Sanitation facilities coverage worldwide from 2000 to 2015 (the orange line is the data for open defecation).[1]

Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside ("in the open") rather than into a toilet. People may choose fields, bushes, forests, ditches, streets, canals, or other open spaces for defecation. They do so either because they do not have a toilet readily accessible or due to traditional cultural practices.[2] The practice is common where sanitation infrastructure and services are not available. Even if toilets are available, behavior change efforts may still be needed to promote the use of toilets. 'Open defecation free' (ODF) is a term used to describe communities that have shifted to using toilets instead of open defecation. This can happen, for example, after community-led total sanitation programs have been implemented.

Open defecation can pollute the environment and cause health problems and diseases. High levels of open defecation are linked to high child mortality, poor nutrition, poverty, and large disparities between rich and poor.[3]: 11  Ending open defecation is an indicator being used to measure progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6. Extreme poverty and lack of sanitation are statistically linked. Therefore, eliminating open defecation is thought to be an important part of the effort to eliminate poverty.[4]

As of 2019 an estimated 673 million people practice open defecation,[5]: 74  down from about 892 million people (12 percent of the global population) in 2016.[6] In that year, 76 percent (678 million) of the people practicing open defecation in the world lived in just seven countries.[6]


In ancient times, there were more open spaces and less population pressure on land. It was believed that defecating in the open causes little harm when done in areas with low population, forests, or camping-type situations. With development and urbanization, open defecating started becoming a challenge and thereby an important public health issue, and an issue of human dignity.[7] With the increase in population in smaller areas, such as cities and towns, more attention was given to hygiene and health. As a result, there was an increase in global attention towards reducing the practice of open defecation.[8]

Open defecation perpetuates the vicious cycle of disease and poverty and is widely regarded as an affront to personal dignity.[3] The countries where open defecation is most widely practiced have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of undernutrition, high levels of poverty, and large disparities between people of means and the poor.[3]


The term "open defecation" became widely used in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector from about 2008 onwards. This was due to the publications by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) and the UN International Year of Sanitation. The JMP is a joint program by WHO and UNICEF that was earlier tasked to monitor the water and sanitation targets of the Millennium development goals (MDGs); it is now tasked to monitor Sustainable Development Goal Number 6.

For monitoring of the MDG Number 7, two categories were created: 1) improved sanitation and (2) unimproved sanitation. Open defecation falls into the category of unimproved sanitation. This means that people who practice open defecation do not have access to improved sanitation.

In 2013 World Toilet Day was celebrated as an official UN day for the first time. The term "open defecation" was used in high-level speeches, that helped to draw global attention to this issue (for example, in the "call to action" on sanitation issued by the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in March 2013).[9]

Open defecation free

"Open defecation free" (ODF) is a phrase first used in community-led total sanitation (CLTS) programs. ODF has now entered use in other contexts. The original meaning of ODF stated that all community members are using sanitation facilities (such as toilets) instead of going to the open for defecation. This definition was improved and more criteria were added in some countries that have adopted the CLTS approach in their programs to stop the practice of open defecation.[10]

The Indian Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation in mid-2015 defined ODF as "the termination of fecal-oral transmission, defined by:

  1. No visible feces found in the environment or village and
  2. Every household as well as public/community institutions using safe technology option for disposal of feces".[11]

Here, a "safe technology option" means a toilet that contains feces so that there is no contamination of surface soil, groundwater or surface water; flies or animals do not come in contact with the open feces; no one handles excreta; there is no smell and there are no visible feces around in the environment.[12] This definition is part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Campaign).


The reasons for open defecation are varied. It can be a voluntary, semi-voluntary or involuntary choice. Most of the time, a lack of access to a toilet is the reason. However, in some places even people with toilets in their houses prefer to defecate in the open.[10]

A few broad factors that result in the practice of open defecation are listed below.

No toilet

Uncomfortable or unsafe toilet

A pit latrine with failing superstructure in Zambia.

Unrelated to toilet infrastructure

Public defecation for other reasons

In developed countries, open defecation can be due to homelessness. Open defecation in developed areas is also considered to be a part of recreational outdoor activities such as camping in remote areas. It is difficult to estimate how many people practice open defecation in these communities.

Prevalence and trends

Share of people practicing open defecation in 2015[27] The prevalence of open defecation in India has been reduced since then according to government data.

Countries with high numbers

The practice of open defecation is strongly related to poverty and exclusion particularly, in the case of rural areas and informal urban settlements in developing countries. The Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) of UNICEF and WHO has been collecting data regarding open defecation prevalence worldwide. The figures are segregated by rural and urban areas and by levels of poverty. This program is tasked to monitor progress towards the millennium development goal (MDG) relating to drinking water and sanitation. As open defecation is one example of unimproved sanitation, it is being monitored by JMP for each country, and results are published on a regular basis.[28][6] The figures on open defecation used to be lumped together with other figures on unimproved sanitation but are collected separately since 2010.

The current estimate is that around 673 million people practice open defecation.[5]: 74 

The number of people practicing open defecation fell from 20 percent in 2000 to 12 percent in 2015.[6]: 34  In 2016, the estimate was for 892 million people with no sanitation facility whatsoever and therefore practicing open defecation (in gutters, behind bushes, in open water bodies, etc.). Most people (9 of 10) who practice open defecation live in rural areas, but the vast majority lives in two regions (Central Africa and South Asia).[6] In 2016, seventy-six percent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world lived in just seven countries.[6]

Some countries with large numbers of people who openly defecate are listed in the table below.

People practicing open defecation by country – in alphabetical order (use up and down arrows to order by numbers).
Country Total population Percentage and Number of people who defecate in the open Other estimates (based on government-provided data or other sources)
Afghanistan 38,346,720 11-14% or 4.2 million (2021)[29]
Cambodia 16,949,415 17% or 2.8 million (2021)[30]
Chad 16,244,513 69% or 11 million (2018)[31]
China 1,411,778,724 1% or ~13 million (2018)
Eritrea 5,228,000 76% or 4 million (2017)
Ethiopia 117,876,227 18% or 20.1 million (2020)[32]
India 1,352,642,280 1.4% or 19 million

The National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey of India reported that 96.5% of rural households in India had toilets. The Indian government's own estimate in January 2019 was 1.4% or 19 million.[33]

Indonesia 270,203,917 9% or 25 million (2020)[citation needed][34]
Nepal 28,095,714 10% or 2.8 million (2019)[35]
Niger 24,112,753 68% or 14 million (2017)
Nigeria 211,400,708 24% or 48 million (2021)[36]
Pakistan 225,199,937 7% or 15 million (2020)[37]
Philippines 106,651,394 4% or 4 million (2020)[38]
South Sudan 12,778,250 63% or 6 million (2019)
Sudan 44,909,353 27% or 11 million (2017)
Somalia 17,066,000 37% or 6.3 million (2017) [39]
Vietnam 96,208,984 4% or 3.7 million (2017)
Yemen 34,277,612 9.7% or 3.3 million[40]


Further information: Swachh Bharat Mission

Open defecation has been an issue in India. A report published by WaterAid stated that India had the highest number of people without access to basic sanitation despite efforts made by the Government of India under the Swachh Bharat Mission.[41][42] About 522 million people practiced open defecation in India in 2014, despite having access to a toilet.[43][44] Many factors contributed to this, ranging from poverty to government corruption.[45]

Since then, through Swachh Bharat, a two-phase program managed by the Indian government, India has constructed around 100 million additional household toilets which would benefit 500 million people in India according to the statistics provided by Indian government (Phase 1: 2014–2019, Phase 2: 2020 to 2025).[46] A campaign to build toilets in urban and rural areas achieved a significant reduction in open defecation between 2014 and 2019. In September 2019, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awarded Indian leader Narendra Modi for his efforts in improving sanitation in the country.[47] According to UNICEF The number of people without a toilet reduced from 550 million to 50 million.[48][49] There have also been reports of people not using the toilets despite having one, although according to the World Bank, 96% of Indians used the toilets they had.[50][51] In October 2019, Modi declared India to be "open defecation free", though this announcement was met with skepticism by experts who cited slowly changing behaviors, maintenance issues, and water access issues as obstacles that continued to block India's goal of being 100% open defecation free.[52][53]

Although open defecation still continues, it has been reduced by a large amount. With the success of the Swachh Bharat Mission, Modi has to launch Phase 2 from 2020 to 2025.[54] During phase 2 the government will focus on segregation of waste and further eliminating open defecation in the country.[55]


In 2017, WaterAid report revealed that 79 million people in Pakistan lacked access to a decent toilet in the country.[56][57] In 2018, 10% or 22 million people in Pakistan practiced open defecation according to the figures provided by the UNICEF.[58][59] According to the latest UNICEF report as of 2020, 7% or 15 million people in Pakistan practice open defecation.[37]

United States

In San Francisco (United States), open defecation complaints for street feces increased fivefold from 2011 to 2018, with 28,084 cases reported. This was mainly due to the rising amount of homelessness in the city.[60] Similar problems were reported in Los Angeles[61] and Miami.[62]

The Mad Pooper was the name given to an unidentified woman who regularly defecated in public places while jogging during summer 2017 in the U.S. city of Colorado Springs.[63]


A dirty pit latrine in Mongolia leading people to choose open defecation instead

Public health

Further information: WASH § Health aspects

The negative public health impacts of open defecation are the same as those described when there is no access to sanitation at all. Open defecation—and lack of sanitation and hygiene in general—is an important factor that cause various diseases; the most common being diarrhea and intestinal worm infections but also typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, polio, trachoma, and others.[64][65]

Adverse health effects of open defecation occur because open defecation results in fecal contamination of the local environment. Consequently, open defecators are repeatedly exposed to many kinds of fecal bacteria like gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and other fecal pathogens, and this is particularly serious for young children whose immune systems and brains are not yet fully developed.[26]

Certain diseases are grouped together under the name of waterborne diseases, which are diseases transmitted via fecal pathogens in water. Open defecation can lead to water pollution when rain flushes feces that are dispersed in the environment into surface water or unprotected wells.

Open defecation was found by the WHO in 2014 to be a leading cause of diarrheal death. In 2013, about 2,000 children under the age of five died every day from diarrhea.[66]

Young children are particularly vulnerable to ingesting feces of other people that are lying around after open defecation, because young children crawl on the ground, walk barefoot, and put things in their mouths without washing their hands. Feces of farm animals are equally a cause of concern when children are playing in the yard.

Those countries where open defecation is most widely practiced have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of malnourishment (leading to stunted growth in children), high levels of poverty, and large disparities between rich and poor.[3]

Research from India has shown that detrimental health impacts (particularly for early life health) are even more significant from open defecation when the population density is high: "The same amount of open defecation is twice as bad in a place with a high population density average like India versus a low population density average like sub-Saharan Africa."[67]

Open defecation is also badly affecting the health of children and their life quality as it creates health and psychological issues.[68]

Safety of women

There are strong gender impacts connected with a lack of adequate sanitation. In addition to the universal problems associated with open defecation, having to urinate in the open can also be problematic for females. The lack of safe, private toilets makes women and girls vulnerable to violence and is an impediment to girls' education.[69] Women are at risk of sexual molestation and rape as they search for places to urinate or defecate that are secluded and private, often during hours of darkness.[70][69]

Lack of privacy has an especially large effect on the safety and sense of dignity of women and girls in developing countries. They face the shame of having to urinate or defecate in public so often wait until nightfall to relieve themselves. They risk being attacked after dark, though it means painfully holding their bladder and bowels all day.[71][72] Women in developing countries increasingly express fear of assault or rape when having to leave the house after dark. Reports of attacks or harassment near or in toilet facilities, as well as near or in areas where women urinate or defecate openly, are common.[71][72]


The following joint strategies can enable communities, both rural and peri-urban, to become completely open defecation free and remain so: Sanitation marketing, behavior change communication, and 'enhanced' community-led total sanitation ('CLTS + ’), supplemented by 'nudging'.[26]

There are several drivers used to eradicate open defecation, one of which is behavior change. SaniFOAM (Focus on Opportunity, Ability, and Motivation) is a conceptual framework that was developed specifically to address issues of sanitation and hygiene. Using focus, opportunity, ability and motivation as categories of determinants, SaniFOAM model identifies barriers to latrine adoption while simultaneously serving as a tool for designing, monitoring and evaluating sanitation interventions.[73][74] The following are some of the key drivers used to fight against open defecation in addition to behavior change:[4]

Integrated initiatives

Efforts to reduce open defecation are more or less the same as those to achieve the MDG target on access to sanitation.[75] A key aspect is awareness-raising (for example via the UN World Toilet Day at a global level), behavior change campaigns, increasing political will as well as demand for sanitation. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) campaigns have placed a particular focus on ending open defecation by "triggering" the communities themselves into action.[76]

Simple sanitation technology options

Residents in Mymensingh, Bangladesh participate in a workshop to discover more about mobile sanitation options (MoSan) as an alternative to open defecation

There are some simple sanitation technology options available to reduce open defecation prevalence if the open defecation behavior is due to not having toilets in the household and shared toilets being too far or too dangerous to reach, e.g., at night.

Toilet bags

People might already use plastic bags (also called flying toilets) at night to contain their feces. However, a more advanced solution of the plastic toilet bag has been provided by the Swedish company People who are producing the "Peepoo bag", a "personal, single-use, self-sanitizing, fully biodegradable toilet that prevents feces from contaminating the immediate area as well as the surrounding ecosystem".[77] This bag is now being used in humanitarian responses, schools, and urban slums in developing countries.[78][79]

Bucket toilets and urine diversion

Bucket toilets are a simple portable toilet option. They can be upgraded in various ways, one of them being urine diversion which can make them similar to urine-diverting dry toilets. Urine diversion can significantly reduce odors from dry toilets. Examples of using this type of toilet to reduce open defecation are the "MoSan"[80] toilet (used in Kenya) or the urine-diverting dry toilet promoted by SOIL[81] in Haiti.

Society and culture


The mainstream media in some affected countries have recently been picking up on this issue of open defecation, for example, in India[82][83] and Pakistan.[84][85][86]

Legal status

In certain jurisdictions, open or public defecation is a criminal offense which can be punished with a fine or even imprisonment.[87][88][89]

In popular culture

David Sedaris' essay "Adventures at Poo Corner" dealt with people who openly defecate in commercial businesses.[90]

Open defecation during outdoor activities

Some national parks prohibit open defecation in some areas.[91][92] If defecating openly, the general advice is to defecate into a dug hole, and cover with soil.[92]

See also


  1. ^ Ritchie, Roser, Mispy, Ortiz-Ospina (2018) "Measuring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals." (SDG 6) Archived 1 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, website
  2. ^ Clasen T, Boisson S, Routray P, Torondel B, Bell M, Cumming O, et al. (November 2014). "Effectiveness of a rural sanitation program on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition in Odisha, India: a cluster-randomized trial". The Lancet. Global Health. 2 (11): e645-53. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70307-9. PMID 25442689.
  3. ^ a b c d Progress on drinking water and sanitation, 2014 Update. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). 2014. ISBN 9789241507240. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Junaid Ahmad (30 October 2014). "How to eliminate open defecation by 2030". Devex. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  5. ^ a b c WHO and UNICEF (2019) Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000–2017: Special focus on inequalities Archived 25 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Geneva, Switzerland
  6. ^ a b c d e f WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines Archived 27 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
  7. ^ O'Reilly K (1 January 2016). "From toilet insecurity to toilet security: creating safe sanitation for women and girls". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 3 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1002/wat2.1122. ISSN 2049-1948. S2CID 109965522.
  8. ^ "Nearly a Billion People Still Defecate Outdoors. Here's Why". 25 July 2017. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  9. ^ "United Nations Deputy Secretary-General's Call to Action on Sanitation" (PDF). United Nations. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  10. ^ a b c Cavill; Chambers; Vernon (2015). Sustainability and CLTS: Taking Stock Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights Issue 4 (PDF). Institute of Development Studies. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-78118-222-2. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  11. ^ "Guidelines for ODF Verification" (PDF). Indian Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  12. ^ "Definition of ODF – Open Defecation Free (Indian government publication)". 18 June 2015. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Routray P, Schmidt WP, Boisson S, Clasen T, Jenkins MW (September 2015). "Socio-cultural and behavioural factors constraining latrine adoption in rural coastal Odisha: an exploratory qualitative study". BMC Public Health. 15: 880. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2206-3. PMC 4566293. PMID 26357958.
  14. ^ "Public Bathrooms Become Ground Zero in the Opioid Epidemic". Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  15. ^ Bardosh K (1 November 2015). "Achieving "Total Sanitation" in Rural African Geographies: Poverty, Participation and Pit Latrines in Eastern Zambia". Geoforum. 66 (Supplement C): 53–63. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.09.004. S2CID 153649870.
  16. ^ "Understanding Gendered Sanitation Vulnerabilities: A Study in Uttar Pradesh - Resources". Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  17. ^ O'Connell K. "What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households?: Findings from a Global Review" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Nowhere to go How a lack of safe toilets threatens to increase violence against women in slums" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014.
  19. ^ a b c Kwiringira J, Atekyereza P, Niwagaba C, Günther I (June 2014). "Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums". BMC Public Health. 14: 624. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-624. PMC 4071028. PMID 24948084.
  20. ^ "Document". Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  21. ^ a b c Tsinda A, Abbott P, Pedley S, Charles K, Adogo J, Okurut K, Chenoweth J (December 2013). "Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 10 (12): 6939–54. doi:10.3390/ijerph10126939. PMC 3881150. PMID 24336021.
  22. ^ Water and Sanitation Programme and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2015). "Child Feces Disposal in Zambia" (PDF). International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank and UNICEF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  23. ^ O'Reilly K (1 November 2006). ""Traditional" women, "modern" water: Linking gender and commodification in Rajasthan, India". Geoforum. 37 (6): 958–972. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.05.008.
  24. ^ In 2016, Kunwar Bai Yadav, a woman claiming to be 105 years old, said she had never heard about a toilet until that year, and had always gone into the nearby woods to defecate. Only when she learned about them, did she have one built in her community. Source: BBC News (India): "How a 105-year-old ended open defecation in her village" Archived 21 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 1 November 2016
  25. ^ "Revealed Preference for Open Defecation: Evidence from a new survey in rural north India (longer working paper) | r.i.c.e." Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  26. ^ a b c d Mara D (2017). "The elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: a moral imperative for governments and development professionals". Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. University of Leeds. 7 (1): 1–12. doi:10.2166/washdev.2017.027. ISSN 2043-9083. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  27. ^ Hannah Ritchie (2019) - "Sanitation". Published online at Retrieved from: '' [Online Resource]
  28. ^ "Data and estimates". JMP – WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation. WHO/UNICEF. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  29. ^ "AFGHANISTAN WASH on the Brink" (PDF).
  30. ^ Chheng N. "Home toilet access improving". Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  31. ^ "Infographic: Where Open Defecation Is Still Widely Practiced". Statista Infographics. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  32. ^ Abebe TA, Tucho GT (November 2020). "Open defecation-free slippage and its associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review". Systematic Reviews. 9 (1): 252. doi:10.1186/s13643-020-01511-6. PMC 7641843. PMID 33143715.
  33. ^ "93 Per Cent Households In Rural India Have Access To Toilets, Says Government Survey | News". NDTV-Dettol Banega Swasth Swachh India. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  34. ^ "Water, sanitation and hygiene". Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  35. ^ @therecord. "Toilet trauma - The Record". Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  36. ^ "Water, Sanitation and Hygiene". Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  37. ^ a b "People practicing open defecation (% of population) - Pakistan". World Bank. Archived from the original on 29 November 2021.
  38. ^ Lalu GP (23 November 2020). "SWS: 4% of PH households still have no toilets; 6% share facilities". Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  39. ^ Kun Li. "Somaliland villages lead the way to stop open defecation".((cite web)): CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  40. ^ "USAID Yemen: Quick Look".
  41. ^ "India has highest number of people without basic sanitation: Report". Times of India. 7 November 2017.
  42. ^ "India Has Highest Number Of People Without Basic Sanitation: Report". NDTV. 7 November 2017.
  43. ^ Zakaria R (11 April 2019). "India's Futile War on Open Defecation". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  44. ^ Dinnoo S (17 June 2014). "Why do millions of Indians defecate in the open?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  45. ^ Coffey D (2017). Where India goes : abandoned toilets, stunted development and the costs of caste. Spears, Dean E. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. pp. 7–11. ISBN 978-93-5264-565-7. OCLC 994315306.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  46. ^ "An open defecation free India". Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020. According to the national statistics, over 100 million household toilets were constructed by the deadline benefiting 500 million people across 630,000 villages, but the government acknowledged that more had to be done.
  47. ^ "Gates Foundation award seen as boost to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan". Mint. 25 September 2019. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  48. ^ "A Clean (Sampoorna Swachh) India". Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  49. ^ "93 Percent Households In Rural India Have Access To Toilets, Says Government Survey | News". NDTV-Dettol Banega Swasth Swachh India. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  50. ^ Helen Regan and Manveena Suri (6 October 2019). "Half of India couldn't access a toilet 5 years ago. Modi built 110M latrines -- but will people use them?". CNN. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  51. ^ Sharma, Aman. "96% usage of toilets under Swachh Bharat, shows a survey by an independent verification agency". The Economic Times. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  52. ^ Kuchay B (2 October 2019). "Modi declares India open defecation free, claim questioned". Al Jazeera.((cite news)): CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  53. ^ Santosh Mehrotra (January 2019). "Is India Really 96% Open Defecation Free?". The Wire (India).
  54. ^ "Second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) launched". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 4 March 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 July 2021.((cite news)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  55. ^ "Phase 2 of Swachh Bharat Mission to focus on waste segregation at source". The Indian Express. 3 March 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  56. ^ "79m Pakistanis still lack a decent toilet: report". Daily Times. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  57. ^ "Pakistan | WaterAid Global". Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  58. ^ "People practicing open defecation (% of population) - Pakistan". World Bank.
  59. ^ "Women in Pakistan fight for toilets, while men have 'other priorities'". The Hindu. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  60. ^ Moffitt M (3 December 2019). "San Francisco plans to power-wash the poop out of the Tenderloin". SFGATE. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019.
  61. ^ Grover, Joel; Corral, Amy (19 February 2020). "Homeless People Are Without Toilets and Going in the Streets. We Asked the Mayor of LA Why". NBC Los Angeles.
  62. ^ LINDA ROBERTSON (19 October 2019). "Poop and urine turn downtown streets into outdoor toilet". Miami Herald.
  63. ^ "We Urge You 'Mad Pooper,' Stop Crapping in Your Neighbor's Yard". Runner's World. 19 September 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  64. ^ "Call to action on sanitation" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  65. ^ Spears D, Ghosh A, Cumming O (2013). "Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e73784. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...873784S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073784. PMC 3774764. PMID 24066070.
  66. ^ "WHO | Diarrhoeal disease". World Health Organization. 2013. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  67. ^ Vyas (2014). Population density and the effect of sanitation on early-life health], slide 19 (presentation at UNC conference in Oct. 2014) (PDF). Research Institute for Compassionate Economics, project (r.i.c.e.). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015 – via Sustainable Sanitation Alliance.
  68. ^ "UNICEF: Without toilets, childhood is even riskier due to malnutrition | Press centre | UNICEF". Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  69. ^ a b House, Sarah, Suzanne Ferron, Marni Sommer and Sue Cavil (2014) Violence, Gender & WASH: A Practitioner’s Toolkit & nbsp ;– Making water, sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services Archived 4 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. London, UK: WaterAid/SHARE.
  70. ^ Lennon, S. (2011). Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Briefing Note. SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK
  71. ^ a b Cavil S. "Violence, gender and WASH: A practitioner's toolkit: Making Water, Sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services". WaterAid, SHARE Research Consortium. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  72. ^ a b Lennon S (November 2011). "Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India". SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  73. ^ Devine J (2009). Introducing Sanifoam: A Framework to Analyze Sanitation Behaviors to Design Effective Sanitation Programs. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank.
  74. ^ Devine J (2010). "Beyond tippt-taps: The role of enabling products in scaling up and sustaining handwashing". Waterlines. 29 (4): 304–314. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2010.033.
  75. ^ "GUIDELINES ON SANITATION AND HEALTH" (PDF). 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  76. ^ "Field Notes: UNICEF Policy and Programming in Practice" (PDF). UNICEF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  77. ^ Wheaton, A. (2009). Results of a medium-scale trial of single-use, self-sanitising toilet bags in poor urban settlements in Bangladesh Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Dhaka, Bangladesh
  78. ^ Owako, E. (2012). Nyando peepoo trial project report Archived 7 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Kenya Red Cross, Kenya
  79. ^ Naeem, K., Berndtsson, M. (2011). Peepoo Try Pakistan – Sindh Floods Archived 7 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, November 2011. UN-HABITAT, Pakistan
  80. ^ Mijthab M., Woods E., Lokey H., Foote A., Rieck. C (2013). Sanivation and MoSan Toilet – 4 week Service Pilot in Karagita Naivasha, Kenya Archived 20 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. GIZ and Sanivation
  81. ^ Russel, K. (2013). Mobile sanitation services for dense urban slums – Various documents on results from research grant. Archived 18 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine Stanford University, U.S.
  82. ^ Biswas S (6 October 2014). "Why India's sanitation crisis needs more than toilets". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  83. ^ "India has highest number of people practicing open defecation &#124". DNA India. 19 November 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  84. ^ "More than 40m Pakistanis defecate openly: Unicef – Pakistan". Dawn. 8 March 2015. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  85. ^ "Lack of toilets tied to stunted growth in Pakistan: UNICEF". The Express Tribune. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  86. ^ "Over 43 million people in Pakistan defecate in the open". The News International. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  87. ^ "Municode Library". Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  88. ^ "'Mad Pooper': Jogger Wanted for Defecating in Front Yards of Colorado Homes". 19 September 2017. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  89. ^ Manning A. "The world is NOT your toilet, Columbus police note". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  90. ^ "Adventures at Poo Corner". This American Life. 12 December 2017. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  91. ^ "Leave No Trace". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  92. ^ a b Martineau C (5 June 2019). "Nature is calling: Here's how to poop properly in the great outdoors". Roadtrippers. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020.
The offline app allows you to download all of Wikipedia's medical articles in an app to access them when you have no Internet.
Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the Medical Wikipedia app.