Mercedes-Benz factory in the metro area of São Paulo
Jeep Renegade made in Brazil, in the metro area of Recife
First BMW 328i ActiveFlex manufactured in Brazil, at the Araquari plant, in the metro area of Joinville. The car was signed by all the workers on the production line.
John Deere produces agricultural machinery in Brazil.

The Brazilian automotive industry is coordinated by the Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (Anfavea), created in 1956, which includes automakers (cars, light vehicles, trucks, buses and agriculture machines) with factories in Brazil. Anfavea is part of the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA), based in Paris. In 2021, the annual production exceeded 2.2 million vehicles, the 8th largest in the world.[1]

Most large global automotive companies are present in Brazil, such as: BMW, BYD, Chery, Fiat, Ford, Geely, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai, JAC Motors, Kia, Land Rover, Lexus, Lifan, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, Nissan Motors, Renault, Stellantis, Subaru, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo Trucks, among others, as well as national companies such as Agrale, Marcopolo, Randon, and more. In the past there were national brands such as DKW Vemag, FNM, Gurgel, and Troller. Some traditionally produced modern equipped replicas of older models.

History

BMW X1 Activeflex (flexible-fuel) made in Brazil
Mercedes-Benz bus made in Brazil, serving the city of Rio de Janeiro
Marcopolo bus, made in Brazil, in the city of Curitiba
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles production in the metro area of Recife
Volvo buses made in Brazil, serving the metro area of São Paulo
Mercedes-Benz police van, made in Brazil, in the city of Rio de Janeiro
Mercedes-Benz micro bus made in Brazil, serving the city of Porto Alegre
Volvo bus, made in Brazil, in the city of Curitiba

The first Brazilian automotive industry was the work of Henry Ford, who started the Brazilian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company in 1919. In 1921 Ford opened its own production facility and was followed by General Motors in 1926. In 1928, Ford established the Fordlândia, an industrial district in the Amazon rainforest. The district is no longer in use but saw a populational growth compared to the early 2000s, when roughly 90 people lived in the town.[2]

In 1956, the Romi-Isetta, an early Brazilian car, was initially produced, with license purchase of Italian Iso. In 1958, Toyota started to produce its famous Bandeirante. In 1959, the first Volkswagen factory was built, it started manufacturing the Type 2, which preceded the famous Beetle. At the same time, a Brazilian entrepreneur, Mr. Sebastiao William Cardoso, started producing an electrical small jeep called Tupi.[3]

In the late 1950s, Chevrolet and Ford started manufacturing pickup trucks, and in the 1960s, automobiles and commercial vehicles, GM also brought buses. In 1967, Puma began selling sports cars.[4][5] The Italian Fiat established its first factory in the 1970s, and Mercedes-Benz started to produce trucks and buses during the 1950s, and opened an automobile factory in 1998.[6][7] These companies dominated the Brazilian market until mid-1990s, when the Brazilian market was finally opened to imports. In the 1990s, more auto companies settled and opened factories in Brazil.[8]

The automotive industry in Brazil sells to all over Latin America and the world. In the last few years, the Brazilian auto industry has grown quickly, attracting investments from the main global automakers. In 2007, production grew 14% compared to 2006 figures, reaching more than 4 million vehicles.[9]

In October 2012, the Inovar-Auto Program was approved by decree with the theoretical goals of encouraging automakers to produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and investing in the national automotive industry, by managing taxation exceptions (IPI = Tax over Industrialized Product). However, the program has received criticism, especially of protectionism. The country has recently lost a WTO dispute against tax advantages and illegal practices of protectionism.[10] The Inovar-Auto program ended in December 2017 and was replaced by the Route 2030 Program.[11]

Timeline

1890s

1900s

1910s

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

Jeep Renegade assembly line in the metro area of Recife

1960s

1970s

Volvo bus, made in Brazil, in the city of Curitiba

1980s

1990s

Volvo bus, made in Brazil, in the city of Belo Horizonte
Mercedes-Benz bus, made in Brazil, in the city of São Paulo

2000s

Former Brazilian president Michel Temer during a visit to the Jeep industrial plant in the metro area of Recife

2010s

2020s

Historical production by year

Year Quantity < 0.5  0.5 – 1 millions 1 – 2 millions 2 – 3 millions 3 – 4 millions
1950  
1960 133,000    
1970 416,089    
1980 1,165,174    
1990 914,466    
2000 1,681,517    
2005 2,530,840    
2006 2,611,034    
2007 2,970,818    
2008 3,220,475    
2009 3,182,617    
2010 3,381,728    
2011 3,406,150    
2012 3,402,508    
2013 3,712,380    
2014 3,364,890    
2015 2,429,463    
2016 2,157,379    
2017 2,699,672
2018 2,880,724
2019 2,944,962
2020 2.014.055  
2021 2,248,253  
2022 2,370,000  
2023 2,320,000  

Historical sales

Top 10 best-selling models in Brazil (new passenger and commercial vehicles), 1977–2023
Source : BSCB,[54] Fenabrave[55]
Table indicators

  Mini (A) / Small (B) Car        Medium (C) / Large (D) Car        Executive (E) / Sports (S) Car        Coupé utility / Pickup        Crossover / SUV (J)        Van

Year Models and Ranking Year
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
1977 Volkswagen Fusca Volkswagen Brasilia Volkswagen Passat Ford Corcel Chevrolet Chevette Fiat 147 not available 1977
1978 Volkswagen Fusca Volkswagen Brasilia Fiat 147 Volkswagen Passat Chevrolet Chevette Ford Corcel not available 1978
1979 Volkswagen Fusca Volkswagen Brasilia Fiat 147 Volkswagen Passat Chevrolet Chevette Ford Corcel not available 1979
1980–1987 not available
1988 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Monza Ford Escort Chevrolet Chevette Fiat Uno Volkswagen Voyage Volkswagen Santana Volkswagen Parati Ford Del Rey Chevrolet Opala 1988
1989 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Monza Ford Escort Fiat Uno Chevrolet Chevette Volkswagen Santana Volkswagen Parati Volkswagen Voyage Chevrolet Kadett Chevrolet D-20 1989
1990 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Monza Volkswagen Parati Chevrolet Kadett Volkswagen Voyage Ford Verona Ford Escort Chevrolet Chevette Volkswagen Santana 1990
1991 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Monza Ford Escort Chevrolet Kadett Ford Verona Volkswagen Parati Volkswagen Apollo Volkswagen Santana Chevrolet Chevette 1991
1992 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Monza Chevrolet Kadett Volkswagen Parati Ford Escort Chevrolet Chevette Volkswagen Santana Ford Verona Fiat Tempra 1992
1993 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Ford Escort Chevrolet Kadett Chevrolet Monza Volkswagen Logus Volkswagen Parati Chevrolet Chevette Fiat Tempra Volkswagen Santana 1993
1994 Fiat Uno Volkswagen Gol Ford Escort Fiat Tipo Chevrolet Corsa Chevrolet Monza Chevrolet Kadett Fiat Tempra Volkswagen Logus Volkswagen Parati 1994
1995 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Corsa Ford Escort Fiat Tipo Volkswagen Golf Fiat Tempra Chevrolet Kadett Volkswagen Santana Chevrolet Monza 1995
1996 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Corsa (Hatch) Fiat Palio Ford Escort Ford Fiesta Chevrolet Vectra Chevrolet Kadett Volkswagen Santana Fiat Tempra 1996
1997 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Chevrolet Corsa (Hatch) Fiat Uno Ford Fiesta Chevrolet Vectra Volkswagen Parati Ford Ka Volkswagen Kombi Fiat Palio Weekend 1997
1998 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Chevrolet Corsa Fiat Uno Chevrolet Vectra Ford Ka Ford Fiesta Ford Escort Volkswagen Parati Volkswagen Polo 1998[56]
1999 Volkswagen Gol not available 1999
2000 Volkswagen Gol not available 2000
2001 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Fiat Uno Chevrolet Celta Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Chevrolet Corsa (Hatch) Ford Fiesta Fiat Palio Weekend Fiat Siena Volkswagen Golf 2001
2002 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Corsa Fiat Palio Chevrolet Celta Fiat Uno Ford Fiesta Renault Clio Peugeot 206 Chevrolet Astra Fiat Siena 2002
2003 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Corsa Fiat Palio Chevrolet Celta Fiat Uno Ford Fiesta Renault Clio Fiat Siena Chevrolet Astra Toyota Corolla 2003
2004 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Chevrolet Corsa Chevrolet Celta Fiat Uno Ford Fiesta Volkswagen Fox Fiat Siena Chevrolet Astra Ford EcoSport 2004
2005 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Corsa Fiat Palio Chevrolet Celta Fiat Uno Ford Fiesta Volkswagen Fox Ford EcoSport Fiat Siena Fiat Strada 2005
2006 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Chevrolet Celta Fiat Uno Volkswagen Fox/Cross Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Fiat Siena Ford Fiesta (Hatch) Ford EcoSport Fiat Strada 2006
2007 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Fiat Uno Volkswagen Fox/Cross Chevrolet Celta Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Fiat Siena Ford Fiesta (Hatch) Fiat Strada Chevrolet Prisma 2007
2008 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Fiat Uno Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Chevrolet Celta Volkswagen Fox/Cross Fiat Siena Fiat Strada Honda Civic Ford Ka 2008
2009 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Palio Fiat Uno Chevrolet Celta Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Volkswagen Fox/Cross Fiat Siena Fiat Strada Volkswagen Voyage Ford Ka 2009
2010 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Celta Volkswagen Fox/Cross Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Fiat Palio Fiat Siena Fiat Strada Ford Fiesta (Hatch) Ford Ka 2010
2011 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Chevrolet Celta Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Volkswagen Fox/Cross Fiat Strada Fiat Palio Fiat Siena Volkswagen Voyage Ford Fiesta (Hatch) 2011
2012 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Fiat Palio Volkswagen Fox/Cross Chevrolet Celta Fiat Strada Ford Fiesta (Hatch) Fiat Siena Chevrolet Corsa (Sedan) Renault Sandero 2012
2013 Volkswagen Gol Fiat Uno Fiat Palio Ford Fiesta (Hatch) Volkswagen Fox/Cross Fiat Siena Fiat Strada Chevrolet Onix Hyundai HB20 Renault Sandero 2013
2014 Fiat Palio Volkswagen Gol Fiat Strada Chevrolet Onix Fiat Uno Hyundai HB20 Ford Fiesta Fiat Siena Volkswagen Fox/Cross Renault Sandero 2014
2015 Chevrolet Onix Fiat Palio Hyundai HB20 Fiat Strada Ford Ka (Hatch) Volkswagen Gol Volkswagen Fox/Cross Fiat Uno Renault Sandero Chevrolet Prisma 2015
2016 Chevrolet Onix Hyundai HB20 Ford Ka (Hatch) Chevrolet Prisma Toyota Corolla Fiat Palio Renault Sandero Volkswagen Gol Fiat Strada Honda
HR-V
2016[57]
2017 Chevrolet Onix Hyundai HB20 Ford Ka (Hatch) Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Prisma Renault Sandero Toyota Corolla Fiat Strada Fiat Mobi Fiat Toro 2017
2018 Chevrolet Onix Hyundai HB20 Ford Ka (Hatch) Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Prisma Volkswagen Polo Renault Kwid Fiat Strada Fiat Argo Jeep Compass 2018
2019 Chevrolet Onix Ford Ka (Hatch) Hyundai HB20 Renault Kwid Volkswagen Gol Fiat Argo Fiat Strada Chevrolet Prisma Volkswagen Polo Jeep Renegade 2019[58]
2020 Chevrolet Onix (Hatch) Ford Ka (Hatch) Hyundai HB20 Chevrolet Onix Plus Fiat Strada Volkswagen Gol Fiat Argo Volkswagen T-Cross Jeep Renegade Fiat Toro 2020[59]
2021 Fiat Strada Hyundai HB20 Fiat Argo Jeep Renegade Chevrolet Onix (Hatch) Jeep Compass Fiat Toro Volkswagen Gol Fiat Mobi Hyundai Creta 2021[60]
2022 Fiat Strada Hyundai HB20 Chevrolet Onix Chevrolet Onix Plus Fiat Mobi Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Tracker Volkswagen T-Cross Fiat Argo Jeep Compass 2022[61][62]
2023 Fiat Strada Volkswagen Polo Chevrolet Onix Hyundai HB20 Chevrolet Onix Plus Fiat Mobi Volkswagen T-Cross Fiat Argo Chevrolet Tracker Hyundai Creta 2023[63]
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
See also: Best-selling models in

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers

Current Passenger Automobiles

Motorcycle and Bicycle

Bus & Truck

Tractors

Representative Importers

Former Local And Foreign Manufacturers

Educational Institutions

Local manufacture encouraged

As of 2022, Brazil has a 16~18% tariff on imported combustion engine vehicles[112][113] and 0% on electric vehicles.[114]

Passenger Vehicle Currently Offered, Manufactured Or Imported in Large Scale

Further information: List of automobiles manufactured in Brazil

Agrale: Marruá

Audi: ; Imported: A3, A4, A5, A6, A8, Q3/Q3 Sportback, Q5, Q7, Q8, RS, e-tron and e-tron GT

BMW: 3 Series, X3; Imported: 1 Series, 2 Series, 4 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, X1, X2, X4, X5, X6, X7, Z4 and iX

Chery: Tiggo 5x Pro, Tiggo 7 Pro, Tiggo 8; Imported: iCar, Arrizo 6 Pro and Tiggo 8 Pro Plug-in Hybrid

Chevrolet: Onix/Onix Plus, Montana, Spin, Tracker, S10, Trailblazer; Imported: Bolt, Camaro, Cruze, Equinox and Silverado

Citroën: C3, C4 Cactus; Imported: Jumpy, e-Jumpy, Jumper

Fiat: Argo, Mobi, Pulse, Abarth Pulse, Strada, Toro, Fiorino, Fastback; Imported: Cronos, 500e, Scudo, e-Scudo and Ducato

Honda: City (Sedan and Hatchback), HR-V; Imported: Civic e:HEV (Sedan) and Accord[115]

Hyundai: Creta, HB20/HB20S; Imported: Kona Hybrid

Jeep: Commander, Compass, Renegade; Imported: Compass 4xe, Gladiator and Wrangler

Land Rover: Land Rover Discovery, Range Rover Evoque; Imported: Defender and Velar

Mitsubishi: L200 Triton, Eclipse Cross; Imported: Pajero Sport

Nissan: Kicks; Imported: Frontier, Leaf, Sentra and Versa

Peugeot: Partner Rapid; Imported: 208, e-208, 2008, e-2008, 3008, Expert, e-Expert and Boxer

Ram: Rampage; Imported: 1500, 1500 Classic and 2500

Renault: Duster, Kardian, Oroch, Logan, Kwid, Sandero, Master; Imported: Kangoo, Kwid E-Tech, Mégane E-Tech and Zoe

Toyota: Corolla, Corolla Cross, Yaris (Sedan and Hatchback); Imported: Hilux, SW4 and RAV4

Volkswagen: Nivus, Polo Track, Saveiro, T-Cross, Virtus; Imported: Amarok, Jetta GLI, Taos and Tiguan Allspace

See also

References

  1. ^ "Official History of Automobile Industry in Brazil". National Association of Vehicles Industries. 23 January 2022.
  2. ^ a b Sydney A. Latini, A Implantação da Indústria Automobilística no Brasil, Editora Alaúde, 2007, p. 92
  3. ^ Jeep called Tupi
  4. ^ "Puma GTE tinha chassi de Brasilia, mas caiu nas graças de pilotos da F1". Quatro Rodas (in Brazilian Portuguese). 30 September 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  5. ^ "Puma Automóveis: A história que não teve fim!". Revista Carro (in Brazilian Portuguese). 19 April 2019. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  6. ^ "Mercedes-Benz Juiz de Fora". JOC. 2 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Primeiro ônibus". WebPoa (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  8. ^ "O caso complexo automotivo no Brasil de 1990 a 2002" (PDF). UFSC (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  9. ^ "2007 ficou na história do mercado automotivo nacional | Automóveis, Notícias". Tribuna do Paraná (in Brazilian Portuguese). 24 January 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  10. ^ Resaffa Nogueira Martins, Henrique (2016). "The Brazilian Inovar-Auto Program and the WTO Dispute". ResearchGate. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.25878.14407.
  11. ^ "Rota 2030 - Mobilidade e Logística". Ministério da Economia (in Brazilian Portuguese). SECINT – SEPEC. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  12. ^ a b "Santos Dumont trouxe carro ao Brasil, mas não foi o 1º a emplacar veículo". UOL Carros (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2 May 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  13. ^ "ENTIDADE QUER RECUPERAR O GLAMOUR DO PASSADO COM "DISNEYLÂNDIA DO AUTOMÓVEL"" (PDF). Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  14. ^ "Linha do tempo: veja a história da Ford no Brasil". WebMotors. 12 January 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  15. ^ a b "Historia da Ford no Brasil". Ford do Brasil. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  16. ^ "Exclusivo: a história do primeiro carro presidencial do Brasil". Motor1.com (in Brazilian Portuguese). 13 November 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  17. ^ "Do Rio a São Paulo: 33 dias pela mata fechada". Estadão. O Estadao de S.Paulo. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  18. ^ a b "História Automotiva: primeira viagem Rio-SP levou 36 dias". Motor1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). UOL. 17 October 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  19. ^ "De São Paulo a Santos: 37 horas, em abril de 1908". Estadão. O Estadao de S.Paulo. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  20. ^ "História Automotiva: Todos os carros dos presidentes no Brasil". Motor1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 29 April 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  21. ^ "Primeiro museu sobre a imprensa automotiva é inaugurado em SP". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 30 October 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  22. ^ Anfavea Brazil Car Association
  23. ^ "História da Indústria automotiva brasileira". Anfavea (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  24. ^ "Primeiros anos (Anos 1910)". Ford do Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  25. ^ a b c "Sede própria (Anos 1920)". Ford do Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  26. ^ "1921: Estrada de rodagem São Paulo-Campinas será inaugurada no dia 1º". Folha de S.Paulo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 29 April 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  27. ^ a b c d e "GM DO BRASIL COMEÇOU SUAS ATIVIDADES EM 1925, EM UM GALPÃO NO BAIRRO PAULISTANO DO IPIRANGA". GM Media (in Brazilian Portuguese). 26 January 2015.
  28. ^ "A pré-história da indústria automobilística no Brasil" (in Brazilian Portuguese). September 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  29. ^ Anfavea Brazil Car Association
  30. ^ "Grande Depressão (Anos 1930)". Ford do Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba "Anfavea Industry Timeline". Anfavea (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  32. ^ "Curte carros antigos nacionais? 5 das marcas pioneiras foram extintas". Autopapo UOL (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  33. ^ "Toyota Linha histórica". Toyota Comunica | Toyota Press Room (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  34. ^ The electrical small jeep called Tupi
  35. ^ "Puma Automóveis: A história que não teve fim!" (in Brazilian Portuguese). 19 April 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  36. ^ a b "Choque do petróleo (Anos 1970)". Ford do Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  37. ^ "Proálcool – Universidades e Empresas: 40 Anos de Ciência e Tecnologia para o Etanol Brasileiro". Blutcher (in Brazilian Portuguese). Fapesp. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  38. ^ "História e Economia dos Biocombustíveis no Brasil". Senado Federal (in Brazilian Portuguese). April 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  39. ^ "Lei Ferrari: como a legislação interfere na compra do seu carro novo". Quatro Rodas (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 March 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  40. ^ "Governo aponta "Lei Ferrari" como entrave à redução do preço do carro". Valor O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 5 December 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  41. ^ "President Fernando Collor de Mello opens auto market in Brazil". 27 September 2019.
  42. ^ "2007 ficou na história do mercado automotivo nacional Automóveis". Tribuna do Paraná (in Brazilian Portuguese). 24 January 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  43. ^ "2007 ficou na história do mercado automotivo nacional Automóveis". Tribuna do Paraná (in Brazilian Portuguese). 24 January 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  44. ^ Resaffa Nogueira Martins, Henrique (2016). "The Brazilian Inovar-Auto Program and the WTO Dispute". ResearchGate. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.25878.14407.
  45. ^ Brazilian Automotive Industry Yearbook. ANFAVEA. 2020. p. 8.
  46. ^ "Mercedes-Benz confirma venda de fábrica à chinesa Great Wall". QuatroRodas (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 August 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  47. ^ "Great Wall prepara fábrica para produzir no Brasil em 2023". Motor1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 October 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  48. ^ "Toyota transfere operação industrial para o interior do Estado de São Paulo". Toyota do Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 5 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  49. ^ "Toyota to close Brazil Sao Bernardo do Campo plant, shift production to other units". Reuters. 5 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  50. ^ "Toyota investirá R$ 50 milhões na planta de Indaiatuba, SP, visando renovação do ciclo de vida do Corolla sedã". Toyota do Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 March 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  51. ^ "Com condições favoráveis no Brasil, indústria automotiva amplia aposta em híbridos a etanol". Valor Econômico (in Brazilian Portuguese). 9 September 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  52. ^ "Elétricos movidos a etanol". Revista Pesquisa FAPESP (in Brazilian Portuguese). Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (308). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  53. ^ "Indústria: Brasil (não) pode ser ilha do etanol". Motor1.com (in Brazilian Portuguese). 20 August 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  54. ^ Matt Gasnier (19 April 2011). "Brazil: 1954–2019 Historical Data now available". bestsellingcarsblog.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  55. ^ "Bem vindo ao Portal Fenabrave". Federação Nacional da Distribuição de Veículos Automotores – FENABRAVE. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  56. ^ "The 15 best-selling cars in Brazil in 1998". iCarros. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  57. ^ "Brazil best selling cars 2016. Chevrolet Onix is the star". www.focus2move.com. 29 January 2017. Archived from the original on 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  58. ^ "Brazil 2019. Best selling cars ranking. The top 100". www.focus2move.com. 5 January 2020. Archived from the original on 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  59. ^ "Brazil 2020. Best selling cars ranking". www.focus2move.com. 5 February 2021. Archived from the original on 23 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  60. ^ "Informativo FENABRAVE Emplacamentos até Dezembro 2021". Fenabrave (in Portuguese). p. 7. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  61. ^ "Veja quais foram os 50 carros mais vendidos do Brasil em 2022". Automotive Business (in Brazilian Portuguese). 5 January 2023. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  62. ^ "De Fiat Strada a Jeep Compass: veja os 10 carros mais vendidos em 2022". UOL (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  63. ^ "Veja os 50 carros mais vendidos do Brasil em 2023". AutoEsporte (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2 January 2024. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  64. ^ "Fábrica".
  65. ^ "CAOA". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 4 January 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  66. ^ "Amazonas". 28 April 2014.
  67. ^ "ATHENA". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 20 January 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  68. ^ "Chamonix". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 13 June 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  69. ^ "CBT". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 13 June 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  70. ^ "BRASMOTOR". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 3 June 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  71. ^ "CBP". 13 June 2014.
  72. ^ "COYOTE (i)". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 11 July 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  73. ^ "COYOTE II". 11 July 2014.
  74. ^ "DACON". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  75. ^ "Conheça a Dacon, autorizada VW dos anos 60 que importava carros da Porsche". Portal iG (in Brazilian Portuguese). 30 April 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  76. ^ "Emis". 28 November 2014.
  77. ^ "ENGESA". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 28 November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  78. ^ "FARUS". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 16 December 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  79. ^ "Ford Souza Ramos fecha as portas após 50 anos, relembre suas criações". Quatro Rodas (in Brazilian Portuguese). 25 March 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  80. ^ "Gurgel". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 January 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  81. ^ "Presidente". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 30 May 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  82. ^ "IBV". 28 February 2015.
  83. ^ "Bugre". 3 June 2014.
  84. ^ "JPX". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 28 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  85. ^ "Karmann Ghia". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 28 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  86. ^ "Kasinski". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 28 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  87. ^ "Keers Wee". 21 January 2022.
  88. ^ "LHM". Lexicar Brasil. 27 January 2022.
  89. ^ "MP Lafer". Lexicar Brasil. 13 June 2014.
  90. ^ "Little CrocC". 28 February 2015.
  91. ^ "Matis". 13 June 2014.
  92. ^ "L'Automobile". 31 March 2015.
  93. ^ "Miúra".
  94. ^ "Mobilis". 21 January 2022.
  95. ^ "BRM". 3 June 2014.
  96. ^ "MUNDEO". 28 February 2015.
  97. ^ "NBM". May 2015.
  98. ^ "Obvio!". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 May 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  99. ^ "PINAR". 28 February 2015.
  100. ^ "Pinar". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 7 December 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  101. ^ "PLASCAR". 21 January 2022.
  102. ^ "Puma". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 30 May 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  103. ^ "EQUUS i". 28 November 2014.
  104. ^ "Santa Matilde". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 July 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  105. ^ "MMR & SEED". 28 February 2015.
  106. ^ "SIMCA". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 July 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  107. ^ "SR". Lexicar Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 July 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  108. ^ "TMC". November 2016.
  109. ^ "Home". tarsomarques.com.
  110. ^ "EESC-USP". 31 January 2015.
  111. ^ "FEI". 16 December 2014.
  112. ^ Imported cars tariff in Brazil
  113. ^ "Camex regulamenta redução do Imposto de Importação de veículos". Agência Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2 March 2022. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  114. ^ "Anfavea defende fim de imposto zero de importação para veículos elétricos". CNN Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 7 February 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  115. ^ "Honda Accord híbrido sai de linha seis meses após lançamento, CR-V também não está sendo vendido". Auto Esporte (in Brazilian Portuguese). 25 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.