308 days 2nd Assembly
(2005 election)
did not contest
27 August 2008 19 January 2009
30 December 2009 1 June 2010 3rd Assembly
(2009 election)
Jamtara
2 Hemant Soren 13 July 2013 28 December 2014 1 year, 168 days Dumka
29 December 2019 31 January 2024 4 years, 51 days 5th Assembly
(2019 election)
Barhait
3 Champai Soren 2 February
2024
Incumbent 16 days 5th Assembly
(2019 election)
Seraikella

List of deputy chief ministers

Main article: List of deputy chief ministers of Jharkhand

No. Deputy Chief Minister
(Constituency)
Portrait Term in Office Assembly
(election)
Chief Minister
Start End Tenure
1 Sudhir Mahato
(Ichagarh)
14 September 2006 23 August 2008 1 year, 344 days 2nd Assembly
(2005 election)
Madhu Koda
2 Hemant Soren
(Dumka)
11 September 2010 18 January 2013 2 years, 129 days 3rd Assembly
(2009 election)
Arjun Munda

List of leaders of opposition

Main article: List of leaders of the opposition in the Jharkhand Legislative Assembly

No. Leader of Opposition
(Constituency)
Portrait Term in Office Assembly
(election)
Start End Tenure
1 Stephen Marandi
(Dumka)
24 November 2000 10 July 2004 3 years, 229 days 1st Assembly
(2000 election)
2 Haji Hussain Ansari
(Madhupur)
2 August 2004 1 March 2005 211 days
3 Sudhir Mahato
(Ichagarh)
16 March 2005 18 September 2006 1 year, 186 days 2nd Assembly
(2005 election)
4 Hemant Soren
(Barhait)
7 January 2015 28 December 2019 4 years, 355 days 4th Assembly
(2014 election)

See also

References

  1. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  2. ^ "Congress, JMM seal pre-poll pact in Jharkhand | Ranchi News - Times of India". The Times of India. 6 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Jharkhand Lok Sabha Election Results 2019". NDTV.com.
  4. ^ "Saffron Munda loves everything green - BJP cries neglect as chief minister warms up to old JMM associates". www.telegraphindia.com.
  5. ^ Pradeep Kaushal (28 September 2015). "Shiv Sena finds Jharkhand Mukti Morcha has first right to symbol". indianexpress.com. New Delhi: The Indian Express. Retrieved 28 April 2020. Shivsena's bow-and-arrow symbol is the same as that of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha.
  6. ^ P. 522 Lok Sabha debates by India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha
  7. ^ P. 200 Basic Facts of General Knowledge By Sura College of Competition, V.V.K.Subburaj
  8. ^ Kumāra, Braja Bihārī (1998). Small States Syndrome in India. ISBN 9788170226918.
  9. ^ P. 522 Lok Sabha debates by India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha