Mizo National Front
Lok Sabha LeaderC. Lalrosanga
Rajya Sabha LeaderK. Vanlalvena
Founded1961; 63 years ago (1961)
HeadquartersZarkawt, Aizawl, Mizoram
Youth wingMizo National Youth Front
Women's wingMizo National Women Front
IdeologyMizo nationalism[1]
Conservative Christianity[2]
Zo Unification[3]
ECI StatusState Party[5]
  • NDA (2014- present)

(National level)

Seats in Lok Sabha
1 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
1 / 245
Seats in Mizoram Legislative Assembly
10 / 40
Election symbol

The Mizo National Front (abbr. MNF) is a regional political party in Mizoram, India. MNF emerged from the Mizo National Famine Front, which was formed by Pu Laldenga to protest against the inaction of the Government of India towards the famine situation in the Mizo areas of the Assam state in 1959. It staged a major uprising in 1966, followed by years of underground activities. In 1986, it signed the Mizoram Accord with the Government of India, renouncing secession and violence. The MNF then began contesting elections and has formed state government in Mizoram three times. It is currently the state's ruling party, with its president, Zoramthanga, as the Former Chief Minister of Mizoram.[9]


In 1959, the Mizo Hills were devastated by the Mautam, a cyclic phenomenon where the flowering of bamboo plants result in a plague of crop-eating rats, in turn causing a famine.[10][11]

Earlier in 1955, Mizo Cultural Society was formed, with Laldenga as its secretary. In March 1960, the name of the Mizo Cultural Society was changed to 'Mautam Front'.[12] During the famine of 1959–1960, this society took lead in demanding relief and attracted the attention of all sections of the people. In September 1960, the Society adopted the name Mizo National Famine Front (MNFF).[13][14] The MNFF gained considerable popularity as a large number of Mizo Youth assisted in transporting rice and other essential commodities to interior villages.[15]

Underground movement

Main article: Mizo National Front uprising

The MNFF, which was originally formed to help ease the immense sufferings of the people during the severe Mautam Famine in Mizoram, was converted into Mizo National Front (MNF) on 22 October 1961.[16] The first OB leaders elected were, President Laldenga, Vice President JF Manliana, General Secy. R. Vanlawma, and Treasurer Rochhinga and the ways in which the Indian authority of the day handled the famine left the people disillusioned. The wave of secessionist and armed insurrection was running high among the Mizos. In 1966, MNF led a major uprising against the government, but failed to gain administrative control of the Mizo district.[14] The secessionist movement held on for about two decades. During that time, they invaded Burma claiming Chin State and Tahan belong to Mizoram since most of the resident in Tahan are Mizo.[17][18]

Peace settlement

Main article: Mizoram Accord, 1986

This chapter of insurgency finally came to a close with the signing of the Mizoram Accord on 30 June 1986 between the underground government of the Mizo National Front and the Government of India. Under the terms of the peace accord, Mizoram was granted statehood in February 1987.[19]

Political party

Party Representative Flag

After the 1987 Mizoram Legislative Assembly election, Laldenga became Chief Minister, but soon lost power due to defections in the party.[16] In the resulting election, the Congress won, and the MNF would be in opposition until 1998. In 1990, Laldenga died, and was replaced by his former secretary and Finance Minister, Zoramthanga. In 1998 and 2003 MNF won the state assembly elections, and Zoramthanga was chief minister for 10 years.[20] In the 2003 elections MNF won 21 out of 40 seats in the state assembly, and got 132 505 votes (31.66%).[21] The party was routed by the Congress in the 2008 state election, winning just 3 seats.[22] It contested the 2013 state elections in alliance with the Mizoram People's Conference, and won 5 seats to the Congress's 34.[9] In the 2018 state assembly elections, the MNF won 26 seats and returned to government.[23]

Role in the national elections

For the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, it formed an alliance called United Democratic Front with seven other parties including BJP, to contest the only seat in Mizoram.[24] The MNF has been part of the National Democratic Alliance since 2014.[25][26]

Election results

Mizoram Legislative Assembly

Year Party leader Seats won Change in seats Vote % Vote swing Outcome
1987 Laldenga
24 / 40
Increase 24 43.31% New Government
14 / 40
Decrease 10 35.29% Decrease 8.02% Opposition
1993 Zoramthanga
14 / 40
Steady 40.41% Increase 5.12% Opposition
21 / 40
Increase 7 24.99% Decrease 15.42% Government
21 / 40
Steady 31.69% Increase 6.70% Government
3 / 40
Decrease 18 30.65% Decrease 1.04% Others
5 / 40
Increase 2 28.65% Decrease 2.00% Opposition
26 / 40
Increase 21 37.70% Increase 9.05% Government
10 / 40
Decrease 16 35.10% Decrease 2.6% Opposition

List of chief ministers

Zoramthanga, Party President and former Chief Minister of Mizoram.

Main article: List of chief ministers of Mizoram

Name Tenure Length
Laldenga 21 August 1986 – 7 September 1988 2 years, 17 days
Zoramthanga 3 December 1998 – 4 December 2003 15 years, 57 days
4 December 2003 – 11 December 2008
15 December 2018 – 5 December 2023

Current party officers

MNF Office

As of the latest party election in 2019, the Officers are:[27]

See also


  1. ^ https://www.eastmojo.com/mizoram/2021/09/21/mizo-nationalism-our-driving-force-cm-zoramthanga/
  2. ^ https://nagalandpost.com/index.php/mnf-govt-in-mizoram-to-take-oath-amidst-christian-rituals/
  3. ^ "Mizoram-ahead of polls mnf renewed call for zo unification creates political-flutter".
  4. ^ "People of Mizoram oppose Citizenship Bill: Zoramthanga tells Modi".
  5. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  6. ^ "Mizoram MLA suspended for toppling MNF-Congress Government".
  7. ^ Chakma Autonomous District Council
  8. ^ Lai Autonomous District Council
  9. ^ a b The Hindu Net Desk (15 December 2018). "Who is Zoramthanga, the newly elected CM of Mizoram". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  10. ^ Das Gupta, Malabika (2017), De, Utpal Kumar; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda (eds.), "Hunger, Governance Failure and Its Outcome: An Analysis of the Historical Experience of the Mizo Hills District of Undivided Assam", Inequality, Poverty and Development in India, India Studies in Business and Economics, Singapore: Springer Singapore, pp. 351–362, doi:10.1007/978-981-10-6274-2_18, ISBN 978-981-10-6273-5, retrieved 12 October 2021
  11. ^ Nag, Sajal (2001). "Tribals, Rats, Famine, State and the Nation". Economic and Political Weekly. 36 (12): 1029–1033. JSTOR 4410428.
  12. ^ Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad; Vangchhia, Lalrinpuia (2017), "Geostrategic Location, Political History and Development", A Sustainable Livelihood Approach to Poverty Reduction, SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 31–33, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45623-2_3, ISBN 978-3-319-45622-5, retrieved 12 October 2021
  13. ^ "What is the Mizo National Front?". The Indian Express. 11 December 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  14. ^ a b Dommen, Arthur J. (1967). "Separatist Tendencies in Eastern India". Asian Survey. 7 (10): 726–739. doi:10.2307/2642421. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2642421.
  15. ^ Goswami, Namrata (2009). "The Indian Experience of Conflict Resolution in Mizoram". Strategic Analysis. 33 (4): 579–589. doi:10.1080/09700160902907118. S2CID 154851791.
  16. ^ a b Goswami, Namrata (2009). "The Indian Experience of Conflict Resolution in Mizoram". Strategic Analysis. 33 (4): 579–589. doi:10.1080/09700160902907118. S2CID 154851791.
  17. ^ Nunthara, C. (1981). "Grouping of Villages in Mizoram: Its Social and Economic Impact". Economic and Political Weekly. 16 (30): 1237, 1239–1240. JSTOR 4370043.
  18. ^ Dewen, L.J.M. (2009). "The Mizo People: Problems and Future". South Asian Studies Quarterly. 4: 5.
  19. ^ Sharma, S.K. (2016). "Lessons from Mizoram Insurgency and Peace Accord 1986" (PDF). www.vifindia.org. Vivekananda International Foundation. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  20. ^ Anisha (11 November 2013). "Mizoram assembly polls 2013: A brief profile on Pu Zoramthanga". One India News. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  21. ^ Neha Attre (9 November 2013). "Mizoram CM candidate profile - Pu Zoramthanga". Zee News. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  22. ^ "2008 Elections Results" (PDF). ECI. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  23. ^ "MNF sweeps Mizoram, northeast now 'Congress-mukt'". The Times of India.
  24. ^ "Triangular contest for lone Mizoram seat". Indian Express. 18 March 2014.
  25. ^ Kumar, Devesh (20 May 2014). "BJP + 29 Parties = National Democratic Alliance". NDTV. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  26. ^ "BJP-led northeast alliance stays off border row | India News – The Times of India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 30 July 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  27. ^ "Mizoram CM elected unopposed as MNF president". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2021.