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The administrative divisions of India are subnational administrative units of India; they are composed of a nested hierarchy of administrative divisions.

Indian states and territories frequently use different local titles for the same level of subdivision (e.g., the mandals of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana correspond to tehsils of Uttar Pradesh and other Hindi-speaking states but to talukas of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu).[1]

The smaller subdivisions (villages and blocks) exist only in rural areas. In urban areas, urban local bodies exist instead of these rural subdivisions.

Tiers of India

Main article: Local government in India

The diagram below outlines the six tiers of administrative divisions:

Country
(India)
State
(e.g. West Bengal State)
Division
(e.g. Presidency Division)
District
(e.g. North 24 Parganas District)
Sub-district
(Subdivision, Tehsil)
(e.g. Basirhat Subdivision)
Block
(e.g. Basirhat II Block)
Village
(e.g. Champapukur village)

Zones and regions

Zones

The six zones of India

The states of India have been grouped into six zones having an Advisory Council "to develop the habit of cooperative working" among these States. Zonal Councils were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The North Eastern States' special problems are addressed by another statutory body - The North Eastern Council, created by the North Eastern Council Act, 1971.[2] The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:[3]

Cultural zones

Each zone has a zonal headquarters where a zonal cultural center has been established.[7] Several states have membership in multiple zones, but no state subdivisions are utilized in the zonal divisions. In addition to promoting the culture of the zones they are responsible for, each zonal center also works to cross-promote and create exposure to other cultural zones of India by organizing functions and inviting artistes from other zones.

Administrative divisions of India is located in India
Location of the headquarters of each cultural zone
Zone Zonal Centre Extent
South Culture Zone South Zone Cultural Centre, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, Telangana[8]
South Central Culture Zone South-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana[9]
North Culture Zone North Zone Cultural Centre, Patiala, Punjab Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand[10]
North Central Culture Zone North-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand[11]
East Culture Zone East Zone Cultural Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Manipur, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal[12]
North East Culture Zone North East Zone Cultural Centre, Dimapur, Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura[13]
West Culture Zone West Zone Cultural Centre, Udaipur, Rajasthan Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan[14]

States and union territories

Main article: States and union territories of India

India is composed of 28 states and eight union territories (including a national capital territory).[15]

This section is transcluded from States and union territories of India. (edit | history)

See also: List of state and union territory capitals in India

States

State[16] ISO[17] Vehicle
code
[18]
Zone[19] Capital[16] Largest city[20] Established[21] Population
(2011)[22][23]
Area
(km2)[24]
Official
languages[25]
Additional official
languages[25]
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 162,975 Telugu Urdu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,438 Assamese, Boro[26] Bengali[26]
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CG CG Central Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi Chhattisgarhi[27]
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi[28]
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati, Hindi[29]
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi English, Punjabi[30]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[31]
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit[32]
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 79,714 Hindi 16 languages[a][33]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English[34]
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[35]
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,327 Manipuri English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,429 English
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 Mizo, English, Hindi
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OD OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,707 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,239 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha, English[36] 8 languages[b][36]
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TS TG Southern Hyderabad 2 June 2014 35,193,978 112,077 Telugu Urdu
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,491 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow 26 January 1950 199,812,341 240,928 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UK UK Central Dehradun (Winter)
Bhararisain (Summer)[37]
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[38]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, English Nepali[c] and 10 other languages[d][39]
  1. ^ Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu
  2. ^ Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
  3. ^ Nepali is one of the official languages in the Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district
  4. ^ Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu, Kamatapuri, Rajbanshi, Kurmali, Kurukh

Union territories

State[40] ISO[41] Vehicle
code
[42]
Zone[43] Capital[40] Largest city[44] Established[45] Population
(2011)[46]
Area
(km2)[47]
Official
languages[48]
Additional official
languages[48]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Southern Port Blair 1 November 1956 380,581 8,249 Hindi, English
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Northern Chandigarh 1 November 1966 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DH DD Western Daman Silvassa 26 January 2020 587,106 603 Hindi, English Gujarati
Delhi IN-DL DL Northern New Delhi Delhi 1 November 1956 16,787,941 1,484 Hindi, English Urdu, Punjabi[49]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Northern Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)[50]
Srinagar 31 October 2019 12,258,433 42,241 Dogri, English, Hindi, Kashmiri, Urdu
Ladakh IN-LA LA Northern Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[51]
Leh 31 October 2019 290,492 59,146 Hindi, English
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Southern Kavaratti Andrott 1 November 1956 64,473 32 Hindi, English Malayalam
Puducherry IN-PY PY Southern Pondicherry 16 August 1962 1,247,953 479 Tamil, French, English Telugu, Malayalam

Autonomous administrative divisions

Main article: Autonomous administrative divisions of India

Autonomous councils in India

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy within their respective states.[52]

Presently, 10 Autonomous Councils in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura are formed by virtue of the Sixth Schedule[53] with the rest being formed as a result of other legislation.

This section is transcluded from Autonomous administrative divisions of India. (edit | history)

Autonomous district councils operating under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India are shown in bold.

Sl. No. State/UT Autonomous Council Headquarters Formation
1 Assam Bodoland Territorial Council Kokrajhar 2003
2 North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council Haflong 1951
3 Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council Diphu 1952
4 Tiwa Autonomous Council Morigaon 1995
5 Mising Autonomous Council Dhemaji 1995
6 Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council Dudhnoi 1995
7 Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council Dibrugarh 2005
8 Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council Titabar 2005
9 Deori Autonomous Council Narayanpur 2005
10 Moran Autonomous Council Tinsukia 2020
11 Matak Autonomous Council Chring Gaon 2020
12 Bodo Kachari Welfare Autonomous Council Simen Chapori 2020
13 Kamatapur Autonomous Council Abhayapuri 2020
14 Ladakh Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil Kargil 2003
15 Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh Leh 1995
16 Manipur Chandel Autonomous District Council Chandel 1971[54]
17 Churachandpur Autonomous District Council Churachandpur 1971[54]
18 Sadar Hills Kangpokpi 1971[54]
19 Manipur North Autonomous District Council Senapati 1971[54]
20 Tamenglong Autonomous District Council Tamenglong 1971[54]
21 Ukhrul Autonomous District Council Ukhrul 1971[54]
22 Meghalaya Garo Hills Autonomous District Council Tura 1973
23 Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council Jowai 1973
24 Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council Shillong 1973
25 Mizoram Chakma Autonomous District Council Kamalanagar 1972
26 Lai Autonomous District Council Lawngtlai 1972
27 Mara Autonomous District Council Siaha 1972
28 Tripura Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Khumulwng 1982
29 West Bengal Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Darjeeling 2012

Divisions

Main article: List of divisions in India

Many of the Indian states are subdivided into divisions, which have official administrative governmental status, and each division is headed by a senior IAS officer called Divisional Commissioner.

States like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, etc. don't have separate divisions or regions. Instead, they're directly split into districts for administrative purposes.

As of September 2022, divisions exist in 18 of the 28 states and 3 of the 8 union territories. As of September 2022, there are a total of 102 divisions in India.

This section is transcluded from List of divisions in India. (edit | history)

No. of divisions in each state or UT
State/union territory No. of divisions Population[55] Population per division
Andhra Pradesh - 49,386,799 -
Arunachal Pradesh 3 1,383,727 461,242
Assam 5 31,169,272 6,233,854
Bihar 9 104,099,452 11,566,606
Chhattisgarh 5 25,545,198 5,109,040
Goa - 1,458,545 -
Gujarat - 60,439,692 -
Haryana 6 25,351,462 4,225,244
Himachal Pradesh 3 6,864,602 2,288,201
Telangana - 35,193,978 -
Jharkhand 5 32,988,134 6,597,627
Karnataka 4 61,095,297 15,273,824
Kerala - 33,406,061 -
Madhya Pradesh 10 72,626,809 7,262,681
Maharashtra 6 112,374,333 18,729,056
Manipur - 2,721,756 -
Meghalaya 2 2,966,889 1,483,445
Mizoram - 1,097,206 -
Nagaland 1 1,978,502 1,978,502
Odisha 3 41,974,218 13,991,406
Punjab 5 27,743,338 5,548,668
Rajasthan 7 68,548,437 9,792,634
Sikkim - 610,577 -
Tamil Nadu - 72,147,030 -
Tripura - 3,673,917 -
Uttar Pradesh 18 199,812,341 11,100,686
Uttarakhand 2 10,086,292 5,043,146
West Bengal 5 91,276,115 18,255,223
Andaman and Nicobar Islands - 380,581 -
Chandigarh - 1,055,450 -
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu - 586,956 -
Jammu and Kashmir 2 12,258,433 6,129,217
Ladakh 1 290,492 290,492
Lakshadweep - 64,473 -
Delhi 1 16,787,941 16,787,941
Puducherry - 1,247,953 -
Total  103 1,210,854,977 11,755,874

Regions within states

Some states consist of regions, which have no official administrative governmental status. They are purely geographic regions; some correspond to historic countries, states or provinces. A region may comprise one or more divisions, averaging about three divisions per region. However, the boundaries of the regions and the boundaries of the divisions do not always coincide exactly. So far there has been no movement to give the regions official administrative status. If this was to be done, it would presumably require that the boundaries of the regions be slightly modified so that they correspond exactly with their constituent districts.

Districts

Main article: List of districts in India

States and territories (or divisions) are further subdivided into districts (zilla), of which there are 797 (as of Nov 2023). A district in India, officially referred to as a revenue district, is a basic administrative unit under a state or union territory. Each District is headed by an IAS officer called District Magistrate.

This section is transcluded from List of districts in India. (edit | history)

Number of districts in each state or UT
# State/Union Territory No. of districts Population Population/ district
1 Andhra Pradesh 26 49,577,103 1,906,812
2 Arunachal Pradesh 26 1,383,727 53,220
3 Assam 35 31,205,576 891,588
4 Bihar 38 104,099,452 2,739,459
5 Chhattisgarh 33 25,545,198 774,097
6 Goa 2 1,458,545 729,273
7 Gujarat 33 60,439,692 1,831,506
8 Haryana 22 25,351,462 1,152,339
9 Himachal Pradesh 12 6,864,602 528,046
10 Jharkhand 24 32,988,134 1,374,506
11 Karnataka 31 61,095,297 1,970,816
12 Kerala 14 33,406,061 2,386,147
13 Madhya Pradesh 55 72,626,809 1,274,155
14 Maharashtra 36 112,374,333 3,121,509
15 Manipur 16 2,570,390 160,649
16 Meghalaya 12 2,966,889 247,241
17 Mizoram 11 1,097,206 99,746
18 Nagaland 16 1,978,502 123,656
19 Odisha 30 41,974,218 1,399,141
20 Punjab 23 27,743,338 1,206,232
21 Rajasthan 50 68,548,437 1,246,335
22 Sikkim 6 610,577 101,763
23 Tamil Nadu 38 72,147,030 1,898,606
24 Telangana 33 35,003,674 1,060,717
25 Tripura 8 3,673,917 459,240
26 Uttar Pradesh 75 199,812,341 2,664,165
27 Uttarakhand 13 10,086,292 593,311
28 West Bengal 23 91,276,115 3,042,537
29 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3 380,581 126,860
30 Chandigarh 1 1,055,450 1,055,450
31 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu 3 586,956 195,652
32 Jammu and Kashmir 20 12,258,093 612,905
33 Ladakh 2 290,492 72,623
34 Lakshadweep 1 64,473 64,473
35 Delhi 11 16,787,941 1,526,176
36 Puducherry 4 1,247,953 311,988
Total 786 1,210,576,856 1,501,956

Subdistricts

In some instances, tehsils (sub-districts) overlap with "blocks" (panchayat union blocks or community development blocks) and come under the land and revenue department, headed by tehsildar; and blocks come under the rural development department, headed by the block development officer and serve different government administrative functions over the same or similar geographical area.

Main article: List of subdistricts in India

This section is transcluded from List of subdistricts in India. (edit | history)

States use varying names for their sub-districts. Detailed information is as follows (as of 2018):[56]

State/ Union territory Subdistrict title No. of
subdistricts
Andhra Pradesh Mandal (circle) 679
Arunachal Pradesh Circle 149
Assam Subdivision 155
Bihar Subdivision 101
Chhattisgarh Tehsil 228
Goa Taluka 12
Gujarat Taluka 248[57]
Haryana Tehsil 67
Himachal Pradesh Tehsil 109
Jharkhand Subdivision 210
Karnataka Taluk 240
Kerala Taluk 78
Madhya Pradesh Tehsil 412
Maharashtra Taluka 353
Manipur Subdivision 38
Meghalaya Subdivision 39
Mizoram Subdivision 22
Nagaland Circle 93
Odisha Tehsil 485
Punjab Tehsil 172
Rajasthan Tehsil 268
Sikkim Subdivision 9
Tamil Nadu Taluk 215[58]
Telangana Mandal

(Circle)

74
Tripura Subdivision 38
Uttar Pradesh Tehsil 350
Uttarakhand Tehsil 113
West Bengal Subdivision 69
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Tehsil 7
Chandigarh Tehsil 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Tehsil 3
Delhi Tehsil 33
Jammu and Kashmir Tehsil 55
Ladakh Tehsil 4
Lakshadweep Subdivision 4
Puducherry Tehsil 8
Total 6057

Rural level

Main article: Panchayati raj

Blocks

Main article: Community development block

The Community Development Block also known as CD Block or just block, is often the next level of administrative division (for development purposes, whereas tehsil is next to the district for revenue purposes).

This section is transcluded from Community development block. (edit | history)

State CD Block Number of
CD Blocks
Andaman and Nicobar Islands CD Block 9[59]
Andhra Pradesh Mandal 685
Arunachal Pradesh Block or Circle 112[60]
Assam Block 219[61]
Bihar Block 342
Chandigarh Block 3
Chhattisgarh CD Block 342
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu CD Block 342
Delhi CD Block 342
Goa CD Block 342
Gujarat CD Block 342
Haryana Block 142
Himachal Pradesh CD Block 342
Jammu and Kashmir CD Block 342
Jharkhand Block 263
Karnataka CD Block 342
Kerala Block 152
Ladakh CD Block 342
Lakshadweep CD Block 342
Madhya Pradesh CD Block 342
Maharashtra CD Block 342
Manipur CD Block 342
Meghalaya CD Block 342
Mizoram CD Block 342
Nagaland CD Block 342
Odisha CD Block 314
Puducherry CD Block 342
Punjab CD Block 342
Rajasthan CD Block 342
Sikkim CD Block 342
Tamilnadu Taluk 220
Telangana Mandal 342
Tripura CD Block 58
Uttar Pradesh CD Block 822[62]
Uttarakhand CD Block 95
West Bengal CD Block 342[63][64]

Villages

Villages are often the lowest level of subdivisions in India. The governmental bodies at the village level are called Gram Panchayat, of which there were an estimated 256,000 in 2002. Each Gram Panchayat covers a large village or a cluster of smaller villages with a combined population exceeding 500 Gram Sabha. Clusters of villages are also sometimes called Hobli or Patti.

Habitations

Certain governmental functions and activities - including clean water availability, rural development, and education - are tracked at a sub-village level.[65] These hamlets are termed "habitations". India is composed of 1,714,556 habitations [66] In some states, most villages have a single habitation; in others (notably Kerala and Tripura) there is a high ratio of habitations to villages.[67]

Metropolitan area

Main article: Municipal governance in India

A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighbourhoods, townships, cities, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic, and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns, and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns.

The metropolitan cities of India are: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad & Ahmedabad.

Historical administrative divisions

See also

References

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