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Brazil has a multi-party system since 1979, when the country's military dictatorship disbanded an enforced two-party system and allowed the creation of multiple parties.[1]

Above the broad range of political parties in Brazilian Congress, the Workers' Party (PT), the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB), the Liberal Party (PL), the Progressives (PP) and the Brazil Union (UNIÃO) together control the absolute majority of seats in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies.[2] Smaller parties often make alliances with at least one of these five major parties.[3] The number of political parties reached 35 on its apex on 2018, 30 of which were represented in congress after the 2018 Brazilian general election.[4][5][6] However, an electoral threshold introduced on 2017 has resulted in the culling and merger of many parties, as it cuts access to party subsidies and free party political broadcasts.[4][7]

Brazilian parties have access to party subsidies in form of the Fundo Partidário (lit.'Party Fund') and the Fundo Eleitoral (lit.'Electoral Fund') for elections.[8] And a system of free party political broadcasts during election time known as the horário eleitoral gratuito.[9]

Since 1982, Brazilian political parties have been given an electoral number to make it easier for illiterate people to vote. Initially, it was a one-digit number: 1 for PDS, 2 for PDT, 3 for PT, 4 for PTB, and 5 for PMDB. When it became clear that there was going to be more than nine parties, two-digit numbers were assigned, with the first five parties having a "1" added to their former one-digit number (PDS becoming number 11, PDT 12, PT 13, PTB 14, and PMDB 15). Political parties often change their names; however, they can retain their number.

Active political parties

Parties in the National Congress

Party Ideology Leader TSE id
number
Deputies Senators State deputies[10] Councillors[11] Alliances
Liberal Party (PL)
Partido Liberal
Right-wing populism
Social conservatism
Valdemar Costa Neto 22
96 / 513
12 / 81
129 / 1,059
3,467 / 58,043
Workers' Party (PT)
Partido dos Trabalhadores
Social democracy
Lulism
Gleisi Hoffmann 13
68 / 513
8 / 81
118 / 1,059
2,665 / 58,043
Brazil of Hope
Brazil Union (UNIÃO)
União Brasil
Liberal conservatism Luciano Bivar 44
59 / 513
7 / 81
100 / 1,059
5,546 / 58,043
Progressives (PP)
Progressistas
Liberal conservatism Ciro Nogueira 11
50 / 513
6 / 81
87 / 1,059
6,346 / 58,043
Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB)
Movimento Democrático Brasileiro
Big tent Baleia Rossi 15
44 / 513
11 / 81
95 / 1,059
7,335 / 58,043
Social Democratic Party (PSD)
Partido Social Democrático
Big tent Gilberto Kassab 55
43 / 513
15 / 81
78 / 1,059
5,694 / 58,043
Republicans
Republicanos
Social conservatism
Economic liberalism
Marcos Pereira 10
41 / 513
4 / 81
76 / 1,059
2,601 / 58,043
Democratic Labor Party (PDT)
Partido Democrático Trabalhista
Social democracy
Laborism
Brazilian nationalism
André Figueiredo 12
18 / 513
3 / 81
43 / 1,059
3,441 / 58,043
We Can (PODE)
Podemos
Third Way
Direct democracy
Renata Abreu 19
15 / 513
7 / 81
48 / 1,059
3,038 / 58,043
Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB)
Partido Socialista Brasileiro
Social democracy Carlos Siqueira 40
14 / 513
4 / 81
54 / 1,059
3,029 / 58,043
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira
Liberalism
Economic liberalism
Marconi Perillo 45
14 / 513
2 / 81
54 / 1,059
4,377 / 58,043
Always Forward
Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL)
Partido Socialismo e Liberdade
Democratic socialism
Anti-capitalism
Eco-socialism
Paula Coradi 50
13 / 513
0 / 81
22 / 1,059
89 / 58,043
PSOL REDE
Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB)
Partido Comunista do Brasil
Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Luciana Santos 65
7 / 513
0 / 81
18 / 1,059
694 / 58,043
Brazil of Hope
Forward
Avante
Laborism
Brazilian nationalism
Centrism
Luis Tibé 70
7 / 513
0 / 81
14 / 1,059
1,054 / 58,043
Green Party (PV)
Partido Verde
Green politics José Luiz Penna 43
6 / 513
0 / 81
20 / 1,059
805 / 58,043
Brazil of Hope
Solidarity
Solidariedade
Social democracy
Humanism
Eurípedes Júnior 77
5 / 513
0 / 81
28 / 1,059
2,102 / 58,043
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD)
Partido Renovação Democrática
Right-wing populism
National conservatism
Christian right
Ovasco Resende 25
5 / 513
0 / 81
25 / 1,059
3,193 / 58,043
Citizenship
Cidadania
Social liberalism Comte Bittencourt 23
4 / 513
0 / 81
17 / 1,059
1,585 / 58,043
Always Forward
New Party (NOVO)
Partido Novo
Classical liberalism Eduardo Ribeiro 30
3 / 513
1 / 81
5 / 1,059
29 / 58,043
Sustainability Network (REDE)
Rede Sustentabilidade
Green politics Heloísa Helena 18
1 / 513
0 / 81
6 / 1,059
144 / 58,043
PSOL REDE

Other parties

Party Ideology Leader TSE id
number
State deputies[10] Councillors[11]
Brazilian Labor Renewal Party (PRTB)
Partido Renovador Trabalhista Brasileiro
National conservatism
Janismo
Laborism
John dos Santos 28
7 / 1,059
220 / 58,043
National Mobilization (MOBILIZA)
Mobilização Nacional
Democratic socialism
Brazilian nationalism
Antonio Massarollo 33
6 / 1,059
200 / 58,043
Act
Agir
Autistic people's interests Daniel Tourinho 36
5 / 1,059
220 / 58,043
Brazilian Woman's Party (PMB)
Partido da Mulher Brasileira
Social conservatism
Anti-feminism
Anti-abortion
Suêd Haidar 35
3 / 1,059
46 / 58,043
Christian Democracy (DC)
Democracia Cristã
Christian democracy José Maria Eymael 27
1 / 1,059
123 / 58,043
Brazilian Communist Party (PCB)
Partido Comunista Brasileiro
Marxism-Leninism Edmilson Costa 21
0 / 1,059
0 / 58,043
Workers' Cause Party (PCO)
Partido da Causa Operária
Trotskyism Rui Costa Pimenta 29
0 / 1,059
0 / 58,043
United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU)
Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado
Trotskyism Zé Maria 16
0 / 1,059
0 / 58,043
Popular Unity (UP)
Unidade Popular
Revolutionary socialism Léo Péricles 80
0 / 1,059
0 / 58,043

Historical parties

Imperial Brazil

First Republic and Vargas Era

Fourth Republic

Military Dictatorship and Sixth Republic

See also

References

  1. ^ Sousa, Ana Cristina Augusto de; Silva, Lays Correa da (6 August 2021). "Redemocratização no Brasil: continuidade ou ruptura?". Topoi (Rio de Janeiro) (in Portuguese). 22 (47): 570–575. doi:10.1590/2237-101X02204713. ISSN 1518-3319. S2CID 238849517.
  2. ^ Freedom House report on Brazil, 2007
  3. ^ "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados". tse.jus.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Número de partidos na Câmara deve cair após ápice da fragmentação em 2018". Poder360 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 24 February 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  5. ^ "Brasil tem 75 partidos políticos em processo de formação".[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Brasil vai às urnas em outubro com 35 partidos". Senado Federal (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  7. ^ "Perspectiva é de fusão entre partidos". Valor Econômico (in Brazilian Portuguese). 4 October 2022. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  8. ^ Fundo Partidário (estudo) Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. Por Miriam Campelo de Melo Amorim. Brasília: Biblioteca Digital da Câmara dos Deputados, outubro de 2005.
  9. ^ "L9504". www.planalto.gov.br. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Raio-X das eleições: Leia como serão as assembleias em 2023". Poder360 (in Portuguese). 11 October 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  11. ^ a b "DEM, PP e PSD aumentam número de vereadores no Brasil; MDB, PT, PSDB, PDT e PSB registram redução". G1 (in Portuguese). 17 November 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2023.