|Internet media type|
|Developed by||Microsoft, ITU-T, ISO/IEC|
|Initial release||April 14, 2009|
06/2019 (ITU-T); 2020 edition (ISO/IEC)
|Type of format||Graphics file format|
|Standard||ITU-T Rec. T.832 (06/2019),|
|Website||ITU-T T.832 (06/2019),|
JPEG XR (JPEG extended range) is an image compression standard for continuous tone photographic images, based on the HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo) specifications that Microsoft originally developed and patented. It supports both lossy and lossless compression, and is the preferred image format for Ecma-388 Open XML Paper Specification documents.
Support for the format was made available in Adobe Flash Player 11.0, Adobe AIR 3.0, Sumatra PDF 2.1, Windows Imaging Component, .NET Framework 3.0, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Internet Explorer 9, Internet Explorer 10, Internet Explorer 11, Pale Moon 27.2. As of January 2021, there were still no cameras that shoot photos in the JPEG XR (.JXR) format.
Microsoft first announced Windows Media Photo at WinHEC 2006, and then renamed it to HD Photo in November of that year. In July 2007, the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Microsoft announced HD Photo to be under consideration to become a JPEG standard known as JPEG XR. On 16 March 2009, JPEG XR was given final approval as ITU-T Recommendation T.832 and starting in April 2009, it became available from the ITU-T in "pre-published" form. On 19 June 2009, it passed an ISO/IEC Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) ballot, resulting in final approval as International Standard ISO/IEC 29199-2. The ITU-T updated its publication with a corrigendum approved in December 2009, and ISO/IEC issued a new edition with similar corrections on 30 September 2010.
In 2010, after completion of the image coding specification, the ITU-T and ISO/IEC also published a motion format specification (ITU-T T.833 | ISO/IEC 29199-3), a conformance test set (ITU-T T.834 | ISO/IEC 29199-4), and reference software (ITU-T T.835 | ISO/IEC 29199-5) for JPEG XR. In 2011, they published a technical report describing the workflow architecture for the use of JPEG XR images in applications (ITU-T T.Sup2 | ISO/IEC TR 29199-1).
JPEG XR is an image file format that offers several key improvements over JPEG, including:
One file container format that can be used to store JPEG XR image data is specified in Annex A of the JPEG XR standard. It is a TIFF-like format using a table of Image File Directory (IFD) tags. A JPEG XR file contains image data, optional alpha channel data, metadata, optional XMP metadata stored as RDF/XML, and optional Exif metadata, in IFD tags. The image data is a contiguous self-contained chunk of data. The optional alpha channel, if present, can be compressed as a separate image record, enabling decoding of the image data independently of transparency data in applications which do not support transparency. (Alternatively, JPEG XR also supports an "interleaved" alpha channel format in which the alpha channel data is encoded together with the other image data in a single compressed codestream.)
Being TIFF-based, this format inherits all of the limitations of the TIFF format including the 4 GB file-size limit, which according to the HD Photo specification "will be addressed in a future update".
New work has been started in the JPEG committee to enable the use of JPEG XR image coding within the JPX file storage format — enabling use of the JPIP protocol, which allows interactive browsing of networked images. Additionally, a Motion JPEG XR specification was approved as an ISO standard for motion (video) compression in March 2010.
JPEG XR's design is conceptually very similar to JPEG: the source image is optionally converted to a luma-chroma colorspace, the chroma planes are optionally subsampled, each plane is divided into fixed-size blocks, the blocks are transformed into the frequency domain, and the frequency coefficients are quantized and entropy coded. Major differences include the following:
The HD Photo bitstream specification claims that "HD Photo offers image quality comparable to JPEG-2000 with computational and memory performance more closely comparable to JPEG", that it "delivers a lossy compressed image of better perceptive quality than JPEG at less than half the file size", and that "lossless compressed images … are typically 2.5 times smaller than the original uncompressed data".
A reference software implementation of JPEG XR has been published as ITU-T Recommendation T.835 and ISO/IEC International Standard 29199-5.
The following notable software products natively support JPEG XR:
|Product Name||Publisher||Read support||Write support|
|Capture One 7 or later||Phase One||Yes||Yes|
|Corel Paint Shop Pro X2 or later||Corel||Yes||Yes|||
|Fast Picture Viewer||Axel Rietschin Software Developments||Yes||—|||
|ImageMagick||ImageMagick Studio LLC||Yes||Yes||Via jxrlib|
|Internet Explorer 9||Microsoft||Yes||—|||
|Microsoft Expression Design||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|||
|Microsoft Expression Media||Microsoft||Yes||No|
|Microsoft Image Composite Editor||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|||
|Pale Moon||Moonchild Productions||Dropped since version 28||—|||
|Serif PhotoPlus X7||Serif Europe||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Live Photo Gallery||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Photo Gallery||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Photo Viewer||Microsoft||Yes||—|
|Xara Designer Pro||Xara Group Limited||Yes||No|||
|Zoner Photo Studio 13 or later||Zoner Software||Yes||Yes|
The following notable software support JPEG XR through a Plug-in:
|Product name||Publisher||Plug-in name||Plug-in publisher||Read support||Write support|
|Adobe Photoshop (CS2,CS5-CS6)||Adobe Systems||JPEG XR File Format Plug-in for Photoshop||Microsoft Corporation||Yes||Yes|||
|GIMP||The GIMP Development Team||JPEG XR plugin for GIMP||C. Hausner||Yes||Yes|||
|IrfanView 4.25 and later||Irfan Skiljan||HDP version 4.26||Irfan Skiljan||Yes||No|||
|Paint.NET||Rick Brewster||JPEG XR plugin for Paint.NET||C. Hausner||Yes||Yes|||
|Quick Look||Apple Inc.||JPEG XR plugin for Quick Look||B. Hoary||Yes||—|||
The following APIs and software frameworks support JPEG XR and may be used in other software to provide JPEG XR support to end users:
|Product Name||Publisher||Read support||Write support|
|Adobe Integrated Runtime 3.3||Adobe Systems||Yes||Yes|||
|Adobe Flash Player 11.3||Adobe Systems||Yes||Yes|||
|Integrated Performance Primitives (IPP)||Intel||Yes||Yes|||
|Windows Imaging Component (WIC)||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|
The 2011 video game Rage employs JPEG XR compression to compress its textures.
Microsoft has patents on the technology in JPEG XR. A Microsoft representative stated in a January 2007 interview that in order to encourage the adoption and use of HD Photo, the specification is made available under the Microsoft Open Specification Promise, which asserts that Microsoft allows implementation of the specification for free, and will not file suits on the patented technology for its implementation, as reportedly stated by Josh Weisberg, director of Microsoft's Rich Media Group. As of 15 August 2010, Microsoft made the resulting JPEG XR standard available under its Community Promise.
In July 2010, reference software to implement the JPEG XR standard was published as ITU-T Recommendation T.835 and International Standard ISO/IEC 29199-5. Microsoft included these publications in the list of specifications covered by its Community Promise.
In April 2013, Microsoft released jxrlib, an open source JPEG XR library under the BSD licence. This resolved any licensing issues with the library being implemented in software packages distributed under popular open source licences such as the GNU General Public License, with which the previously released "HD Photo Device Porting Kit" was incompatible.
The JPEG XR format replaces the HD Photo/Windows Media™ Photo format in both Windows 8 and the Windows Image Component (WIC). WIC accompanies the Internet Explorer 10 redistributable packages for down-level versions of Windows.