This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

ISO 22000 is a Food safety management system which is outcome focused,[1] providing requirements for any organization in the food industry with objective to help to improve overall performance in food safety. These standards is needed to ensure safety in the global food supply chain since the world is becoming a global village. The standards involve the overall guidelines for food safety management and also focuses on traceability in the feed and food chain.

Food safety

Food safety refers to all those hazards, whether chronic or acute, that may make food injurious to the health of the consumer.[2]

ISO 22000 standard

ISO 22000 is the most popular voluntary food safety international standard in the food industry with 42,937 sites certified (as per the ISO Survey 2021). The ISO 22000 family are international voluntary consensus standards which align to Good Standardization Practices (GSP)[3] and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Principles for the Development of International Standards.[4] Defining the requirements for a Food Safety Management System (FSMS) and incorporating the following elements which as defined as FSMS principles:

Critical reviews of the above elements have been conducted by many scientists.[5][6][7][8] Communication along the food chain is essential to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain. This implies communication between organizations both upstream and downstream in the food chain. Communication with customers and suppliers about identified hazards and control measures will assist in clarifying customer and supplier requirements.

Recognition of the organization's role and position within the food chain is essential to ensure effective interactive communication throughout the chain in order to deliver safe food products to the consumer.

ISO 22000 and HACCP

ISO 22000 has two Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycles which operate one inside the other, the first covering the management system, the second the operations (described in ISO 22000:2018, Clause 8), which simultaneously cover the HACCP principles. ISO 22000 references the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene, CXC 1-1969[9] which includes HACCP principles and 12 HACCP application steps. The following table explains the relationship and alignment between ISO 22000 and the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene, CXC 1-1969. The task, Validate the control measure(s) or combination(s) of control measures, also references Guidelines for the Validation of Food Safety Control Measures, CXG 69-2008 [10]

ISO 22000 and HACCP
Task ISO 22000:2018 General Principles of Food Hygiene, CXC 1-1969
Establish the food safety team Subclauses 5.3.1 c) and 5.3.2, and links to Subclauses 7.1.2 (people) and 7.2 (competence) HACCP step 1
Provide the information needed to conduct the hazard analysis Subclause 8.5.1 (from Subclauses 8.5.1.2 to 8.5.1.4) HACCP steps 2 and 3
Prepare the process flow diagram Subclause 8.5.1.5 HACCP step 6 and principle 1
Identify the hazards associated with the food Subclauses 8.5.2.1 and 8.5.2.2 HACCP step 6 and principle 1
Conduct a hazard assessment Subclause 8.5.2.3 HACCP step 6 and principle 1
List and select control measure(s) or combination(s) of control measures Subclause 8.5.2.4 HACCP step 6 and principle 1
Categorize, manage, monitor and document the control measures Subclauses 8.5.2.4 and 8.5.4 (from 8.5.4.1 to 8.5.4.3) HACCP principles 2 and 3, HACCP steps 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12)
Validate the control measure(s) or combination(s) of control measures Subclause 8.5.3 HACCP step 7 and principle 2, step 6 and principle 3, step 11 and principle 6
Establish and apply corrections and corrective actions Subclauses 8.5.4.1, 8.5.4.4 and 8.9 HACCP principle 5, HACCP steps 10 and 11
Control monitoring and measuring (operational processes) Subclause 8.7
Conduct a verification related to the PRPs and hazard control plan Subclause 8.8
Update the preliminary information Subclause 8.6 HACCP steps 5 and 7

A study explains the importance of ISO 22000 Food Safety Management System (FSMS), Critical Control Points Hazard Analysis (HACCP) and the Prerequisite Programs (PRPs) as the foundation of HACCP, in preventing foodborne outbreaks.[11] In addition, another study for HACCP effectiveness between ISO 22000 certified and non-certified dairy companies identified that by implementing the HACCP Food Safety System (FSS) and by being ISO 22000 certified, the level of the achievement of the HACCP objectives is improved significantly.[12]

ISO 22000 family of standards

ISO published additional standards that are related to ISO 22000. These standards are known as the ISO 22000 family of standards. At the present time, the following standards will make up the ISO 22000 family of standards:

ISO 22000 is also used as a basis for the Food Safety Systems Certification (FSSC) Scheme FSSC 22000. FSSC 22000 is a Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) approved scheme, also referred to as a certification programme owner (CPO). The differences between ISO 22000 and schemes with GFSI recognition are explained in a paper from ISO, International standards and private standards. [13]

ISO 9001 vs ISO 22000

In comparison with a Quality Management System ISO 9001, the Food Safety Management System, initially a standard (ISO 22000:2005 version) that was a more procedural-orientated guidance than a principle based one. The 2018 revision (ISO 22000:2018) addressed this by including the ISO general management principles, in addition to the FSMS principles, which are also referred to as the Quality Management Principles:

ISO general management principles

Apart from that, ISO 22000 is an industrial-specific risk management system for any type of food safety which includes farming, processing, manufacturing, catering, storage and distribution. ISO 22000 is designed using the ISO high level structure (HLS), also referred to as Annex SL, to be integrated with other ISO Management System Standards (MSS) including the Quality Management System of ISO 9001. For conformity assessment and auditing, both ISO 9001 and ISO 22000 refer to ISO 17021 Conformity assessment, Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of management systems and ISO 19011 Guidelines for auditing management systems. The detailed similarities, differences and combined effects of the two standards (ISO 9001, ISO 22000) can be found elsewhere. [14], [15], [16],.[17], [18] [19]

Potential justification

ISO Management System Standards (MSS) are designed to be integrated for any sector or industry and size, this is further explained in ISO and Small & Medium Enterprises. In 2004, the European Office of Crafts, Trades and Small and Medium sized Enterprises for Standardisation noted that the standard is only suitable for large sized companies and small food businesses will not be able to seek such a high standard due to the lack of resources to pursue the certification. The agency suggested creating an alternative for small food businesses to achieve the same objective.[20] EFSA is now making their efforts on the food legislations that are adaptable for the SMEs in food supply chains.[21] In addition, ISO and United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) jointly published ISO 22000 a practical guide which provides guidance to assist all organizations (including small and medium-sized) that recognize the potential benefits of implementing a FSMS in accordance with ISO 22000.

Food organizations which seek the standard certification are evolving towards integrated management systems, typically integrating Environmental (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety (ISO 45001) along with Quality (ISO 9001). This takes a process approach and risk-based thinking into consideration where risks are addressed at both organizational and operational levels which include food safety, worker safety and environmental and are from the primary production in the supply chains and the later stages of food processing. [22], [23]

ISO 22000 is well positioned for future growth due to the ISO 2030 Strategy around inclusiveness[24] and the World Health Organization food safety strategy which explains governments should use international standards and guidelines to the greatest extent.[25] This is supported by the World Trade Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization joint publication which explains the WTO Agreements strongly encourage governments to harmonize their requirements on the basis of international standards.[26]

History

year Description
2005 ISO 22000 (1st Edition)
2018 ISO 22000 (2nd Edition)

See also

References

  1. ^ Expected Outcomes for Certification to ISO 22000, a Food Safety Management System (FSMS) (1 ed.). International Organization for Standardization. 2022. ISBN 978-92-67-11250-3.
  2. ^ Assuring food safety and quality (PDF). FAO/WHO Publication. p. 3. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  3. ^ Good Standardization Practices (GSP) (1 ed.). Geneva Switzerland: ISO. 2019. ISBN 978-92-67-10986-2.
  4. ^ "Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations". wto.org. World Trade Organization. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  5. ^ Klaas Wenztel, Richard Jackson of Zimbabwe. "ISO 22000: Requirements for Food Safety Management Systems". Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  6. ^ Hiroshi, Ogawa. "Sterilization and sanitation technologies in the latest food manufacture processes, Total food safety management by ISO 22000 "food safety management system"". Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  7. ^ Mijanović Markuš, Marina (May 2006). "ISOC 22000:2005 and HACCP" (PDF). Festival kvaliteta 2006. Asocijacija za kvalitet i standardizaciju Srbije. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
  8. ^ Prati, R; Deborah A. McIntyre (2004). "The new ISO 22000 (final proposal) norm on food safety management". Ingredienti Alimentari. Chiriotti Editori Spa. 3 (4): 19–21.
  9. ^ "General Principles of Food Hygiene, CXC 1-1969" (PDF). fao.org. Codex Alimentarius. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Guidelines for the validation of food safety control measures, CXG 69-2008" (PDF). fao.org. Codex Alimentarius. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  11. ^ Lee, Jocelyn C.; Daraba, Aura; Voidarou, Chrysa; Rozos, Georgios; Hesham A., El Enshasy; Varzakas, Theodoros (13 September 2021). "Implementation of Food Safety Management Systems along with Other Management Tools (HAZOP, FMEA, Ishikawa, Pareto). The Case Study of Listeria monocytogenes and Correlation with Microbiological Criteria". Foods. 10 (9): 2169. doi:10.3390/foods10092169. PMC 8468768. PMID 34574279.
  12. ^ Psomas, Evangelos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitrios (July 2015). "HACCP effectiveness between ISO 22000 certified and non-certified dairy companies". Food Control. 53: 134–139. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.01.023. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  13. ^ International standards and private standards. International Organization for Standardization. 2010. ISBN 978-92-67-10518-5.
  14. ^ Surak, John G. "Comparison of ISO 9001 and ISO 22000" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  15. ^ Faergemand, Jacob; Dorte Jespersen. "ISO 22000 to ensure integrity of food supply chain" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  16. ^ Frost, Roger. "ISO 22000 is first in family of food safety management system standards" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  17. ^ Goichiro, Yukawa. "The points of ISO 22000". Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  18. ^ Dimitrios Kafetzopoulos; Katerina Gotzamani; Evangelos Psomas (2013). "Quality systems and competitive performance of food companies". Benchmarking. 20 (4): 463–483. doi:10.1108/BIJ-08-2011-0065. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  19. ^ SILVA, Maria Manuela; FONSECA, Luis Miguel; SOUSA, Sérgio Dinis (2016). "The Impact of ISO 9001:2015 on ISO 22000 and Food Safety Management Systems (FSMS)". QUALITY Access to Success. 17 (152): 81–85.
  20. ^ European Office of Crafts, Trades and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for Standardisation (2004). "Normapme Food Group Position on TC 34 draft standard ISO 22000" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  21. ^ NORMAPME (2007). "Promoting craft and SMEs in the area of European standardisation" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  22. ^ Dias Report (2003). "Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-food sector" (PDF). Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  23. ^ URS/PK Project Report (2007). "Training Courses on International Standards and Regulations for the Food Industry" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  24. ^ "ISO STRATEGY 2030". iso.org. International Organization for Standardization.
  25. ^ "Draft WHO Global Strategy for Food Safety 2022-2030". who.int. World Health Organization.
  26. ^ Trade and Food Standards. FAO and WTO. 2017. ISBN 978-92-5-109793-9.

Further reading