The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is an umbrella term for a number of standards organizations which develop protocols for mobile telecommunications. Its best known work is the development and maintenance of:
3GPP is a consortium with seven national or regional telecommunication standards organizations as primary members ("organizational partners") and a variety of other organizations as associate members ("market representation partners"). The 3GPP organizes its work into three different streams: Radio Access Networks, Services and Systems Aspects, and Core Network and Terminals.
The project was established in December 1998 with the goal of developing a specification for a 3G mobile phone system based on the 2G GSM system, within the scope of the International Telecommunication Union's International Mobile Telecommunications-2000, hence the name 3GPP. It should not be confused with 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2), which developed a competing 3G system, CDMA2000.
The 3GPP administrative support team (known as the "Mobile Competence Centre") is located at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute headquarters in the Sophia Antipolis technology park in France.
The seven 3GPP Organizational Partners are from Asia, Europe and North America. Their aim is to determine the general policy and strategy of 3GPP and perform the following tasks:
Together with the Market Representation Partners (MRPs) perform the following tasks:
The Organizational Partners are:
|Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB)||Japan||ARIB|
|Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS)||USA||ATIS|
|China Communications Standards Association (CCSA)||China||CCSA|
|European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)||Europe||ETSI|
|Telecommunications Standards Development Society (TSDSI)||India||TSDSI|
|Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA)||South Korea||TTA|
|Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC)||Japan||TTC|
The 3GPP Organizational Partners can invite a Market Representation Partner to take part in 3GPP, which:
As of June 2021[update], the Market Representation Partners are:
|5G Automotive Association||http://www.5gaa.org/|
|5G Deterministic Networking Alliance (5GDNA)||https://www.5gdna.org/|
|5G Infrastructure Association||https://5g-ppp.eu/association/|
|5G Media Action Group (5G-MAG)||http://www.5g-mag.com/|
|Automotive Edge Computing Consortium (AECC)||https://aecc.org/|
|Broadband India Forum||http://www.broadbandindiaforum.com/|
|Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI)||https://www.coai.com|
|China Society of Automotive Engineers (CSAE)||http://www.sae-china.org/|
|EMEA Satellite Operators Association (ESOA)||https://www.esoa.net/|
|Global Certification Forum (GCF)||https://www.globalcertificationforum.org/|
|Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA)||https://gsacom.com/|
|Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN)||https://www.ngmn.org/|
|Public Safety Communication Europe (PSCE) Forum||http://www.psc-europe.eu/|
|Small Cell Forum||https://www.smallcellforum.org/|
|TD Industry Alliance||http://www.tdia.cn/|
|Wireless Broadband Alliance||http://www.wballiance.com/|
3GPP standards are structured as Releases. Discussion of 3GPP thus frequently refers to the functionality in one release or another.
|Phase 1||1992||GSM Features|
|Phase 2||1995||GSM Features, EFR Codec,|
|Release 96||1997 Q1||GSM Features, 14.4 kbit/s User Data Rate,|
|Release 97||1998 Q1||GSM Features, GPRS|
|Release 98||1999 Q1||GSM Features, AMR codec, EDGE, GPRS for PCS1900|
|Release 99||2000 Q1||Specified the first UMTS 3G networks, incorporating a CDMA air interface|
|Release 4||2001 Q2||Originally called the Release 2000 – added features including an all-IP Core Network|
|Release 5||2002 Q1||Introduced IMS and HSDPA|
|Release 6||2004 Q4||Integrated operation with Wireless LAN networks and adds HSUPA, MBMS, enhancements to IMS such as Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC), GAN|
|Release 7||2007 Q4||Focuses on decreasing latency, improvements to QoS and real-time applications such as VoIP. This specification also focus on HSPA+ (High Speed Packet Access Evolution), SIM high-speed protocol and contactless front-end interface (Near Field Communication enabling operators to deliver contactless services like Mobile Payments), EDGE Evolution.|
|Release 8||2008 Q4||First LTE release. All-IP Network (SAE). New OFDMA, FDE and MIMO based radio interface, not backwards compatible with previous CDMA interfaces. Dual-Cell HSDPA. UMTS HNB.|
|Release 9||2009 Q4||SAES Enhancements, WiMAX and LTE/UMTS Interoperability. Dual-Cell HSDPA with MIMO, Dual-Cell HSUPA. LTE HeNB. Evolved multimedia broadcast and multicast service (eMBMS).|
|Release 10||2011 Q1||LTE Advanced fulfilling IMT Advanced 4G requirements. Backwards compatible with release 8 (LTE). Multi-Cell HSDPA (4 carriers).|
|Release 11||2012 Q3||Advanced IP Interconnection of Services. Service layer interconnection between national operators/carriers as well as third-party application providers. Heterogeneous networks (HetNet) improvements, Coordinated Multi-Point operation (CoMP). In-device Co-existence (IDC).|
|Release 12||2015 Q1||Enhanced Small Cells (higher order modulation, dual connectivity, cell discovery, self configuration), Carrier aggregation (2 uplink carriers, 3 downlink carriers, FDD/TDD carrier aggregation), MIMO (3D channel modeling, elevation beamforming, massive MIMO), New and Enhanced Services (cost and range of MTC, D2D communication, eMBMS enhancements)|
|Release 13||2016 Q1||LTE-Advanced Pro. LTE in unlicensed, LTE enhancements for Machine-Type Communication. Elevation Beamforming / Full-Dimension MIMO, Indoor positioning.|
|Release 14||2017 Q2||Energy Efficiency, Location Services (LCS), Mission Critical Data over LTE, Mission Critical Video over LTE, Flexible Mobile Service Steering (FMSS), Multimedia Broadcast Supplement for Public Warning System (MBSP), enhancement for TV services over eMBMS, massive Internet of Things, Cell Broadcast Service (CBS)|
|Release 15||2018 Q2||First 5G NR ("New Radio") release. Support for 5G Vehicle-to-x service, IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS), Future Railway Mobile Communication System|
|Release 16||2020 Q3||The 5G System – Phase 2: 5G enhancements, NR-based access to unlicensed spectrum (NR-U), Satellite access|
|Release 17||2022 Q1||TSG RAN: Several features that continue to be important for overall efficiency and performance of 5G NR: MIMO, Spectrum Sharing enhancements, UE Power Saving and Coverage Enhancements. RAN1 will also undertake the necessary study and specification work to enhance the physical layer to support frequency bands up to 71 GHz.
TSG SA groups focused on further enhancements to the 5G system and enablers for new features and services:
Enhanced support of: non-public networks, industrial Internet of Things, low complexity NR devices, edge computing in 5GC, access traffic steering, switch and splitting support, network automation for 5G, network slicing, advanced V2X service, multiple USIM support, proximity-based services in 5GS, 5G multicast broadcast services, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), satellite access in 5G, 5GC location services, Multimedia Priority Service...
|Release 18||2023 Q4||5G-Advanced. Introducing further machine-learning based techniques at different levels of the wireless network. Edge computing, Evolution of IMS Multimedia Telephony Service, Smart Energy and Infrastructure, Vehicle-Mounted Relays, Low Power High Accuracy Positioning for industrial IoT scenarios, Enhanced Access to and Support of Network slicing, Satellite backhaul in 5G...|
Each release incorporates hundreds of individual Technical Specification and Technical Report documents, each of which may have been through many revisions. Current 3GPP standards incorporate the latest revision of the GSM standards.
The documents are made available without charge on 3GPP's web site. The Technical Specifications cover not only the radio part ("Air Interface") and Core Network, but also billing information and speech coding down to source code level. Cryptographic aspects (such as authentication, confidentiality) are also specified.
The 3GPP specification work is done in Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) and Working Groups (WGs).
There are three Technical Specifications Groups, each of which consists of multiple WGs:
|RAN WG1||RAN1||Radio Layer 1 (Physical layer)||List of specs|
|RAN WG2||RAN2||Radio Layer 2 and Radio Layer 3 Radio Resource Control||List of specs|
|RAN WG3||RAN3||UTRAN, E-UTRAN, NG-RAN architecture and related network interfaces||List of specs|
|RAN WG4||RAN4||Radio performance and protocol aspects||List of specs|
|RAN WG5||RAN5||Mobile terminal conformance testing||List of specs|
|SA WG1||SA1||Services||List of specs|
|SA WG2||SA2||Architecture||List of specs|
|SA WG3||SA3||Security||List of specs|
|SA WG4||SA4||Codec||List of specs|
|SA WG5||SA5||Management, Orchestration and Charging||List of specs|
|SA WG6||SA6||Application Enablement and Critical Communication Applications||List of specs|
|CT WG1||CT1||User Equipment – Core Network protocols||List of specs|
|CT WG3||CT3||Interworking with external networks||List of specs|
|CT WG4||CT4||Core Network Protocols||List of specs|
|CT WG6||CT6||Smart Card Application Aspects||List of specs|
The closure of GERAN was announced in January 2016. The specification work on legacy GSM/EDGE system was transferred to RAN WG, RAN6. RAN6 was closed in July 2020 (https://www.3gpp.org/news-events/2128-r6_geran).
The 3GPP structure also includes a Project Coordination Group, which is the highest decision-making body. Its missions include the management of overall timeframe and work progress.
3GPP standardization work is contribution-driven. Companies ("individual members") participate through their membership to a 3GPP Organizational Partner. As of December 2020, 3GPP is composed of 719 individual members.
Specification work is done at WG and at TSG level:
3GPP follows a three-stage methodology as defined in ITU-T Recommendation I.130:
Test specifications are sometimes defined as stage 4, as they follow stage 3.
Specifications are grouped into releases. A release consists of a set of internally consistent set of features and specifications.
Timeframes are defined for each release by specifying freezing dates. Once a release is frozen, only essential corrections are allowed (i.e. addition and modifications of functions are forbidden). Freezing dates are defined for each stage.
The 3GPP specifications are transposed into deliverables by the Organizational Partners.