Government of India schemes
Wikimedia list article
Emblem of India
Keywords
Englishscheme, mission, campaign, programme, project, plan, subsidy
Hindiyojana, abhiyaan, karyakaram, pariyojana
Number of schemes
2022-2023
Central sector740[1]
Centrally sponsored65 (+7)
(core of core schemes = 6; core schemes = 43)[2]
There are thousands of state schemes[citation needed]

The Government of India has social welfare and social security schemes for India's citizens funded either by the central government, state government or concurrently. Schemes which are fully funded by the central government are referred to as "central sector schemes" (CS) while schemes mainly funded by the centre and implemented by the states are "centrally sponsored schemes" (CSS).[3] In the 2022 Union budget of India, there are 740 central sector (CS) schemes.[1][4] and 65 (+7+) centrally sponsored schemes (CSSs).[2]

From 131 CSSs in February 2021, the union government aimed to restructure/revamp/rationalise these by the next year.[5] In 2022 CSS's numbered 65 with a combined funding of 442,781 crore (US$58 billion).[6] In 2022, there were 157 CSs and CSSs with individual funding of over 500 crore (US$66 million) each.[7] Central sector scheme actual spending in 2017-18 was 587,785 crore (US$77 billion),[8] in 2019-20 it was 757,091 crore (US$99 billion) while the budgeted amount for 2021-22 is 1,051,703 crore (US$140 billion).[9] Schemes can also be categorised as flagship schemes.[10] 10 flagship schemes were allocated 1.5 lakh crore (US$20 billion) in the 2021 Union budget of India.[10] The subsidy for kerosene, started in the 1950s, was slowly decreased since 2009 and eliminated in 2022.[11][12][13]

Implementation of government schemes varies between schemes, location, and depends on factors such as evaluation process, awareness, accessibility, acceptability and capability for last mile implementation.[14] Government bodies undertaking evaluations and audits include NITI Aayog,[15] Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation,[16] and the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.[17]

List

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

Legend
Scheme[note 1] CS/CSS Lead Ministry Year of Launch Sector Summary
PM Poshan Shakti Nirman Abhiyaan
(PM-POSHAN, Prime Minister's Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment, (lit) PM Nutrition Power Building Scheme)
CSS MoWCD 2021[N] Health, Education Revamped version of 1995 Midday Meal Scheme (Madhyahan Bhojan Yojana) to provide free lunch to school-children. Financial outlay in 2022 was 10,233 crore (US$1.3 billion).[7] POSHAN Abhiyaan was launched in 2018.[19] Grouped under the umbrella scheme "Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0".[20] Expanded aims include reduce stunting, under-nutrition, anemia and low birth weight.[21]
Strengthening Teaching-Learning and Results for States
(STARS)
CSS MoE 2020 Education To improve school education in six states covering 10 million teachers. Financial support by World Bank.[22][23] This is a continuation of GOI-World Bank efforts since 1994 towards the same goal.[22] Implemented through Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan.[22]
Swamitva Yojana
(Survey of Villages Abadi and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Area)
CS MoPR 2020 Rural development To help in mapping of properties in villages with the help of drones. Aims in helping to reduce disputes over property. The portal will help in making it easier for villagers to avail bank loans.[24]
Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan
(Poor Welfare Employment Campaign)
CS 12 ministries 2020 Employment Employment campaign for the poor following coronavirus pandemic covering 12 ministries and 6 states. Launched on 20 June 2020 and ended on 22 October 2020.[25]
PM Matsya Sampada Yojana
(PMMSY, PM Fish Resources Scheme)
CSS MoFAHD 2020 Fisheries Nationwide welfare measures for farmers in the fisheries sector. For the period 2020-2024 estimated allocation of 20,050 crore (US$2.6 billion) for implementation.[26]
PM Kisan Samman Nidhi
(PM KISAN, PM Farmer's Tribute Fund)
CS MoF 2019 Agriculture Income support of 6,000 (US$79) per year to eligible farmers through Direct Benefit Transfer.[27]
Jal Jeevan Mission
(Water Life Mission)
CSS MoJS 2019[N] Rural development Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme began in 1972.[28] Restructured into National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) in 2009.[29][28] To provide water to each rural household through individual taps. Financial outlay in 2022 is 60,000 crore (US$7.9 billion).[7] Consists of 'Har Ghar Nal Se Jal' or 'Nal Se Jal Scheme'.[28][30] Also Har Ghar Jal.
Atal Bhujal Yojana
(Atal Jal, Atal Groundwater Scheme)
CS MoJS 2019 Water World Bank funded scheme (50:50) to improve ground water management with focus on Panchayats. Implementation in seven states between 2020-2025 with initial funding of 6,000 crore (US$790 million).[31]
PM Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Utthan Mahabhiyan
(PM KUSUM Scheme, PM Energy Security and Upliftment Campaign)
CS MoNRE 2019 Agriculture For the installation of solar pumps and other renewable power plants across the nation targeted towards farmers.[32] Towards Paris Agreement targets for renewable energy.[33]
PM Shram Yogi Mandhan
(PM SYM)
CS MoLE 2019 Financial security Social security to unorganized sector and through voluntary contribution and monthly pension after 60 through direct benefit transfer. Implemented by LIC and CSCs.
PM Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan
(PM AASHA, Farmer Income Protection Scheme)
CS MoAFW 2018 Agriculture For farmer welfare through creating a profitable ecosystem for selected products. Consists of sub-schemes such as Price Support Scheme (PSS) and Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS).[34]
Ayushman Bharat Yojana
(AB PM-JAY, Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, People's Health Scheme)
CSS MoHFW 2018 Health Ayushman Bharat National Health Protection Scheme (AB-NHPS) aims to provide free access to healthcare for 50 crore people in the country.[35] Implemented across India expect 3 states/UTs.[36] By July 2021 Ayushman cards issued numbered 16.14 crore.[36] By March 2022 hospitalisations under the scheme had crossed 30 million with a valuation of 35,000 crore (US$4.6 billion).[37]
Samagra Shiksha
(National Education Mission)
CSS MoE 2018 Education To improve overall effectiveness of schools from pre-nursery to class 12 and other measures.[38] In 2022 it financial outlay allocated 37,383 crore (US$4.9 billion).[7] Subsumes Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and others. World Bank supported.[22]
PM Jan Vikas Karyakaram
(PMJVK, PM People Progress Programme)
CSS MoMA 2018[N] Development Started in 2008 as Multi-sectoral Development Programme (MSDP).[39] Development of minority concentration areas.[39]
Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan
(RGSA, National Village Swaraj Campaign)
CSS MoPR 2018 Rural development To strengthen Panchayati Raj institutions and support them towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals.[40]
World Class Institutions Scheme CS MoE 2017 Education To enable 10 private and public institutions to attain world class academic and research facilities. Aim is to create Institutes of Eminence.[41]
Khelo India – National Programme for Development of Sports CS MoYAS 2017 Sports Sporting infrastructure, sponsorship, excellence. Competitions such as Khelo India University Games and Winter Games. General fitness of the population.
Krishonnati Yojana CSS MoAFW 2017 Agriculture Umbrella scheme subsuming 11 schemes.[42]
PM Matritva Vandana Yojana
(PM Maternity Support Scheme)
MoWCD 2017[N] Mother Care Launched as the Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana in 2010. Renamed in 2017. A cash incentive of not less than 6,000 (US$79) to pregnant/lactating women.[43][44]
PM Ujjwala Yojana
(PM Lighting Scheme)
CSS MoP&NG 2016 Energy, Health, Poverty Launched to provide free LPG connections to women from below poverty line families.[45] While the scheme mainly addresses distribution of cylinders, their usage has been in question.[46][47]
PM Fasal Bima Yojana
(PM Crop Insurance Scheme)
CS Multiple 2016 Agriculture Insurance and finance scheme for farmers.[48]
Standup India CS MoF, MoSJE 2016 Entrepreneurship Loans for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women entrepreneurs for greenfield enterprises. Loans can be applied online.[49] By July 2021, 1.16 lakh loans disbursed amounting to 26,204 crore (US$3.4 billion).[50] By 2022, 81% of loan beneficiaries are women.[51]
National Hydrology Project CS MoJS 2016 Water Multi-pronged project to improve hydrology related practices. World Bank supported.[52][53] Australian Water Partnership (AWP) provides technical assistance. The Hydrology Project started in 1995 and was expanded through the National Hydrology Project in 2016.[54]
PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana
(PMKSY, PM Agriculture Irrigation Scheme)
CSS Multiple 2015 Agriculture Multi-pronged scheme focusing on improving agricultural productivity through irrigation support and better practices. In 2022 financial outlay is 10,954 crore (US$1.4 billion).[7] Part of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna.
PM Mudra Yojana
(PM Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Scheme)
CS MoF 2015 Financing MUDRA is a financial institution for funding small businesses.[55] 34,42,00,000 beneficiaries have received 18.6 lakh crore (US$240 billion).[56] New entrepreneurs consist 22% of the beneficiaries.[57]
Smart Cities Mission CSS MoHUA 2015 Urban Redevelopment, retrofitting, greenfield development of 100 cities.[58][59] Large diversity in success of implementation.[60]
Digital India CS MeitY, MoF 2015 IT It aims to ensure that government services are available to citizens electronically and people get benefits from the latest information and communication technology.[61] Has expanded into production linked incentives, promotion of electronics manufacturing, R&D and improvement of the National Knowledge Network and electronic governance.[7]
Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric (& Hybrid) Vehicles in India Scheme
(FAME India Scheme)
CS MoHI 2015 Transport, Fuel security Part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020.[62]
PM Awas Yojana - (Gramin)
(PMAY-G, PM Housing Scheme Rural)
CSS MoRD 2015[N] Housing, Rural Original form 1985.[63] Provides financial assistance to rural poor for constructing their houses themselves. This generates income and employment as well.[64] Sample housing designs have been proposed through UNDP, MoRD and IIT, Delhi collaboration.[65][66]
PM Awaas Yojana - (Urban)
(PMAY-R, PM Housing Scheme Urban)
CSS MoHUA 2015[N] Housing, Urban To enable better living and drive economic growth stressing on the need for people centric urban planning and development. It envisages a "Slum Free India" in which every citizen has access to basic civic infrastructure and social amenities.[67] By March 2024, 56,20,000 units had been delivered to beneficiaries.[68]
Atal Pension Yojana
(Atal Pension Scheme)
CS MoF 2015[N] Pension Original form in 2010 as the Swavalamban Yojana.[69]

A pension program that allows people to make voluntary contributions within a certain range with a matching government contribution to receive pension in the future. By September 2021, non-metros subscribers numbered 3,77,00,000.[70]

PM Suraksha Bima Yojana
(PMSBY, PM Safety Insurance Scheme)
CS MoF 2015 Insurance This accident insurance scheme is for individuals and can be renewed every year. By May 2021, over 80,000 claims valuing 1,629 crore (US$210 million) registered.[71]
PM Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
(PMJJBY, (lit) PM Life Light Insurance Scheme)
CS MoF 2015 Insurance This life insurance scheme for individuals can be renewed every year.[72]
Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All
(UJALA)
CS MoP 2015 Electrification Replaced the "Bachat Lamp Yojana". Reduces the cost of energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps. By the end of 2021, 36,78,00,000 LEDs were distributed resulting in energy savings and reduction in emissions.[73]
PM Kaushal Vikas Yojna
(PM Skill Development Scheme)
CS MoSD&E 2015 Skill development initiative schemes To provide encouragement to youth for development of employable skills by providing monetary rewards by recognition of prior learning or by undergoing certification training at affiliated centres.[74][75]
Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
(HRIDAY)
CSS MoUD 2015 Urban Development The scheme seeks to preserve and rejuvenate the rich cultural heritage of the country.[76]
Sukanya Samridhi Yojana
(Girl Child Prosperity Scheme)
MoWCD 2015 Girl child The scheme under Beti Bachao Beti Padhao primarily ensures equitable share to a girl child in resources and savings of a family in which she is generally discriminated as against a male child.[77]
PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana
(PM Skill Development Scheme)
CS MoSD&E 2015 Skill Development Seeks to provide the institutional capacity to train people in hirable skills. It had a 20% placement rate in 2021.[78]
PM Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra
(PM Indian Public Medicine Scheme, PMBJK)
MoCF 2015 Generic Medicine The scheme launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. Of India, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses.[79][80]
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana CSS MoRD 2015[N] Skill Development Started as Aajeevika - National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) in 2011.[81] Self-employment programme to raise the income-generation capacity of target groups among the poor. The scheme has been merged with another scheme named Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY).
National Career Service
(NCS)
MoLE 2015 Employment The objective of this project is to help job-seekers land up at the job they deserve.

Under this scheme, an online job-portal named as National Career Service portal has been launched which acts as a common platform for job-seekers, employers, skill providers, government departments, placement organisations and counsellors.[82][83]

Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana CS MoP 2015 Rural Electrification Programme for creation of rural electricity infrastructure and household electrification for providing access to electricity to rural households.[84] Initially Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana launched 2005.
Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
(AMRUT)
CSS MoUD 2015[N] Urban Preceded by Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission started in 2005. Water based project to cover urban water ecosystem including taps, conservation and reducing flooding.[85]
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
(Clean India Mission)
CSS MoDWS, MoHUA 2014 Sanitation, Behaviour Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) launched in 1986. In 1999 it became the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC).[86] Multiple objectives including elimination of open defecation, addressing manual scavenging, and good sanitation and waste related practices.[86]
PM Jan Dhan Yojana
(PM's People's Wealth Scheme)
CS MoF 2014[N] Financial inclusion National Mission for Financial Inclusion to ensure access to financial services. Replaced 2011 Swabhiman. The scheme resulted in 36.86 crore new in-use bank accounts by mid-2021.[87][88]
Deendayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
(DDU-GKY, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Rural Skills Schemes)
MRD 2014 Skill Development A scheme to engage rural youth, especially BPL and SC/ST segments of the population, in gainful employment through skill training programmes[89]
Namami Gange Programme CS MoWR 2014[N] Clean and protect River Ganga National Ganga Plan was launched in 1985. Integrates the efforts to clean and protect River Ganga in a comprehensive manner.[90]
Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Boys
(Saksham)
CS MoWCD 2014 Skill Development Aims at all-round development of adolescent boys and make them self-reliant, gender-sensitive and aware citizens, when they grow up. It covers all adolescent boys (both school going and out of school) in the age-group of 11 to 18 years.[91]
Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
(SAGY, Saanjhi, Member of Parliament Model Village Scheme)
MoRD 2014 Development, Rural To develop model villages.[92][93] 223 CS/ CSS and 1,806 state schemes converge under SAGY.[94] By 2016, members of parliament adopted 703 Gram Panchayats.[95]
Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan
(National Higher Education Mission)
CSS MoE 2013 Education Improving the quality of higher education in India.[96]
One Stop Crisis Centre
(Sakhi)
MoWCD 2013 Women Centre to provide multiple form of aid and shelter to women who have face violence.[97] By 2018, 234 centres had been set up.[98] By 2021 there were 700 centres with plans to set up centres in foreign countries.[99] Some centres lack required facilities.[100][101]
Direct Benefit Transfer
(DBT)
2013 Finance State level electronic benefit transfer and Direct Cash Tran­sfer piloted before.[102][103][104] Under the Cabinet Secretariat and Ministry of Finance.[105] By 2022, over 300 schemes and 50 ministries are implemented using DBT.[105][106]
Scheme for Adolescent Girls
(SAG, Adolescent Girls (AG) Scheme)
CSS MoWCD 2011[N] Skill Development Formed in 2010 by combining Kishori Shakti Yojana and Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG) schemes into the Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) or Sabla.[107] Implemented with Umbrella Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme,[108] and then placed under Saksham Anganwadi & Mission Poshan 2.0.[109] Empowering adolescent girls aged 11–18 years with focus on out-of-school girls by improvement in their nutritional and health status and upgrading various skills like home skills, life skills and vocational skills.[110]
PM Adarsh Gram Yojana
(PM Model Village Scheme)
MoRD 2010 Model Village Integrated development of Schedule Caste majority villages.[111]
Promotion of University Research and Scientific Excellence
(PURSE)
CS MoST 2009 Infrastructure To improve infrastructure towards excellence in science and research. Universities to have benefitted include Cochin University of Science and Technology,[112] Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam,[113] Kashmir university,[114] Jammu University,[115] Punjab University,[116] University of Delhi,[117] Jadavpur University[118] and Amity University, Rajasthan.[119]
Clean Energy Research Initiative
(CERI)
CS MoST 2009 Improving research capacity with regard to clean energy.[120]
Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research Programme
(INSPIRE Programme)
CS MoST 2008 Science Scholarships and internships for top science students, fellowships for pursuing PhD, research grants to researchers.[121]
Cognitive Science Research Initiative
(CSRI)
CS MoST 2008 Science, Health To work towards scientific quality of life improvements for those with cognitive disorders.
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
(RSBY, National Health Insurance Programme)
CSS MoHFW 2008 Insurance Health insurance to poor (BPL), domestic workers, MGNERGA workers, rikshaw-pullers, building and other construction workers, and many other categories as may be identified by the respective states.[122]
National Action Plan for Climate Change
(NAPCC)
CCP MoST 2008 Climate Improving science and technology capabilities with regard to climate change.[123]
PM's Employment Generation Programme
(PMEGP)
CS MoMSME 2008 MSME, employment Aimed at providing employment and self-employment to unemployed.[124][125] Implemented by Khadi and Village Industries Commission as nodal agency.[126]
Gramin Bhandaran Yojana
(Rural Godown Scheme)
MoA 2007 Agriculture Now subsumed under Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure (AMI).[127] Creation of scientific storage capacity with allied facilities in rural areas to meet the requirements of farmers for storing farm produce, processed farm produce and agricultural inputs. Improve their marketability through promotion of grading, standardisation and quality control of agricultural produce.[128]
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
(RKVY, National Agriculture Development Programme)
CSS MoA 2007 Agriculture Allocation in 2022-23 crossed 10,400 crore (US$1.4 billion).[129] Includes Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna (Per Drop More Crop) and agricultural mechanization.[7]
National Mission on Nano Science and Technology CS MoST 2007 Science "Umbrella capacity-building programme" targeted towards Nano Science and Technology.[130]
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(MG-NREGA)
CSS MoRD 2006 Rural Wage Employment Legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of Rs. 120 per day in 2009 prices.[131][132]
Pooled Finance Development Fund Scheme
(PFDF)
MoUD 2006 Urban Infrastructure Development The scheme enables Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) including small and medium-sized municipalities to raise credit from the market on a sustainable basis to meet their investment needs. PFDF will provide credit enhancement to ULBs to access market borrowings based on their credit worthiness through state level pooled mechanism.[133][134][135]
National Creche Scheme CSS MoWCD 2006 Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche Scheme for Working Mothers[136][137]
Janani Suraksha Yojana
(Maternity Safety Scheme)
CSS MoHFW 2005 Mother Care One-time cash incentive to poor pregnant women and Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) for institutional/home births through skilled assistance to reduce child-mother mortality.[138]
National Health Mission CSS MoHFW 2005[N] Health To improve India's health sector. Financial outlay in 2022 was 28,859 crore (US$3.8 billion). Includes a number of (subsumed) programes such as National Mental Health Programme (1982), National Blindness Control Programme (1976) and National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (2003).[7]
Livestock Insurance Scheme CSS MoA 2005 Agriculture Initiated as a pilot in 2005 and scaled up to all districts by 2014. Insurance to cattle and attaining qualitative improvement in livestock and their products.[139]
Special Accelerated Road Development Programme
(SARDP-NE)
CS MoRTH 2005 Transport To improve road connectivity in Northeast India.[140]
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya
(Kasturba Gandhi Girls School)
CSS MoHRD 2004 Education Educational facilities (residential schools) for girls belonging to SC, ST, OBC, minority communities and families below the poverty line (BPL) in educationally backward blocks.
National Pension System MoF 2004 Pension Contribution-based pension system. For government employees in 2004 and the general public in 2009.
Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme CS MoSJE 2003[N] Social Justice Original form was the 1999 scheme to Promote Voluntary Action for Persons with Disabilities, with the aim of implementing Persons With Disabilities Act, 1995. DDRS to create an enabling environment to ensure equal opportunities, equity, social justice and empowerment of persons with disabilities.[141][142]
PM Swasthya Suraksha Yojana
(PMSSY, PM Health Protection Scheme)
CS MoHFW 2003 Health Improving distribution and accessibility of health services. New AIIMS will be constructed under the scheme.[143]
Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana
(Universal Rural Employment Scheme)
MoRD 2001 Rural Self Employment Providing additional wage employment and food security, alongside creation of durable community assets in rural areas.
Swadhar Greh Scheme

(Swadhar, Self-reliance Home Scheme)

CSS MoWCD 2001 Female welfare For women in tough circumstances.[144][97]
PM Gram Sadak Yojana
(PMGSY, PM Village Road Scheme)
CSS MoRD 2000 Rural Development Good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages. World Bank supported.[145]
Antyodaya Anna Yojana
(AAY, Antyodaya Food Scheme)
MoCAFPD 2000 Hunger Under the scheme, 1 crore of the poorest among the poor (BPL, below poverty line) families covered under the targeted public distribution system are identified. Issue of ration cards following the recognition of Antyodaya families; unique quota cards to be recognised and "Antyodaya Ration Card" must be given to the Antyodaya families. The scheme has been further expanded twice by additional 50 lakh BPL families each in June 2003 and in August 2004, thus covering 2 crore families under the AAY scheme.[146]
Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana
(Young Scientist Incentive Plan)
CS MoST 1999 Science National fellowship and scholarship programme to encourage students to take up research careers in the areas of basic sciences, engineering and medicine. Exam administered by the Indian Institute of Science.[147][148]
National Social Assistance Programme CSS MoRD 1995 Pension Financial assistance to pensioners, widows and other target categories.[149][150]
Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme
(MPLADS)
CS MoSPI 1993 Development Each MP has the choice to suggest to the District Collector for works to the tune of Rs 5 crores per annum to be taken up in their constituency. The Rajya Sabha Member of Parliament can recommend works in one or more districts in the State from where he/she has been elected.
National Scheme on Welfare of Fishermen CSS MoA 1992 Agriculture Financial assistance to fishermen for construction of house, community hall for recreation and common working place and installation of tube-wells for drinking water.
National Social Assistance Scheme CSS MoRD 1995 Pension Public assistance to its citizens in the case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want.
Eklavya Model Residential School
(EMRS)
CS MoTA 1997 Education Setting up of new Eklavya Model Residential Schools and improving existing ones. Improvement of enrollment.
National Tuberculosis Elimination Program
(NTEP)
CSS MoHFW 1997 Health Tuberculosis control initiative.
Voluntary Disclosure of Income Scheme MoF 1997 Opportunity to the income tax/ wealth tax defaulters to disclose their undisclosed income at the prevailing tax rates.
Infrastructure Facilities for Judiciary CSS MoLJ 1993 Infrastructure This includes residential facilities, digital facilities, Gram Nyayalayas.[151]
National Child Labour Projects
(NCLP)
MoLE 1987 Child labour Launched in 9 districts in 1987 and has been expanded in 2005 to 250 districts in 21 different states. The objective of this project is to eliminate child labour in hazardous industries by 2010.

Under this scheme, the target group is all children below 14 years of age who are working in occupations and processes listed in the Schedule to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986.

Interlinking of Rivers Project
(ILR, NPP, National Perspective Plan)
CSS MoJS 1980 Water Development of water resources.[152]
Urea subsidy CS MoCF 1977 Subsidy The first urea subsidy scheme was in 1977 in the form of Retention Price cum Subsidy scheme (RPS). From 4,389 crore (US$2.51 billion) in 1990 to 75,849 crore (US$17.43 billion) in 2008. As %ofGDP this is an increase from 0.8% to 1.5%. In 2022-23 financial outlay is 63,222 crore (US$8.3 billion).[153][154]
Integrated Child Development Services CSS MoWCD 1975 Child, Mother care The scheme aims to tackle malnutrition and health problems in children below 6 years of age and their mothers by providing cash incentives conditional upon registration at Anganwadi centres and vaccination of newborn children.[97]
Food subsidy CS MoCAFPD 1972 Subsidy In 1972 the total food subsidy was 117 crore (US$154.84 million). In 1980 it was 662 crore (US$840.1 million) and 5,250 crore (US$1.62 billion) in 1995.[155] In 2022 financial outlay was 2.06 lakh crore (US$27 billion). Allocation in 2020-21 had reached 5.41 lakh crore (US$71 billion), an all-time peak.[156][157]
National Service Scheme CS MoYAS 1969 Public service Personality development through social (or community) service.
Kerosene subsidy CS 1956 Subsidy Eliminated in 2021.[13]
Notes
  1. ^ Can be labelled as a scheme (Yojana), mission, campaign (Abhiyaan), programme (Karyakaram), project or plan. There is no textbook clarity on the differentiation between the labels including hierarchy.[18]

Evaluations

The Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO) under the NITI Aayog is responsible for evaluations.[15] Evaluation problems exist.[15] Ministries such as the transport ministry can show immediate physical outcomes of its schemes whereas in health related schemes, in certain cases, there is no output to show for.[15] Surveys trying to ascertain whether someone has benefitted from a scheme or not can result in someone denying being benefitted with the hope of receiving the benefit again.[16] This kind of respondent bias in its various form is being addressed by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.[16] The Comptroller and Auditor General of India also assesses the implementation of these schemes.[17]

Effectiveness

A number of schemes of successive governments are effective, while others are not effective.[158][159][160][161][162] Despite various schemes and programmes targeted towards hunger, nutrition remains a severe challenge.[163] The Supreme Court has advised the government to keep finances in mind when coming out with schemes.[164] An example given was the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009, a shortage of both schools and teachers.[164] Since their inception, flagship welfare schemes of the Modi government such as Namami Gange and Ayushman Bharat have been sanctioned more than what has been spent.[165] A key issue is identifying who to transfer scheme benefits to and how.[166] In 2017 Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) called Beti Bachao Beti Padhao a failure as per its own objectives.[167]

Awareness

The government runs various initiatives to increase awareness of government schemes.[168][169][170][171] Awareness of schemes affects the implementation of the schemes as well as who beneficiaries vote for and who they hold responsible for the success or failure of a scheme - the state or center.[172][173] In 2021-2022 the Government of Goa launched a scheme Swayampurna Goa which involves a government official making eligible beneficiaries aware of the schemes and how to avail them.[174][175] Nearly 80% of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao funds during 2016-2019 was spent on media advocacy.[176]

Political credit and blame

There is no official or legalised credit-sharing mechanism between the center and states for the schemes.[173]

In 2014 Congress blamed the Modi government for taking credit for schemes undertaken by previous governments.[177][178] In 2017 Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) blamed Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) for taking credit.[179] The Himachal Pradesh government blamed NITI Aayog for a cut in funding to centrally sponsored schemes.[180] In 2019 Mamata Banerjee blamed Modi for taking credit for Ayushman Bharat.[181] In 2020 Modi blamed Aam Aadmi Party for not implementing a centrally sponsored sector scheme.[182] In 2021 Smriti Irani blamed Mamata Banerjee for taking credit of schemes of the central government.[183] BJP blamed Jharkhand Mukti Morcha for not implementing schemes properly.[184]

Welfare schemes are used as electoral campaigns, beneficiaries as voters.[185] Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has used its implementation of schemes as a vote bank in the 2017 and 2022 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly elections, and the 2019 Indian general election.[185]

Rationalisation

Rationalisation is a means to improve governance of schemes.[186] In 2002 there were about 360 CSSs.[187] In 2022 there were 704 CSs.[4] In 2016 a committee came out with the recommendation of rationalising, revamping and restructuring 66 CSSs, grouping them into umbrella schemes, core schemes and optional schemes on the basis of which identification would be easier and funding patterns would differ, among other recommendations.[188][189]

In the case of a mission, or a scheme or programme becoming a mission or being coupled under a mission, it can mean a signal of prioritization with regard to implementation and funding.[18] Similar schemes can be merged into each other and revamped.[6] A mission can be merged into a new scheme.

State list

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

Karnataka

Madhya Pradesh

Maharashtra

Telangana

Odisha

Andhra Pradesh

Tamil Nadu

West Bengal

Uttar Pradesh

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Central Sector Schemes" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 March 2022.
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Further reading