Paattali Makkal Katchi
LeaderS. Ramadoss
PresidentAnbumani Ramadoss
ChairpersonG. K. Mani
FounderS. Ramadoss
Founded16 July 1989 (33 years ago) (1989-07-16)
HeadquartersTindivanam, Villupuram District, Chennai - 604001, Tamil Nadu
IdeologyPopulism
ECI StatusState Party[1]
Alliance1) PMK-Owne Alliance (1989-1996) & (2016-2019) (PMK Front) (1996-1998)
2) BJP (NDA) (1998-2004 & 2014 – present)
3) AIADMK-Congress Alliance (2001-2004)
4) DMK-Congress (UPA) (2004-2009 & 2011-2014)
5) AIADMK (UNPA) (2009-2011)
Seats in Lok Sabha
0 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
1 / 245
Seats in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
5 / 234
Election symbol
Mango
Website
pmkofficial.com

Paattali Makkal Katchi (transl. Working people's party; abbreviated as PMK) is a political party in Tamil Nadu, India, founded by S. Ramadoss in 1989 for the Vanniyars, a caste in northern Tamil Nadu.[2][3] It is currently part of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA).[4] It contests the elections with the 'Ripe Mango' symbol.[5]

History

Vanniyar Sangam

S Ramadoss founded the Vanniyar Sangam in the late 1970s, bringing together a coalition of Vanniyar caste organizations. The Vanniyar Sangam is PMK's parent organisation.[6][7] In the 1980s, the Vanniyar Sangham organized the 1987 Vanniyar reservation agitation demanding MBC status for Vanniyars. At the peak of the protests, the state was paralysed for a week when lakhs of trees were felled, highways blocked and damaged and more than 1400 houses of the Dalit community burned down.[8] The police under the M G Ramchandran (MGR) led AIADMK government shot down 21 protestors.[6] Later in 1989, the DMK government under M. Karunanidhi granted them 20 percent reservation under the Most backward class.[9]

PMK (1989–present)

The Pattali Makkal Katchi, founded by S. Ramadoss on 16 July 1989,[10] emerged from the Vanniyar reservation protests.[11]

Ahead of the 2004 elections, PMK joined the Democratic Progressive Alliance, a broad Tamil political front which also included the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), Indian National Congress (INC), Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Indian Union Muslim League. PMK was able to obtain a significant share of power both in the regional government in Tamil Nadu and the Central Government due to a significant number of seats they obtained which helped the United Progressive Alliance ( UPA-I ) to form the Government.[citation needed]

Following the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, the PMK joined the United Progressive Alliance led by the INC. In June 2008, during the final months of the bitter relationship between the DMK and the PMK, the ruling DMK in Tamil Nadu severed its ties with the PMK, an outside supporter of the Karunanidhi Government.[12] However, the DMK did not press for the party's removal from the UPA Government at the centre. On 26 March 2009, PMK declared that, it would join the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam ( AIADMK ) led front and left the United Progressive Alliance (UPA).

S Ramadoss and his son Anbumani Ramdoss were arrested by the Jayalalithaa government for their inflammatory speeches, the PMK cadres indulged in violence in April 2013 causing property damages estimated worth ₹600 crores.[13] Jayalalitha likened the party to a “terrorist” organization and claimed they hurled petrol bombs on moving vehicles and caused damages to 850 vehicles including public buses. Jayalalithaa also threatened to ban the party.[14] Ramadoss and his son were released after 12 days in prison.[15]

PMK contested in the 2014 Lok Sabha election in an alliance with Bharatiya Janata Party led NDA and its candidate Anbumani Ramadoss won from Dharmapuri Lok Sabha constituency, where he was one of two non-AIADMK MPs from Tamil Nadu the other being from its ally BJP.[16]

PMK continued its alliance with AIADMK and BJP in the 2019 Indian general election in Tamil Nadu.[17]

The Madras Institute of Developmental Studies (MIDS) and an reported that the PMK and the Hindu Munnani was involved in the 2019 Ponparappi violence where Dalit women were sexually abused and Dalit houses were attacked and damaged.[18] An NGO Evidence also blamed PMK in the violence because the Dalit colony voted overwhelmingly for VCK.[19]

Ramadoss in November 2020 called for a protest demanding 20% sub-quota for Vanniyars in education and jobs from December 1. Following this, more than 500 angry PMK cadres pelted stones on a moving train and blocked traffic when they were blocked from entering Chennai.[20][21] A bill to create the 10.5% internal reservation to Vanniyars was passed on February 26, 2021, by the AIADMK government.[22] The move was taken ahead of the April 6 assembly elections to appease the PMK, which had threatened to quit the coalition if their demand were not satisfied.[23] In July 2021, the DMK government issued an order to implement 10.5% quota Bill for Vanniyars.[23]

PMK contested in 23 seats in the AIADMK alliance in the 2021 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election and won five seats by securing 4.04 per cent.[17] In the assembly, PMK voted in favour of anti-CAA and anti-farm-law resolutions, but AIADMK and BJP walked out over the matter.[24] PMK left AIADMK-led alliance for the 2021 local body polls.[25]

Ideology and political positions

The PMK defied Tamil Nadu's Dravidian political culture by explicitly appealing to its caste identification when asking for support. The party has been linked to direct action and protests that have resulted in violence. Between 2012 and 2013, the party ran a campaign against intercaste marriages.[11]

Leaders

The leaders of Pattali Makkal Katchi, who are also the national executives of the party are listed below:[26]

S.No Member Party position
1. S. Ramadoss Founder-Leader of PMK
2. G.K. Mani President of PMK[27]
3. Vadivel Ravanan General secretary of PMK
4. Thilagabama Treasurer of PMK
5. Pu.Tha.Arulmozhi Election duty committee & President of Vanniyar sangam
6. Advocate K Balu Spokesperson of PMK

Former ministers

1) Dalit Ezhilmalai - Former central health and family welfare minister (1998-1999)

2) A.k.Moorthy - Former central railway minister (2002-2004)

3) Ponnusamy - Former central petroleum minister (1999-2001)

4) N.T.Shanmugam - Former central Health and family welfare (1999-2000) Former central coal minister(2000-2001) and Former central food processing industries minister(2002-2004)

5) R.Velu - Former central railway minister (2004-2009)

6) Dr.R.Anbumani ramadoss - Former central health and family welfare minister (2004-2009)

Election history

Tamilnadu

Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
Election Year Election Votes polled Won Change of Seats Alliance Result
1991 10th Assembly 1,45,982
1 / 194
Increase1 None Opposition
1996 11th Assembly 10,42,333
4 / 116
Increase 3 PMK+Tiwari Opposition
2001 12th Assembly 15,57,500
20 / 27
Increase 16 AIADMK+ Government
2006 13th Assembly 18,63,749
18 / 31
Decrease 2 DMK + Government
2011 14th Assembly 19,27,783
3 / 30
Decrease 15 DMK + Opposition
2016 15th Assembly 23,00,775
0 / 234
Decrease 3 None Lost
2021 16th Assembly 17,56,796
5 / 23
Increase 5 NDA Opposition
Lok Sabha election
Election Year Election Votes polled Won Change of Seats Alliance Result
1996 11th Lok Sabha 5,52,118
0 / 15
Decrease15 PT Lost
1998 12th Lok Sabha 15,48,976
4 / 5
Increase4 NDA Government
1999 13th Lok Sabha 22,36,821
5 / 7
Increase1 NDA Government
2004 14th Lok Sabha 19,27,367
5 / 5
No Change DPA Government
2009 15th Lok Sabha 19,44,619
0 / 6
Decrease5 TF Lost
2014 16th Lok Sabha 18,04,812
1 / 8
Increase1 NDA Government
2019 17th Lok Sabha 22,97,431[28]
0 / 7
Decrease1 NDA Government

DPA - Democratic Progressive Alliance NDA - National Democratic Alliance TF - Third Front PT - PMK-Tiwari Congress Front

Puducherry

Further information: Puducherry Lok Sabha constituency

Puducherry Legislative Assembly election
Election Year Election Votes polled Won Change of Seats Alliance Result
2006 2006 Pondicherry Legislative Assembly election N.A.
2 / 30
Increase2 DPA Government
Lok Sabha election
Election Year Election Votes polled Won Change of Seats Alliance Result Candidate
1999 13th Lok Sabha 1,40,920
0 / 1
No Change NDA Lost M. Ramadass
2004 14th Lok Sabha 2,41,653
1 / 1
Increase1 DPA Government M. Ramadass
2009 15th Lok Sabha 2,08,619
0 / 1
Decrease1 TF Lost M. Ramadass

DPA - Democratic Progressive Alliance NDA - National Democratic Alliance TF - Third Front PT - PMK-Tiwari Congress Front

Lok Sabha Members

No Year Election Member Constituency Positions Held
1 1998 12th Lok Sabha Dalit Ezhilmalai Chidambaram Union Minister of State, Health and Family Welfare (Independent Charge), 1999
2 1998 12th Lok Sabha Durai Vandavasi
3 1998 12th Lok Sabha K. Parymohan Dharmapuri
4 1998 12th Lok Sabha N.T. Shanmugam Vellore
5 1999 13th Lok Sabha Durai Vandavasi Re-elected for 2nd term
6 1999 13th Lok Sabha P D Elangovan Dharmapuri
7 1999 13th Lok Sabha A.K. Moorthy Chengalpattu Union Minister of State, Ministry of Railways (July 2002- 15 Jan.2004)
8 1999 13th Lok Sabha Mathivanan Chidambaram Minister of State, Petroleum and Natural Gas (1999-2001)
9 1999 13th Lok Sabha N.T. Shanmugam Vellore Re-elected for 2nd term

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (Oct 1999 to May 2000)

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of Coal (May 2000 to Feb 2001)

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of Food Processing Industries (July 2002 to Jan 2004)

10 2004 14th Lok Sabha K Dhanaraju Tindivanam
11 2004 14th Lok Sabha A.K. Moorthy Chengalpattu Re-elected for 2nd term
12 2004 14th Lok Sabha E Ponnuswamy Chidambaram Re-elected for 2nd term
13 2004 14th Lok Sabha Senthil Raman Dharmapuri
14 2004 14th Lok Sabha Rangasamy Velu Arakkonam Union Minister of State, Railways (2004) on 29 March 2009 He Resigned from Union Minister of State, Railways
15 2014 16th Lok Sabha Anbumani Ramadoss Dharmapuri

Rajya Sabha Members

Sl Name Position Period
1 Anbumani Ramadoss Member, Rajya Sabha 2004-2010
Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare 2004 - 2009
Member, Rajya Sabha 2019-

References

  1. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  2. ^ Radhakrishnan, P. (2002). "Vanniyar Separatism: Nebulous Issues". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (32): 3315–3316. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4412456.
  3. ^ Thirunavukkarasu, R. (2001). "Election 2001: Changing Equations". Economic and Political Weekly. 36 (27): 2486–2489. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4410818.
  4. ^ Senthalir, S. "In Tamil Nadu, discontent within PMK does not augur well for prospects of BJP-AIADMK alliance". Scroll.in. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  5. ^ "PMK allotted 'mango' symbol for 2016 polls". The Hindu. 25 March 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  6. ^ a b "40-yr-old reservation demand conceded in TN: Is it working for PMK?". Hindustan Times. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Senior Ramadoss arrested". The Telegraph. 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 6 June 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  8. ^ Collins, Michael A (1 January 2017). "Recalling Democracy: Electoral Politics, Minority Representation, and Dalit Assertion in Modern India". Dissertations Available from ProQuest: 137, 138.
  9. ^ Kolappan, B. (7 May 2012). "Vanniyar Sangam revives demand for exclusive quota". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Will PMK's investment in caste-politics yield results?". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  11. ^ a b Manikandan, C.; Wyatt, Andrew (2 January 2019). "Political parties and federally structured incentives in Indian politics: the case of the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK)". Contemporary South Asia. 27 (1): 3. doi:10.1080/09584935.2019.1572070. ISSN 0958-4935. S2CID 151268924.
  12. ^ "DMK snaps ties with PMK". The Hindu. 18 June 2008. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  13. ^ "Jaya threatens to ban PMK for inciting violence". Hindustan Times. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  14. ^ "Jayalalithaa threatens to ban Ramadoss' PMK over Marakkanam violence". The Indian Express. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  15. ^ "PMK founder S Ramadoss released from prison,slams Jayalalithaa govt". The Indian Express. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  16. ^ "DMDK to sign poll deal with BJP - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  17. ^ a b "Low vote share spoils PMK's celebratory mood over win in 5 seats". dtNext.in. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ "Fact-finding team blames PMK for Ponparappi violence". dtNext.in. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  19. ^ Rajasekaran, Ilangovan. "Dalits in Tamil Nadu village attacked for voting in election". Frontline. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  20. ^ "Pro-reservation protest: PMK supporters create ruckus in Chennai after being stopped by police". The Indian Express. 1 December 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  21. ^ "Video: PMK members pelt stones on train during protest for sub-quota for Vanniyars". The News Minute. 1 December 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  22. ^ Yamunan, Sruthisagar. "Ground report: Will giving Vanniyar community 10.5% reservations help AIADMK win north Tamil Nadu?". Scroll.in. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  23. ^ a b "TN issues order to implement 10.5% quota Bill for Vanniyars". Hindustan Times. 27 July 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  24. ^ "Cracks in AIADMK alliance; PMK to contest alone in rural local body polls". Deccan Herald. 15 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  25. ^ "PMK exits AIADMK-led alliance for local body polls, to contest alone". The News Minute. 15 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  26. ^ "Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) – Party History, Symbol, Founders, Election Results and News". www.elections.in. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  27. ^ "Election observer must manage Arasu Cable till polls: PMK". The Hindu. 20 March 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)