Ashok Leyland plant in Ennore, Chennai. Chennai is known as a center of India's auto industry
Ashok Leyland plant in Ennore, Chennai. Chennai is known as a center of India's auto industry

The automotive industry in India is the fourth-largest in the world as per 2021 statistics.[1][2][3] In 2022, India became fourth largest country in the world by valuation of automotive industry. As of 2020, India is the 5th largest automobile market in the world, surpassing Germany in terms of sales.[4]

Currently India's auto industry is worth of more that US$ 100 billion and contributes 8% of the country's total export and accounts for 2.3% of India's GDP.[5] India's major automobile manufacturing companies includes Tata Motors, Ashok Leyland, Mahindra & Mahindra, Force Motors, Tractors and Farm Equipment Limited, Eicher Motors, Royal Enfield, Sonalika Tractors, Hindustan Motors, Hradyesh, ICML, Kerala Automobiles Limited, Reva, Pravaig Dynamics, Premier, Tara International and Vehicle Factory Jabalpur.

History

A pre-Independence car showroom in Secunderabad, showing Fiat Topolino and Fiat 1100
A pre-Independence car showroom in Secunderabad, showing Fiat Topolino and Fiat 1100
Kolkata street traffic in 1945
Kolkata street traffic in 1945

In 1897, the first car ran on an Indian road. Through the 1930s, cars were imports only, and in small numbers.

An embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Hindustan Motors was launched in 1942, long-time competitor Premier in 1944, building Chrysler, Dodge, and Fiat products respectively.[6] Mahindra & Mahindra was established by two brothers in 1945, and began assembly of Jeep CJ-3A utility vehicles. In the same years, J. R. D. Tata, the chairman of Tata Group founded TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company (now Tata Motors) in Jamshedpur. Following independence in 1947, the Government of India and the private sector launched efforts to create an automotive-component manufacturing industry to supply to the automobile industry. In 1953, an import substitution programme was launched, and the import of fully built-up cars began to be restricted.[6]

1947–1970

The Hindustan Ambassador dominated India's automotive market from the 1960s until the mid-1980s and was manufactured till 2014.
The Hindustan Ambassador dominated India's automotive market from the 1960s until the mid-1980s and was manufactured till 2014.
Fiat 1100D, built under license by Premier Automobiles later re-christened 'Premier Padmini' was the Ambassador's only true competitor.
Fiat 1100D, built under license by Premier Automobiles later re-christened 'Premier Padmini' was the Ambassador's only true competitor.

The 1952 Tariff Commission

In 1952, the government appointed the first Tariff Commission, one of whose purposes was to come out with a feasibility plan for the indigenization of the Indian automobile industry. In 1953, the commission submitted their report, which recommended categorizing existing Indian car companies according to their manufacturing infrastructure, with licensed capacity to manufacture a certain number of vehicles, with capacity increases allowable, as per demands, in the future. The Tariff Commission recommendations were implemented with new policies that would eventually exclude companies that only imported parts for assembly, as well as those with no Indian partner. In 1954, following the Tariff Commission implementation, General Motors, Ford, and Rootes Group, which had assembly-only plants in Mumbai, decided to move out of India.[7]

The Tariff commission policies, including similar restrictions that applied to other industries, came to be known as the Licence Raj, which proved to be the greatest undoing of the Indian automotive industry, where bureaucratic red tape ended up causing demand to outstrip supply, with month-long waiting periods for cars, scooters, and motorcycles.

Hindustan Motors was established in Kolkata in technical collaboration with Morris Motors to manufacture Morris Oxford models that would later become HM Ambassador. Addisons, Madras – An Amalgamations Group company, was the agent for Nuffield's Morris, Wolseley, and Riley cars, and Chrysler's Plymouth, Dodge, and De Soto cars and trucks. The first Morris Minor assembled in India and the first car assembled in Madras was driven out from Addison's twin-plants on Smith Road by Anantharamakrishnan on 15 November 1950.[8] Premier Automobiles, Bombay – technical collaboration with Chrysler to manufacture Dodge, Plymouth and Desoto models and with Fiat to manufacture the 1100D models which would later with Premier Padmini range. Standard Motor Products of India, Madras – technical collaboration from Standard-Triumph to manufacture Standard Vanguard, Standard 8, 10 and later Standard Herald.

Vehicle Factory Jabalpur – started manufacturing Jonga Light Utility Vehicles and Vahan 1 Ton (Nissan 4W73 Carriers) in India, under license from Nissan of Japan. They were the main troop carriers of the Indian Armed Forces and much powerful than any other vehicle of their class. Mahindra & Mahindra plant established in Mumbai – technical collaboration with Willys to manufacture CJ Series Jeep. Bajaj Tempo, Pune, now Force Motors – technical collaboration with Tempo (company) to manufacture Tempo Hanseat, a three-wheeler and Tempo Viking and Hanomag, later known as Tempo Matador in India. Standard Motor Products of India – technical collaboration from Standard has licence to manufacture the Standard Atlas passenger van with panel van and one-tonne one tonne pickup variants.

Vehicle Factory Jabalpur started manufacturing Shaktiman trucks with technical assistance from MAN SE of Germany. The trucks were the main logistics vehicle of the Indian Army with several specialist variants. VFJ still is the sole supplier of B vehicles to the Indian Armed Forces. Heavy Vehicles Factory was established in 1965 in Avadi near Chennai to produce tanks in India. Since its inception, HVF has produced all the tanks of India, including Vijayanta, Arjun, Ajeya, Bhishma and their variants for the Indian Army. HVF is the only tank manufacturing facility of India. Tata Motors established a new plant in Pune with technical collaboration with Mercedes Benz to manufacture medium to heavy commercial vehicles both Bus and Trucks.

Ashok Leyland was founded in Chennai with Leyland Motors to manufacture medium to heavy commercial vehicles both Bus and Trucks. Ashok Motors also discontinued its Austin venture formed in 1948 to sell Austin A40 and retooled the factory to make trucks and buses. Hindustan Motors – technical collaboration with General Motors to manufacture the Bedford range of medium lorry and bus chassis. Premier Automobiles – technical collaboration with Chrysler to manufacture the Dodge, Fargo range of medium lorry, panel vans, mini-bus and bus chassis. Simpsons & Co, Madras – part of Amalgamations Group (TAFE Tractors) – technical collaboration with Ford to manufacture medium lorry and bus chassis, but did not utilise that option until the 1980s.

Many of the two-wheelers manufacturers were granted licenses in the early 1960s, well after the tariff commission was enabled. Royal Enfield (India), Madras – technical collaboration with Royal Enfield, UK to manufacture the Enfield Bullet range of motorcycles. Bajaj Auto, Poona – technical collaboration with Piaggio, Italy to manufacture their best selling Vespa range of scooters and three wheelers with commercial option as well. TVS Motors, Madurai/Chennai - started individually and later had technical collaboration with Suzuki Motors, before finally buying them out of the JV. Automobile Products of India, Bombay (Better known for API Lambretta) – technical collaboration with Innocenti of Milan, Italy to manufacture their Lambretta range of mopeds, scooters and three-wheelers. This company was actually the Rootes Group car plant that was bought over by M. A. Chidambaram family. Mopeds India Limited, Tirupathi – technical collaboration with Motobécane, France to manufacture their best selling Mobylette mopeds. Escorts Group, New Delhi – technical collaboration with CEKOP of Poland to manufacture the Rajdoot 175 motorcycle whose origin was DKW RT 125. Ideal Jawa, Mysore – in technical collaboration with CZ - Jawa of Czechoslovakia for its Jawa and Yezdi range of motorcycles.

However, growth was relatively slow in the 1950s and 1960s, due to nationalisation and the license raj, which hampered the growth of the Indian private sector.

1970 to 1983

The beginning of the 1970s saw some growth potential; and most of the collaboration license agreements came to an end, but with the option to continue manufacturing with renewed branding. Cars were still meant for the elite and Jeeps were largely used by government organizations and in some rural regions. By the end of the decade, some developments were made in commercial vehicle segments to facilitate the movement of goods. The two-wheeler segment remained unchanged except for to increased sales to the middle class in urban areas. There was emphasis on having more farm tractors, as India was embarking on a new Green Revolution; and Russian and eastern bloc imports were brought in to meet the demand.

But after 1970, with restrictions on the import of vehicles set, the automotive industry started to grow; but the growth was mainly driven by tractors, commercial vehicles and scooters. Cars still remained a major luxury item. In the 1970s, price controls were finally lifted, inserting a competitive element into the automobile market.[9] However, by the 1980s, the automobile market was still dominated by Hindustan and Premier, who sold superannuated products in fairly limited numbers.[10] The rate of car ownership in 1981 was about one in every thousand citizens – understandable when the annual road tax alone cost about half the average income of an Indian at the time.[11]

During the eighties, a few competitors began to arrive on the scene. Of the 30,487 cars built in India in 1980, all but six came from the two main players Hindustan and Premier: Standard had led a shadow existence in the latter half of the 1970s, producing only a handful of cars to keep their license active.[11] A new contender was tiny Sipani, which had tried building locally developed three-wheeled vehicles since 1975 but introduced the Reliant Kitten-based Dolphin in 1982. Nonetheless, all eyes were on Maruti, which caused a major upheaval to the Indian automobile industry.[11]

The OPEC oil crisis saw increase need to installing or redesign some vehicle to fit diesel engines on medium commercial vehicle. Until the early 1970s Mahindra Jeeps were on Petrol and Premier commercial vehicles had Petrol model options. The Defence sector too had most trucks on Petrol engines.

1984 to 1992

Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Reconnaissance Vehicle (CBRN-RV) manufactured by the Ordnance Factory Medak of OFB
Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Reconnaissance Vehicle (CBRN-RV) manufactured by the Ordnance Factory Medak of OFB

From the end of the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s India saw no new models, the country continuing to depend on two decades-old designs. The Sipani Dolphin, which arrived in 1982, was not a serious contender, with its plastic body and without rear doors - essential to Indian car buyers. This situation forced the government to encourage and let more manufacturers into fray.

In 1984, the Ordnance Factory Medak near Hyderabad was established. It started manufacturing Infantry Combat Vehicles christened as Sarath, the backbone of India's mechanised infantry. OFMK is still the only manufacturing facility of ICVs in India. To manufacture the high-power engines used in ICVs and main battle tanks, Engine Factory Avadi, near Chennai was set in 1987. In 1986, to promote the auto industry, the government established the Delhi Auto Expo. The 1986 Expo was a showcase for how the Indian automotive industry was absorbing new technologies, promoting indigenous research and development, and adapting these technologies for the rugged conditions of India.

Post-1992 liberalisation

Tata Indica, launched in 1998
Tata Indica, launched in 1998

Eventually multinational automakers, such as, Suzuki and Toyota of Japan and Hyundai of South Korea, were allowed to invest in the Indian market, furthering the establishment of an automotive industry in India. Maruti Suzuki was the first, and the most successful of these new entries, and in part the result of government policies to promote the automotive industry beginning in the 1980s.[10] As India began to liberalise its automobile market in 1991, a number of foreign firms also initiated joint ventures with existing Indian companies. The variety of options available to the consumer began to multiply in the nineties, whereas before there had usually only been one option in each price class. By 2000, there were 12 large automotive companies in the Indian market, most of them offshoots of global companies.[12]

Slow export growth

Exports were slow to grow. Sales of small numbers of vehicles to tertiary markets and neighbouring countries began early, and in 1987 Maruti Suzuki shipped 480 cars to Europe (Hungary). After some growth in the mid-nineties, exports once again began to drop as the outmoded platforms provided to Indian manufacturers by multinationals were not competitive.[13] This was not to last, and today India manufactures low-priced cars for markets across the globe. As of 18 March 2013, global brands such as Proton Holdings, PSA Group, Kia, Mazda, Chrysler, Dodge and Geely Holding Group were shelving plans for India due to the competitiveness of the market, as well as the global economic crisis.[14]

Emission norms

In 2000, in line with international standards to reduce vehicular pollution, the central government unveiled standards titled "India 2000", with later, upgraded guidelines to be known as Bharat Stage emission standards. These standards are quite similar to the stringent European emission standards and have been implemented in a phased manner.

Bharat Stage IV (BS-IV), the most stringent so far, was implemented first, in April 2010, in 13 cities—Delhi (NCR), Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Solapur, and Agra—and then, as of April 2017, the rest of the nation.

In 2019, in line with international standards to reduce vehicular pollution, the central government of India announced the introduction of BS-VI norms to control air pollution, taking effect from 1 April 2020.[15]

Local manufacture encouraged

Auto Expo 2014, Noida
Auto Expo 2014, Noida

India levies an import tax of 125% on foreign imported cars, while the import tax on components such as gearboxes, airbags, drive axles, is 10%. Therefore, the taxes encourage cars to be assembled in India rather than be imported as completely built units.[16]

Sub-4-metre rule

In 2006, the government of India imposed a new tax structure, which massively impacted the segment. It enables vehicles shorter than 4.0 metres (157.5 in) to qualify for a significantly lower excise duty, which is 8 percent as opposed to 20 percent for longer vehicles.[17] Tata Motors was the first to exploit the new tax structure, which redesigned the rear portion of the Indigo sedan, dropping its length to 3,988 mm (157.0 in) and renamed it as the Indigo CS.[18] The model became significantly cheaper, becoming one of the largest selling three-box cars in the country.[19] Other manufacturers quickly adapted, which led to the release of the shorter Suzuki Swift Dzire, the new Honda Brio Amaze, and others.[20]

Manufacturing facilities

Isuzu's newly inaugurated manufacturing plant in 2016 at Sri City, Andhra Pradesh, India
Isuzu's newly inaugurated manufacturing plant in 2016 at Sri City, Andhra Pradesh, India

The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is evenly divided into three "clusters". Around Chennai is the southernmost and largest, with a 35% revenue share, accounting for 60% of the country's automotive exports, and home of the operations of Heavy Vehicles Factory, Engine Factory Avadi, Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler, Caparo, Mini, Citroën and Datsun.[21][22]

Near Mumbai, Maharashtra, along the Chakan corridor near Pune, is the western cluster, with a 33% share of the market. Audi, Volkswagen, and Škoda are located in Aurangabad. Mahindra and Mahindra has an SUV and engine assembly plant at Nashik. General Motors, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar, Fiat, and Force Motors have assembly plants in the area.[23][24]

The northern cluster is around the National Capital Region, and contributes 32%. Gurgaon and Manesar, in Haryana, are where the country's largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based.

An emerging cluster is the state of Gujarat, with a manufacturing facility of MG Motors in Halol, Atul Auto in Rajkot, Ford, Oculus Auto in Sabarkantha,[25] Maruti Suzuki, and Peugeot-Citroën plants are also planned for Gujarat.[26]

Uttarakhand with Tata Motors, Telangana with Hyundai, Ordnance Factory Medak, Hyderabad Allwyn and Mahindra & Mahindra, Noida with Honda, and Bengaluru - Karnataka region with Toyota, Volvo and Scania, Andhra with Isuzu and Kia and Kolkata - Jamshedpur belt also known as East India belt with companies such as Hindustan Motors, Heavy Engineering Corporation, Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery, TIL Tractos, Tata Daewoo and Tata Motors are other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.[27][28][29]

Andhra Pradesh

Commercial and passenger vehicles
Two wheelers
Off-highway vehicles

Gujarat

Passenger vehicles
Two wheelers
Commercial vehicles

Haryana

Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles
Agricultural Vehicles

Himachal Pradesh

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

Jharkhand

Commercial vehicles

Karnataka

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

Kerala

Commercial vehicles

Madhya Pradesh

Two wheelers
Commercial vehicles

Maharashtra

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

Punjab

Commercial vehicles

Rajasthan

Two Wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

Tamil Nadu

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

Telangana

Defence
Commercial vehicles

Uttar Pradesh

Two wheelers
Commercial vehicles

Uttarakhand

Commercial vehicles
Two wheelers

West Bengal

Commercial vehicles

Exports

2007 Mahindra Scorpio in service with Italy's CNSAS
2007 Mahindra Scorpio in service with Italy's CNSAS

India's automobile exports have grown consistently and reached $4.5 billion in 2009, with the United Kingdom being India's largest export market, followed by Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, and South Africa.[98]

According to The New York Times, India's strong engineering base and expertise in the manufacturing of low-cost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the expansion of manufacturing facilities of several automobile companies like Hyundai, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Maruti Suzuki.[99]

In 2008, South Korean multinational Hyundai Motors alone exported 240,000 cars made in India. Nissan Motors planned to export 250,000 vehicles manufactured in its India plant by 2011.[100] Similarly, US automobile company, General Motors had announced its plans to export about 50,000 cars manufactured in India by 2011.[101]

In September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to set up a plant in India with an annual capacity of 250,000 cars, for US$500 million. The cars were manufactured both for the Indian market and for export.[102] The company said that the plant was a part of its plan to make India the hub for its global production business.[103] Fiat Motors had announced that it would source more than US$1 billion worth auto components from India.[104]

A Tata Safari on display in Poznań, Poland
A Tata Safari on display in Poznań, Poland

In 2009, India (0.23m) surpassed China (0.16m) as Asia's fourth largest exporter of cars after Japan (1.77m), Korea (1.12m) and Thailand (0.26m).[105]

In July 2010, The Economic Times reported that PSA Peugeot Citroën was planning to re-enter the Indian market and open a production plant in Andhra Pradesh that would have an annual capacity of 100,000 vehicles, investing €700M in the operation.[106] PSA's intention to utilise this production facility for export purposes however remains unclear as of December 2010.

In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of small cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more than 250,000 cars annually from India. Apart from Maruti Exports' shipments to Suzuki's other markets, Maruti Suzuki also manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells them in Europe. Nissan will also export small cars from its new Indian assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian and African markets, and is preparing to sell electric cars in Europe in 2010. The firm is planning to sell an electric version of its affordable car the Tata Nano in Europe and in the U.S. In the 2000s, Mahindra & Mahindra prepared to introduce its pickup trucks and small SUV models in the U.S. market, but canceled its plans. As of 2019, it is assembling and selling an off-road vehicle (Mahindra Roxor; not certified for road use) in limited numbers in the U.S.[107] It is also sold in Canada. Bajaj Auto is designing a low-cost car for Renault Nissan Automotive India, which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join domestic commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small car project.[108] While the possibilities for the Indian automobile industry are impressive, there are challenges that could thwart future growth. Since the demand for automobiles in recent years is directly linked to overall economic expansion and rising personal incomes, industry growth will slow if the economy weakens.[108]

Top 10 export destinations

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (September 2021)

India exported $14.5 billion worth of automobiles in 2014. The 10 countries below imported 47.8% of that total.[109]

Rank Country Value (US$) Share
1 United States 1.2 billion 8.4%
2 Mexico $1 billion 6.9%
3 South Africa $888.8 million 6.1%
4 United Kingdom $637.4 million 4.4%
5 Sri Lanka $596.9 million 4.1%
6 Bangladesh $592.1 million 4.1%
7 Turkey $580.4 million 4%
8 Nigeria $546.8 million 3.8%
9 United Arab Emirates $433.6 million 3%
10 Colombia $428.9 million 3%

Passenger vehicle manufacturers in India

India is the 4th largest passenger vehicle producer in the world. In 2018–19, it produced 4.06 million cars.[110] Currently, there are an estimated 30 million cars in India.[111]

This list is of cars that are officially available and serviced in India.

Indian brands

Models currently manufactured by Indian brands

Maruti Swift

Defunct Indian brands

Joint-venture (JV) brands

Foreign-owned brands

MG, Hyundai, Renault, Nissan, Datsun, Citroën, Jeep, Honda, Toyota, KIA, Volkswagen, Škoda, Audi, Jaguar, Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz, BMW and MINI are the foreign automotive companies that manufacture and market their products in India.

Vehicles currently manufactured in India


Opel was present in India until 2006. As of 2013, Opel only provides spare parts and vehicle servicing to existing Opel vehicle owners.

General Motors India stopped producing passenger cars for the Indian market in late 2017.

Ford India stopped producing passenger cars for the Indian market in late 2021.

Statistics

Top 10 best-selling automobile models in India (new passenger and commercial vehicles), 1985–2021
Source:[117][118]
Year Models and Ranking
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
1985 Maruti 800 Premier Padmini Hindustan Ambassador Mahindra Jeep Maruti Van Mahindra FJ/XJ Force Matador Force Trax Hindustan Contessa Hindustan Trekker
1986 Maruti 800 Premier Padmini Hindustan Ambassador Maruti Van Mahindra Jeep Mahindra FJ/XJ Force Matador Maruti Gypsy Tata 407/608/609 Force Trax
1987 Maruti 800 Premier Padmini Maruti Van Mahindra Jeep Hindustan Ambassador Force Matador Tata 407/608/609 Mahindra FJ/XJ Premier NE118 Maruti Gypsy
1988 Maruti 800 Premier Padmini Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Hindustan Ambassador Tata 407/608/609 Force Matador Mahindra FJ/XJ Maruti Gypsy Premier NE118
1989 Maruti 800 Premier Padmini Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Hindustan Ambassador Tata 407/608/609 Maruti Gypsy Force Matador Premier NE118 Mahindra FJ/XJ
1990 Maruti 800 Premier Padmini Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Hindustan Ambassador Tata 407/608/609 Maruti Gypsy Force Matador Premier NE118 Mahindra FJ/XJ
1991 Maruti 800 Maruti Omni Premier Padmini Mahindra Jeep Tata 407/608/609 Hindustan Ambassador Premier NE118 Force Matador Maruti Gypsy Force Trax
1992 Maruti 800 Mahindra Jeep Maruti Omni Tata 407/608/609 Hindustan Ambassador Premier Padmini Force Matador Premier NE118 Force Trax Maruti Gypsy
1993 Maruti 800 Mahindra Jeep Maruti Omni Tata 407/608/609 Hindustan Ambassador Premier Padmini Force Matador Maruti 1000 Premier NE118 Force Trax
1994 Maruti 800 Mahindra Jeep Maruti Omni Tata 407/608/609 Hindustan Ambassador Premier Padmini Force Matador Maruti 1000 Force Trax Premier NE118
1995 Maruti 800 Mahindra Jeep Tata 407/608/609 Maruti Esteem Maruti Omni Hindustan Ambassador Maruti Zen Premier Padmini Tata Sumo Force Matador
1996 Maruti 800 Mahindra Jeep Tata 407/608/609 Maruti Omni Maruti Zen Tata Sumo Maruti Esteem Hindustan Ambassador Daewoo Cielo Force Trax
1997 Maruti 800 Mahindra Jeep Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Tata Sumo Tata 407/608/609 Hindustan Ambassador Maruti Esteem Daewoo Cielo Opel Astra
1998 Maruti 800 Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Tata 407/608/609 Tata Sumo Hindustan Ambassador Maruti Esteem Hyundai Santro Honda City
1999 Maruti 800 Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Hyundai Santro Mahindra Jeep Tata Indica Tata 407/608/609 Daewoo Matiz Tata Sumo Maruti Esteem
2000 Maruti 800 Hyundai Santro Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Tata Indica Daewoo Matiz Tata 407/608/609 Tata Sumo Toyota Qualis
2001 Maruti 800 Hyundai Santro Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Tata Indica Mahindra Jeep Maruti Alto Toyota Qualis Tata 407/608/609 Tata Sumo
2002 Maruti 800 Hyundai Santro Tata Indica Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Maruti Wagon R Tata 407/608/609 Fiat Palio Maruti Alto
2003 Maruti 800 Hyundai Santro Tata Indica Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Maruti Wagon R Maruti Alto Mahindra Jeep Toyota Qualis Tata 407/608/609
2004 Maruti 800 Maruti Alto Hyundai Santro Tata Indica Maruti Wagon R Maruti Zen Maruti Omni Mahindra Jeep Toyota Qualis Tata Indigo
2005 Maruti Alto Hyundai Santro Tata Indica Maruti 800 Maruti Wagon R Maruti Omni Maruti Zen Mahindra Jeep Maruti Swift Tata Indigo
2006 Maruti Alto Hyundai Santro Tata Indica Maruti Wagon R Maruti 800 Maruti Omni Maruti Swift Tata Ace Honda City Mahindra Jeep
FY07-08 Maruti Alto Tata Indica Maruti Wagon R Hyundai Santro Maruti Swift Maruti Omni Maruti 800 Maruti Zen Estilo Hyundai i10 Toyota Innova
2008 data unavailable
2009 Maruti Alto Maruti Wagon R Hyundai i10 Tata Indica Maruti Swift Maruti Omni Hyundai Santro Maruti Swift Dzire Mahindra Bolero Honda City
2010 Maruti Alto Hyundai i10 Maruti Wagon R Maruti Swift Tata Indica Maruti Swift Dzire Maruti Omni Hyundai Santro Tata Indigo Mahindra Bolero
2011 Maruti Alto Maruti Wagon R Hyundai i10 Maruti Swift Tata Indica/Vista Maruti Swift Dzire Mahindra Bolero Maruti Omni Hyundai i20 Tata Indigo/Manza
2012 Maruti Alto Maruti Swift Maruti Swift Dzire Maruti Wagon R Mahindra Bolero Hyundai i10 Tata Indica/Vista Hyundai Eon Hyundai i20 Tata Nano
2013 Maruti Alto Maruti Swift Maruti Swift Dzire Maruti Wagon R Mahindra Bolero Hyundai Eon Hyundai i10 Hyundai i20 Toyota Innova Maruti Ertiga
2014 Maruti Alto Maruti Swift Dzire Maruti Swift Maruti Wagon R Hyundai i10 Mahindra Bolero Hyundai Eon Honda City Maruti Omni Hyundai i20
2015 Maruti Alto Maruti Swift Dzire Maruti Swift Maruti Wagon R Hyundai i20 Hyundai i10 Mahindra Bolero Maruti Celerio Honda City Hyundai Eon
2016 Maruti Alto Maruti Swift Dzire Maruti Wagon R Maruti Swift Hyundai i10 Hyundai i20 Maruti Baleno Renault Kwid Hyundai Creta Maruti Celerio
2017 Maruti Alto Maruti Dzire Maruti Baleno Maruti Swift Maruti Wagon R Hyundai i10 Maruti Vitara Brezza Hyundai i20 Hyundai Creta Maruti Celerio
2018 Maruti Dzire Maruti Alto Maruti Swift Maruti Baleno Maruti Vitara Brezza Maruti Wagon R Hyundai i20 Hyundai i10 Hyundai Creta Maruti Celerio
2019 Maruti Alto Maruti Dzire Maruti Swift Maruti Baleno Maruti Wagon R Maruti Vitara Brezza Hyundai i20 Maruti Eeco Hyundai i10 Hyundai Creta
2020 Maruti Swift Maruti Alto Maruti Baleno Maruti Wagon R Maruti Dzire Maruti Eeco Hyundai Creta Kia Seltos Hyundai i10 Maruti Vitara Brezza
2021 Maruti Wagon R Maruti Swift Maruti Baleno Maruti Alto Hyundai Creta Maruti Dzire Maruti Vitara Brezza Maruti Eeco Maruti Ertiga Tata Nexon
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
  Indigenous manufacturer     Local-foreign joint venture manufacturer     Foreign manufacturer
See also : Best-selling models in
2019 passenger car sales data[119]
Rank OEM 2019 sales Share 2018 sales Share
1 Maruti Suzuki Decrease 1,485,943 Decrease 50.6% 1,731,179 51.7%
2 Hyundai Decrease 510,260 Increase 17.4% 550,002 16.4%
3 Mahindra Decrease 219,663 Increase 7.5% 232,181 6.9%
4 Tata Motors Decrease 152,944 Decrease 5.2% 213,625 6.4%
5 Honda Decrease 134,741 Decrease 4.6% 174,880 5.2%
6 Toyota Decrease 126,701 Decrease 4.3% 151,480 4.5%
7 Renault Increase 88,869 Increase 3.0% 82,368 2.5%
8 Ford Decrease 73,636 Decrease 2.5% 97,804 2.9%
9 Kia Increase 45,494 Increase 1.5% 0 0.0%
10 Volkswagen Decrease 32,324 Decrease 1.1% 37,029 1.1%
11 Nissan-Datsun Decrease 23,580 Decrease 0.8% 41,583 1.2%
12 MG Motor Increase 15,930 Increase 0.5% 0 0.0%
13 Škoda Decrease 15,284 Steady 0.5% 16,692 0.5%
14 Fiat Chrysler Decrease 11,238 Decrease 0.4% 19,030 0.6%
2019 best selling cars in India
Rank Model 2019 sales 2018 sales
1 Maruti Suzuki Alto 208,087 256,661
2 Maruti Suzuki Dzire 198,904 264,612
3 Maruti Suzuki Swift 191,901 223,630
4 Maruti Suzuki Baleno 183,862 210,236
5 Maruti Suzuki Wagon R 155,967 152,020
6 Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza 127,094 155,466
7 Hyundai Elite i20 123,201 141,104
8 Maruti Suzuki Eeco 114,105 84,565
9 Hyundai Grand i10 102,693 134,249
10 Hyundai Creta 99,736 120,905
11 Maruti Suzuki Ertiga 93,081 56,408
12 Maruti Suzuki Celerio 70,930 100,957
13 Hyundai Venue 70,443 0
14 Mahindra Bolero 69,656 85,464
15 Honda Amaze 67,715 67,584
16 Hyundai Santro 64,729 24,741
17 Tata Tiago 63,215 92,286
18 Toyota Innova Crysta 61,743 78,130
19 Renault Kwid 53,438 66,815
20 Tata Nexon 49,312 52,519

Auto companies

Indian brands

Joint-venture (JV) brands

Foreign-owned brands

Defunct commercial vehicle manufacturers of India

Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry

Further information: Electric vehicle industry in India

During April 2012, the Indian government planned to unveil the road map for the development of domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country.[147] A discussion between the various stakeholders, including Government, industry, and academia, was expected to take place during 23–24 February.[147] The final contours of the policy would have been formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport, and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries, auto industry executives, such as Anand Mahindra (Vice Chairman and managing director, Mahindra & Mahindra) and Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-chairman, Toyota Kirloskar), were involved in this task.[147] The Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore research and development fund for the sector in the 12th five-year plan during 2012–17.[147] The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor, and to develop such capabilities locally. In the year 2017, An Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh based Electric Vehicles manufacturing company called AVERA[148] New & Renewable Energy started electric scooters manufacturing[149] and are ready to launch their two models of scooters by the end of December 2018.[150]

Electric cars are seen as economical long-term investments, as one doesn't need to purchase gas, but needs only to recharge the battery, using renewable energy sources. According to the United States Department of Energy, electric cars produce half as much CO2 emissions as compared to a gas-powered car.[151] According to The Economic Times, 60% of Indian customers expect fuel prices to go up in the next 12 months and 58% expect to buy a new car in the same time frame. Most consumers are looking to buy a car which gives good mileage. According to the same source, 68% of Asian drivers expect higher mileage from their cars due to the higher fuel prices. This has encouraged 38% of Indian automobile consumers to switch to electric or hybrid cars.[152] Due to this change in the market, many companies, such as Toyota, have planned to introduce electric vehicles in India; and Suzuki has tested almost 50 electric prototypes in India already, according to Mashable.In 2019 Hyundai Launched India's First Electric Car Kona Electric .[153]

Electric vehicle manufacturers in India

Growth initiatives

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2021)

Automotive Research Association of India and standards

The Government of India felt the need for a permanent agency to expedite the publication of standards and development of test facilities[159] in parallel with the work of the preparation of the standards - as the development of improved safety critical parts could be undertaken only after the publication of the standard and commissioning of test facilities. The Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) constituted a permanent Automotive Industry Standards Committee (AISC) . The Standards prepared by AISC will be approved by the permanent CMVR Technical Standing Committee (CTSC). After approval, the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)[160] will publish this standard.[citation needed]

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are globally proven systems to optimize the utilization of existing transport infrastructure and improve transportation systems in terms of efficiency, quality, comfort and safety. Having realized the potential of ITS, Government bodies and other organizations in India are presently working towards implementing various components of ITS across the country.[citation needed]

The first step taken for creation and implementation of ITS was holding a National Workshop titled "User Requirements for Interactive ITS Architecture",[161] which was conducted as a collaboration between SIAM and ASRTU on 26 & 27 February 2015. This was primarily focused on ITS in Public Bus Transportation. Nonetheless, the workshop helped to create the outline for "National Intelligent Transport System Architecture and Policy for Public Transport (Bus)", which was submitted by ASRTU and SIAM to the government[citation needed]

In the 44th & 45th CMVR-TSC, Chairman had directed - standardization activities to be initiated on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) - Vehicle Location Tracking, Camera Surveillance System and Emergency Request Button. The committee intended to extend the above user requirements to all public transportation namely –buses, taxis, etc. The current document covers the requirements for Vehicle Location Tracking and Emergency Button. The other ITS components like PIS, CCTV system, Fare collection etc. are deliberated and would be addressed in later phase and could be added as separate parts to the current document.[citation needed]

Based on these directions, the AISC Panel on ITS has prepared this AIS-140 titled,"Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) - Requirements for Public Transport Vehicle Operation". The panel also deliberated and identified the necessary elements for an effective implementation of vehicle level ITS system.[citation needed]

For AIS-140 Devices, in India, connectivity to report location, and Emergency Panic Button signal is though wireless cellular connectivity. There are device focused Cellular Connectivity Offerings like 'eSIM4Things[162]' available in India, which cater to connectivity requirements of AIS-140 devices.[163] eSIM4Things[162] is fully compatible with all AIS-140 devices and with a connectivity manager and a range of tariff plans.

Driverless Technology in India

While there is controversy on possibility of driverless cars in India,[164][165] many startups are working on this technology:

In Auto Expo 2018, Hi Tech Robotic Systemz launched an artificial intelligence-based driver behaviour sensor technology called Novus Aware in partnership with Daimler India Commercial Vehicles (DICV).[167][168]

Performance-linked incentives scheme for future tech

Automotive sector is part of 13 sectors that GoI has introduced Rs 1.97 lakh cr (US$28 b) performance-linked incentives (PLI) schemes for five years in 2021-22 budget.[169] In Sept 2021, to boost the automotive industry with the newer and green technology the Government of India (GoI) launched 3 PLI schemes, a Rs. 26,000 cr (US$3.61 b) scheme for production of electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel vehicles (PEVHV), the Rs 18,000 crore (US$2.5 b) "Advanced Chemistry Cell" (ACC) scheme for new generation advance storage technologies which are useful for the electric vehicles, and Rs 10,000 crore (US$1.4 b) "Faster Adaption of Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles" (FAME) scheme to go green by expediting production of more electronic vehicles and replacement of other types of existing vehicles with the greener vehicles.[170] The Rs. 26,000 cr (US$3.61 b) PLI scheme to boost automotive sector to boost the production of electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel vehicles will also generate 750,000 direct jobs in auto sector.[169] These schemes will reduce pollution, climate change, carbon footprint, reduce oil and fuel import bill through domestic alternative substitution, boost job creation and economy.[170] Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers welcomed this as it will enhance the competitiveness and boost growth.[169]

See also

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