The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage.[1] Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as a regional power and a potential world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.

Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America.

Overview

The President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.[2]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, also known as Itamaraty, is the government department responsible for advising the President and conducting Brazil's foreign relations with other countries and international bodies. Itamaraty's scope includes political, commercial, economic, financial, cultural and consular relations, areas in which it performs the classical tasks of diplomacy: represent, inform and administer. Foreign policy priorities are established by the President.

Foreign policy

Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[3] Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.[4] Brazil engages in multilateral diplomacy through the Organization of American States and the United Nations, and has increased ties with developing countries in Africa and Asia. Brazil is currently commanding a multinational U.N. stabilization force in Haiti, the MINUSTAH. Instead of pursuing unilateral prerogatives, Brazilian foreign policy has tended to emphasize regional integration, first through the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosul) and now the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is also committed to cooperation with other Portuguese-speaking nations[5] through joint-collaborations with the rest of the Portuguese-speaking world, in several domains which include military cooperation, financial aid, and cultural exchange. This is done in the framework of CPLP,[6] for instance. Lula da Silva visit to Africa in 2003 included State visits to three Portuguese-speaking African nations (Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Mozambique).[7] Finally, Brazil is also strongly committed in the development and restoration of peace in East Timor, where it has a very powerful influence.[8][9]

Brazil's political, business, and military ventures are complemented by the country's trade policy. In Brazil, the Ministry of Foreign Relations continues to dominate trade policy, causing the country's commercial interests to be (at times) subsumed by a larger foreign policy goal, namely, enhancing Brazil's influence in Latin America and the world.[10][11] For example, while concluding meaningful trade agreements with developed countries (such as the United States and the European Union) would probably be beneficial to Brazil's long-term economic self-interest, the Brazilian government has instead prioritized its leadership role within Mercosul and expanded trade ties with countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Brazil's soft power diplomacy involves institutional strategies such as the formation of diplomatic coalitions to constrain the power of the established great powers.[12] In recent years, it has given high priority in establishing political dialogue with other strategic actors such as India, Russia, China and South Africa through participation in international groupings such as BASIC, IBSA and BRICS. The BRICS states have been amongst the most powerful drivers of incremental change in world diplomacy and they benefit most from the connected global power shifts.[12]

Workers Party administration: 2003-2018

See also: List of presidential trips made by Dilma Rousseff

The Brazilian foreign policy under the Lula da Silva administration (2003–2010) focused on the following directives: to contribute toward the search for greater equilibrium and attenuate unilateralism; to strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations in order to increase the country's weight in political and economic negotiations on an international level; to deepen relations so as to benefit from greater economical, financial, technological and cultural interchange; to avoid agreements that could jeopardize development in the long term.[13]

These directives implied precise emphasis on: the search for political coordination with emerging and developing countries, namely India, South Africa, Russia and China; creation of the Union of South American Nations and its derivative bodies, such as the South American Security Council; strengthening of Mercosul; projection at the Doha Round and WTO; maintenance of relations with developed countries, including the United States; undertaking and narrowing of relations with African countries; campaign for the reform of the United Nations Security Council and for a permanent seat for Brazil; and defense of social objectives allowing for a greater equilibrium between the States and populations.[13]

The foreign policy of the Rousseff administration (2011–2016) sought to deepen Brazil's regional commercial dominance and diplomacy, expand Brazil's presence in Africa, and play a major role in the G20 on global warming and in other multilateral settings.[14] At the United Nations, Brazil continues to oppose Economic sanctions and foreign military intervention, while seeking to garner support for a permanent seat at the Security Council.[15] Cooperation with other emerging powers remain a top priority in Brazil's global diplomatic strategy. On the recent airstrike resolution supporting military action in Libya, Brazil joined fellow BRICS in the Council and abstained. On the draft resolution condemning violence in Syria, Brazil worked with India and South Africa to try to bridge the Western powers' divide with Russia and China.[16]

Bolsonaro administration, 2019-2022

See also: List of international presidential trips made by Jair Bolsonaro

After Rousseff's impeachment, Brazil started reconnecting with its western allies. In 2019 Jair Bolsonaro succeeded Michel Temer. The new foreign policy focused on a reapprochement with major governments especially the United States and Colombia in the Americas; Israel, Japan and South Korea in Asia; United Kingdom, Italy and Greece in Europe. The Brazil–Portugal relations were also strengthened, and despite disagreements over the crisis in Venezuela, Brazil remained close to the BRICS countries.[17][18]

Bolsonaro with United States President Donald Trump at the White House, 19 March 2019
Bolsonaro with United Kingdom Prime Minister Boris Johnson, 20 September 2021

During the 2018 presidential campaign, Bolsonaro said he would make considerable changes to Brazil's foreign relations, saying that the "Itamaraty needs to be in service of the values that were always associated with the Brazilian people". He also said that the country should stop "praising dictators" and attacking democracies, such as the United States, Israel and Italy.[19] In early 2018, he affirmed that his "trip to the five democratic countries the United States, Israel, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan showed who we will be and we would like to join good people". Bolsonaro has shown distrust towards China throughout the presidential campaign claiming they "[want to] buy Brazil",[20][21] although Brazil recorded a US$20 billion trade surplus with China in 2018, and China is only the 13th largest source of foreign direct investment into Brazil.[22] Bolsonaro said he wishes to continue to have business with the Chinese but he also said that Brazil should "make better [economic] deals" with other countries, with no "ideological agenda" behind it.[23] His stance towards China has also been interpreted as an attempt to curry favor from the Trump administration to garner concessions from the US.[22] However, Bolsonaro has mostly changed his position on China after he took office, saying that the two countries were "born to walk together" during his visit to Beijing in October 2019.[24][25] He has also said that Brazil will stay out of the ongoing China-U.S. trade war.[24]

Bolsonaro said that his first international trip as president would be to Israel.[26] Bolsonaro also said that the State of Palestine "is not a country, so there should be no embassy here", adding that "you don't negotiate with terrorists."[26] The announcement was warmly received by the prime minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, who welcomed Bolsonaro to Israel in March 2019 during the final weeks of a re-election campaign,[27] but was met with condemnation from the Arab League, which warned Bolsonaro it could damage diplomatic ties.[28] "I love Israel," Bolsonaro said in Hebrew at a welcoming ceremony, with Netanyahu at his side, at Tel Aviv's Ben-Gurion airport.[29]

Bolsonaro with Chinese President Xi Jinping in October 2019

Bolsonaro also praised U.S. President Donald Trump and his foreign policy,[19] and has been called "the tropical Trump".[30] His son Eduardo has indicated that Brazil should distance itself from Iran, sever ties with Nicolás Maduro's government in Venezuela and relocate Brazil's embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.[31] Bolsonaro is widely considered the most pro-American candidate in Brazil since the 1980s. PSL members said that if elected, he would dramatically improve relations between the United States and Brazil.[32] During an October 2017 campaign rally in Miami, he saluted the American flag and led chants of "USA! USA!" to a large crowd.[33] U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton praised Bolsonaro as a "like-minded" partner and said his victory was a "positive sign" for Latin America.[34]

At the regional level, Bolsonaro praised Argentine President Mauricio Macri for ending the 12-year rule of Néstor and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, which he saw as similar to Lula and Rousseff. Although he does not have plans to leave the Mercosur, he criticized it for prioritizing ideological issues over economic ones.[35] A staunch anti-communist, Bolsonaro has condemned Cuba's former leader Fidel Castro and the current regime in that island.[36][37]

Bolsonaro praised British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, saying that he had learned from Churchill: "Patriotism, love for your fatherland, respect for your flag – something that has been lost over the last few years here in Brazil ... and governing through example, especially at that difficult moment of the Second World War."[36] Bolsonaro said he's open to the possibility of hosting a U.S. military base in Brazil to counter Russian influence in the region.[38] With the intention to persuade Trump to make Brazil a NATO member in March 2019, Bolsonaro said: "the discussions with the United States will begin in the coming months".[39][40][41][42]

Bolsonaro with Russian President Vladimir Putin in November 2019

With formal U.S. support for Brazil's entry to OECD in May 2019, Bolsonaro said, "currently, all 36 members of the organization support the entry of the country, fruit of confidence in the new Brazil being built, more free, open and fair".[43][44][45] In October 2019, on a state visit to China, he announced the end of the need for visas for Chinese and Indian entry into Brazil. Brazil had already removed the need for visas for people from the U.S., Canada, Japan, and Australia.[46]

Regional policy

Mercosur, a regional trade bloc between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Over the first decade of the 21st century, Brazil has firmly established itself as a regional power.[47] It has traditionally, if controversially,[48] been a leader in the inter-American community and played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.[49] Brazilian foreign policy supports economic and political integration efforts in order to reinforce long-standing relationships with its neighbors.[47] It is a founding member of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty).[49] It has given high priority to expanding relations with its South American neighbors and strengthening regional bodies such as the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and Mercosur.[49] Although integration is the primary purpose of these organizations, they also serve as forums in which Brazil can exercise its leadership and develop consensus around its positions on regional and global issues.[47] Most scholars agree that by promoting integration through organizations like Mercosur and UNASUR, Brazil has been able to solidify its role as a regional power.[47] In addition to consolidating its power within South America, Brazil has sought to expand its influence in the broader region by increasing its engagement in the Caribbean and Central America.,[47] although some think this is still a fragile, ongoing process, that can be thwarted by secondary regional powers in South America.[1]

In April 2019 Brazil left Union of South American Nations (Unasur) to become a member of Forum for the Progress and Development of South America (Prosur).[50] In January 2020, Brazil suspended its participation in the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, (Celac).[51]

Brazil regularly extends export credits and university scholarships to its Latin American neighbors.[52] In recent years, the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) has provided US$5 billion worth of loans to countries in the region.[53] Brazil has also increasingly provided Latin American nations with financial aid and technical assistance.[47] Between 2005 and 2009, Cuba, Haiti, and Honduras were the top three recipients of Brazilian assistance, receiving over $50 million annually.[47][54]

In November 2019, Brazil made a historic move to break with the rest of Latin America on the U.S. embargo of Cuba, becoming the first Latin American country in twenty-six years to vote against condemning the U.S.-led embargo of Cuba at the United Nations General Assembly.[55]

United Nations politics

Main article: Brazil and the United Nations

Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. It has participated in 33 United Nations peacekeeping missions and contributed with over 27,000 soldiers.[56] Brazil has been a member of the United Nations Security Council ten times, most recently 2010–2011.[57] Along with Japan, Brazil has been elected more times to the Security Council than any other U.N. member state.[56]

Brazil is currently seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[58] It is a member of the G4, an alliance among Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other's bids for permanent seats on the Security Council.[58] They propose the Security Council be expanded beyond the current 15 members to include 25 members. The G4 countries argue that a reform would render the body "more representative, legitimate, effective and responsive" to the realities of the international community in the 21st century.[58]

Outstanding international issues

Foreign aid

Overseas aid has become an increasingly important tool for Brazil's foreign policy.[62] Brazil provides aid through the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation (Abbreviation: ABC; Portuguese: Agência Brasileira de Cooperação), in addition to offering scientific, economical, and technical support. More than half of Brazilian aid is provided to Africa, whereas Latin America receives around 20% of Brazilian aid. The share of aid allocated to the Asian continent is small.[63] Within Africa, more than 80% of Brazilian aid is received by Portuguese-speaking countries.[64] Brazil concentrates its aid for Portuguese-speaking countries in the education sector, specially in secondary and post-secondary education, but it is more committed to agricultural development in other countries.[65] Estimated to be around $1 billion annually, Brazil is on par with China and India and ahead of many more traditional donor countries.[62] The aid tends to consist of technical aid and expertise, alongside a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to development results.[62] Brazil's aid demonstrates a developing pattern of South-South aid, which has been heralded as a 'global model in waiting'.[66] Concomitantly, South-South relations have become a major subfield of specialisation among Brazilian foreign policy experts.[67] Some studies have suggested that, by giving aid, Brazil could be trying to get access to mineral and energy resources.[68]

Participation in international organizations

ACS(Observer)ACTOAfDBALECSO(Observer)BISCAF-BDLAC(Associate)Cairns GroupCAN(Associate)CDBCPLPFAOG4BASIC countriesG8+5G15G20G20+G24G77IADBIDBIAEAIBRDIBSAICAOICCICRMIDAIFADIFCIFRCSIHOILOIMFIMOInmarsatINSARAGIntelsatInterpolIOCIOMISOITULAESLAIAMercosulMINUSTAHNAM(Observer)NSGOASOEIOPANALOPCWPCARio GroupRio TreatyUNUNASURUNCTADUNESCOUNHCRUNIDOUNITARUNMILUNMISUNMOVICUNOCIUNTAETUNWTOUPUWCOWHOWIPOWMOWTOZPCAS

Diplomatic relations

Further information: List of diplomatic missions of Brazil

Brazil has a large global network of diplomatic missions, and maintains diplomatic relations with As of 2019, Brazil's diplomatic network consisted of 194 overseas posts.[69]

Relations with non-UN members or observers:

List

Diplomatic missions of Brazil
  Brazil
  Nations hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil
  Nations with a non-resident mission of Brazil

List of countries which Brazil maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  United States 26 May 1824[73]
2  Portugal 29 August 1825[74]
3  France 8 January 1826[75]
4  Peru 1826[76]
5  Sweden 1826[77]
6  Austria 26 June 1827[78]
7  United Kingdom 17 August 1827[79]
8  Italy 1827[80]
9  Denmark 26 April 1828[81]
10  Russia 3 October 1828[82]
11  Netherlands 20 December 1828[83]
 Holy See 1829[84]
12  Uruguay 15 May 1831[85]
13  Mexico 30 April 1834[86]
14  Belgium 22 September 1834[87]
15  Spain 1834[88]
16  Chile 22 April 1836[89]
17  Venezuela 5 August 1843[90]
18  Ecuador November 1844[91]
19  Paraguay 1844[92]
20   Switzerland 1855[77]
21  Argentina 25 June 1856[93]
22  Costa Rica 1857[94]
23  Bolivia 1867[95]
24  Japan 5 November 1895[96]
25  Iran 1903[77]
26  Nicaragua 1905[97]
27  Honduras 16 November 1906[98]
28  Guatemala 21 November 1906[99]
29  Cuba 1906[77]
30  El Salvador 1906[100]
31  Colombia 24 April 1907[101]
32  Panama 3 March 1908[102]
33  Norway 11 May 1908[103]
34  Luxembourg 15 April 1911[104]
35  Dominican Republic 21 April 1911[105]
36  Greece 1912[77]
37  Poland 27 May 1920[106]
38  Czech Republic June 1920[107]
39  Egypt 27 February 1924[77]
40  Turkey 8 September 1927[108]
41  Romania 7 January 1928[109]
42  Haiti 1928[77]
43  Finland 8 April 1929[110]
44  Bulgaria 17 September 1934[111]
45  Serbia 15 June 1938[112]
46  Canada 14 November 1940[113]
47  Syria 13 November 1945[114]
48  Australia 1945[77]
49  Lebanon 1945[77]
50  Philippines 4 July 1946[115]
51  South Africa 31 January 1948[116]
52  India 6 April 1948[77]
53  Israel 1949[77]
54  Ethiopia 9 January 1951[117]
55  Pakistan January 1951[118]
56  Germany 10 July 1951[119]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1951[77]
57  Iceland 28 April 1952[120]
58  Afghanistan 1952[77]
59  Indonesia 9 October 1953[121]
60  Jordan 6 April 1959[122]
61  Thailand 17 April 1959[123]
62  Malaysia 11 August 1959[124]
63  Tunisia 7 October 1959[125]
64  South Korea 31 October 1959[126]
65  Morocco 27 November 1959[127]
66  Sri Lanka 22 January 1960[77]
67  Ghana 1960[77]
68  Hungary 21 March 1961[128]
69  Albania 4 April 1961[129]
70  Senegal 26 April 1961[130]
71  Benin 17 May 1961[131]
72  Mauritania 17 May 1961[132]
73  Nigeria 16 August 1961[133]
74  Mali 24 January 1962[134]
75  Jamaica 14 October 1962[135]
76  Togo 26 October 1962[136]
77  Algeria 28 November 1962[137]
78  Cyprus 21 July 1964[138]
79  New Zealand 1964[77]
80  Trinidad and Tobago 27 July 1965[139]
81  Gambia 1965[77]
82  Libya 9 April 1967[140]
83  Kenya 4 July 1967[141]
84  Singapore 2 November 1967[142]
85  Iraq 1 December 1967[77]
86  Kuwait 20 January 1968[143]
87  Democratic Republic of the Congo 21 June 1968[144]
88  Sudan 10 October 1968[145]
89  Ivory Coast 31 October 1968[146]
90  Guyana 18 December 1968[147]
91  Saudi Arabia 23 December 1968[148]
92  Uganda 22 December 1969[149]
93  Zambia 28 December 1969[149]
94  Tanzania 5 January 1970[150]
95  Barbados 26 November 1971[151]
96  Bangladesh 15 May 1972[152]
97  Gabon 11 January 1974[153]
98  Qatar 20 May 1974[77]
99  United Arab Emirates 10 June 1974[77]
100  Oman 3 July 1974[77]
101  Sierra Leone 9 August 1974[154]
102  China 15 August 1974[155]
103  Guinea 4 September 1974[156]
104  Guinea-Bissau 22 November 1974[157]
105  Mauritius 1974[77]
106  Equatorial Guinea 26 May 1975[158]
107  Malta 23 June 1975[159]
108  Ireland 1 September 1975[160]
109  Burkina Faso 8 October 1975[77]
110  Niger 24 October 1975[161]
111  Angola 12 November 1975[162]
112  Mozambique 15 November 1975[163]
113  Lesotho 3 December 1975[164]
114  Cape Verde 5 December 1975[165]
115  São Tomé and Príncipe December 1975[166]
116    Nepal 7 February 1976[167]
117  Bahrain 23 February 1976[168]
118  Suriname 3 March 1976[169]
119  Liberia 8 June 1976[170]
120  Grenada 19 July 1976[171]
121  Eswatini 23 June 1978[172]
122  Bahamas 8 September 1978[173]
123  Saint Lucia 21 December 1979[173]
124  Burundi 4 March 1980[174]
125  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980[175]
126  Republic of the Congo 4 May 1980[74]
127  Rwanda 20 January 1981[176]
128  Antigua and Barbuda 2 February 1982[177]
129  Myanmar 1 September 1982[178]
130  Cameroon 1982[77]
131  Belize 1 March 1983[179]
132  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19 September 1983[180]
133  Brunei 8 June 1984[181]
134  Yemen 7 May 1985[77]
135  Botswana 26 September 1985[74]
136  Saint Kitts and Nevis 25 October 1985[182]
137  Dominica 9 April 1986[183]
138  Seychelles 10 November 1986[74]
139  Vanuatu 22 December 1986[74]
140  Somalia 2 February 1987[74]
141  Mongolia 18 June 1987[74]
142  Maldives 27 September 1988[74]
143  Papua New Guinea 27 April 1989[74]
144  Vietnam 8 May 1989[184]
145  Namibia 21 March 1990[185]
146  Malawi 23 August 1990[186]
147  Lithuania 5 November 1991[74]
148  Latvia 7 November 1991[74]
149  Estonia 16 December 1991[74]
150  Belarus 10 February 1992[74]
151  Ukraine 11 February 1992[74]
152  Armenia 17 February 1992[74]
153  Azerbaijan 23 October 1992[187]
154  Slovenia 21 December 1992[74]
155  Croatia 23 December 1992[74]
156  Slovakia 1 January 1993[188]
157  Georgia 28 April 1993[189]
158  Liechtenstein 29 April 1993[190]
159  Uzbekistan 30 April 1993[191]
160  Kyrgyzstan 6 August 1993[192]
161  Moldova 11 August 1993[193]
162  Kazakhstan 22 September 1993[194]
163  Cambodia 25 March 1994[74]
164  Laos 13 June 1995[74]
165  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6 December 1995[74]
166  Tajikistan 29 March 1996[195]
167  Turkmenistan 3 April 1996[196]
168  Andorra 9 July 1996[74]
169  Madagascar 7 October 1996[74]
170  Chad 8 October 1996[74]
171  Djibouti 22 October 1996[74]
172  Eritrea 7 November 1996[74]
173  North Macedonia 14 September 1998[197]
174  North Korea 9 March 2001[198]
175  East Timor May 2002[77]
176  San Marino 20 November 2003[199]
177  Palau 31 January 2005[74]
178  Samoa 1 February 2005[74]
179  Comoros 25 March 2005[200]
180  Solomon Islands 2 August 2005[74]
181  Nauru 2 November 2005[74]
182  Fiji 16 February 2006[74]
183  Tuvalu 12 May 2006[74]
184  Montenegro 20 October 2006[201]
185  Bhutan 21 September 2009[200]
186  Monaco 14 April 2010[74]
187  Central African Republic 27 April 2010[74]
188  Marshall Islands 27 July 2010[74]
189  Kiribati 21 September 2010[202]
190  Federated States of Micronesia 25 October 2010[74]
191  South Sudan 9 July 2011[200]
 State of Palestine 3 December 2011[203]
192  Tonga 21 December 2011[200]
 Cook Islands 21 August 2015[200]
 Niue 2 September 2016[200]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 28 November 1962 See Algeria–Brazil relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 November 1962[204]

  • Algeria has an embassy in Brasilia.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola 12 November 1975 See Angola–Brazil relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 November 1975[162]

  • Angola has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Luanda.
 Cape Verde 1975 See Brazil–Cape Verde relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Praia.
  • Cape Verde has an embassy in Brasilia.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 21 June 1968 See Brazil–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 June 1968[144]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Kinshasa.
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Brasília.
 Côte d'Ivoire 31 October 1968 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 October 1968[146]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Abidjan.
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in Brasília.
 Egypt 27 February 1924 See Brazil–Egypt relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 February 1924[205]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Brasília.
 Ethiopia 9 January 1951 See Brazil–Ethiopia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 January 1951 when was accredited first Minister of Ethiopia to Brazil Mr. Blatta Dawit Ogbazgy[206]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Gabon 11 January 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 January 1974[207]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Libreville.
  • Gabon has an embassy in Brasília.
 Ghana 1960
  • Ghana and Brazil share a historically close relationship.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Brasília.
 Guinea 4 September 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 September 1974[208]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Conakry.
  • Guinea has an embassy in Brasília.
 Guinea-Bissau 22 November 1974 See Brazil–Guinea-Bissau relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 November 1974.[209]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Bissau.
  • Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Brasília..
 Kenya 4 July 1967 See Brazil–Kenya relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 July 1967[141]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Brasília.
 Libya 9 April 1967 See Brazil–Libya relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 April 1967[140]

 Madagascar 7 October 1996 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 October 1996[210]
  • Brazil is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Maputo, Mozambique.
  • Madagascar is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Malawi 23 August 1990 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 August 1990[186]
 Mali
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bamako.
  • Mali has an embassy in Brasília.
 Mozambique 15 November 1975 See Brazil–Mozambique relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 November 1975[163]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Maputo.
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Brasília.

Mozambique is the country that receives the highest amount of Brazilian aid in Africa. Almost 50% of Brazilian aid allocated to the African continent between 1998 and 2010 was allocated to Mozambique.[64]

 Namibia 21 March 1990 See Brazil–Namibia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 March 1990[185]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Windhoek.
  • Namibia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Nigeria 16 August 1961 See Brazil–Nigeria relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 August 1961[211]

Bilateral relations between Nigeria and Brazil focus primarily upon trade and culture. The largest country in Latin America by size, and the largest country in Africa by population are remotely bordered across from one another by the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil and Nigeria for centuries, have enjoyed a warmly, friendly, and strong relationship on the basis of culture (many Afro-Brazilians trace their ancestry to Nigeria) and commercial trade.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Brasília.
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975 See Brazil–São Tomé and Príncipe relations
 Senegal 26 April 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 April 1961[212]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Brasília.
 South Africa 31 January 1948 See Brazil–South Africa relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 January 1948[213]

Brazil-South Africa relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to South Africa in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen integration between the major powers of the developing world. South Africa is part of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, alongside Brazil and India.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Sudan 10 October 1968 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 October 1968[145]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Brasília.

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 5 August 1823 See Argentina–Brazil relations

Argentina is the first country to recognize Brazil's independence and to establish diplomatic relations with the empire. The Argentine envoy Valentín Gómez presents the Brazilian Foreign Minister with a credential letter signed by Bernardino Rivadavia, with the recognition of Brazil's independence (August 5), and is received by Dom Pedro I (August 11)[214] After democratization, a strong integration and partnership began between the two countries. In 1985 they signed the basis for the MERCOSUL, a Regional Trade Agreement. In the field of science, the two regional giants had been rivals since the 1950s when both governments launched parallel nuclear and space programs, however, several agreements were signed since then such as the creation of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. National spaces agencies CONAE and the AEB had also begun working together since the 1990s. Brazil's decision to prevent a Royal Navy ship docking in Rio de Janeiro was seen as backing Argentina over the Falklands dispute.[215] Also on the military side there has been greater rapprochement. In accordance with the friendship policy, both armies dissolved or moved major units previously located at their common border (for example, Argentine's 7th Jungle and 3rd Motorized Infantry Brigades). Brazilian soldiers are embedded in the Argentine peacekeeping contingent at UNFICYP in Cyprus and they are working together at MINUSTAH in Haiti and, as another example of collaboration, Argentine Navy aircraft routinely operate from the Brazilian Navy carrier NAe São Paulo.

  • Argentina has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Buenos Aires and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • In May 2023, Argentina and Brazil announced plans to continue working on the development of a mechanism allowing them to avoid using the US dollar in bilateral trade.[216]
 Bolivia See Bolivia–Brazil relations
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Brasilia and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Brazil has an embassy in La Paz and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
 Canada See Brazil–Canada relations

Brazil-Canada relations have been cordial but relatively limited, although the relationship between the two countries has been gradually evolving over time.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Canada has an embassy in Brasília, and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
 Chile 22 April 1836 See Brazil–Chile relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 April 1836[217]

Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haiti rebellion, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina.

 Colombia See Brazil–Colombia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bogotá and a vice-consulate in Leticia.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Brasilia and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
 Costa Rica See Brazil–Costa Rica relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in San José.
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Brasilia.
 Cuba See Brazil–Cuba relations

Brazilian-Cuban relations were classified as "excellent" in May 2008 following a meeting of foreign ministers.[218] During a January 2008 state visit to Cuba by Brazilian President Lula da Silva, the Brazilian leader expressed desire for his country to be Cuba's "number one partner".[218] Bilateral trade increased by 58% between April 2007 and April 2008.[219]

Brazilian-Cuban relations have deteriorated greatly during the presidency of Brazilian rightwing president Jair Bolsonaro since 2019 .He stopped Mais Médicos (More Doctors) programme and thousands of Cuban doctors left Brazil.[220][221] In November 2019, Brazil voted for the first time against an annual United Nations resolution condemning and calling for an end to Washington's economic embargo on Cuba.[222]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Dominica 9 February 1981

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 February 1981[223]

  • Brazil is accredited to Dominica from its embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Dominica is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Guyana 18 November 1968 See Brazil–Guyana relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 November 1968[224] Brazil–Guyana relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to Guyana in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen South American integration.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Georgetown.
  • Guyana has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Boa Vista.
 Haiti 1928 See Brazil–Haiti relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Brasília.
 Jamaica 14 October 1962 See Brazil–Jamaica relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 October 1962[225] Both countries are full members of the Group of 15.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Kingston.
  • Jamaica has an embassy in Brasília.
 Mexico 7 August 1824 See Brazil–Mexico relations

Brazil and Mexico have the two largest emerging economies in Latin-America and the global stage. Both nations are considered to be regional powers and highly influential within the American continent. Both nations have historically been friendly and they have both participated in and are members of several multilateral organizations such as the G20, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Rio Group and the United Nations. Several high-level diplomatic meeting have been held by presidents of both nations to enhance bilateral relations.

 Paraguay See Brazil–Paraguay relations

Paraguay–Brazil relations have improved greatly after Brazilian President Lula's decision in 2009 to triple its payments to Paraguay for energy from a massive hydro-electric dam on their border, ending a long-running dispute. Under the accord, Brazil will pay Paraguay $360m a year for energy from the jointly-operated Itaipu plant. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva called it a "historic agreement" and the deal slated as a political victory for Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo.[226] In February 2019, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro praised the late military strongman of Paraguay, Alfredo Stroessner, calling him "a man of vision." Bolsonaro made the comments during a ceremony at the Itaipu hydroelectric dam on the countries' shared border. At his side was his close ally, Paraguayan right-wing President Mario Abdo Benitez.[227]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Asunción and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
 Peru See Brazil–Peru relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Lima and a consulate in Iquitos.
  • Peru has an embassy in Brasilía and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
 Suriname 25 November 1975 See Brazil–Suriname relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 November 1975[228]

 Trinidad and Tobago 27 July 1965 See Brazil-Trinidad and Tobago relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 July 1965[232]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago has an embassy in Brasilia.
 United States 26 May 1824 See Brazil–United States relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 May 1824[233]

Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[234] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[235] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[235] In October 2020, Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro said that the Brazil-US relations have elevated to "its best moment ever."[236]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Washington, D.C., and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • United States has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
 Uruguay 1828 See Brazil–Uruguay relations

Brazil and Uruguay are neighboring countries that share close historical, cultural and geographical ties. The singularity of the bilateral relationship between the two countries originates from the strong historical connection - marked by important events, such as the establishment of the Colônia do Sacramento in 1680, the annexation by Brazil and the subsequent creation of the Província Cisplatina in 1815, and Uruguay's independence from Brazil in 1828.[237]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Montevideo and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
 Venezuela See Brazil–Venezuela relations

During the Brazilian government of President Jair Bolsonaro since 2019, Brazil has cut off the relations with the current Venezuelan leftwing and disputed government of president Nicolás Maduro. Brazil downgraded its diplomatic relations with the ruling Venezuelan government. Brazil has recognised Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidó as the legitimate President of Venezuela.[238]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Caracas and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Brasilia and maintains several consulates throughout the country.

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia 17 February 1992 See Armenia–Brazil relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 February 1992[239]

 Azerbaijan 21 October 1993 See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 October 1993[242]

  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Brasília.[243]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Baku.[244]
 Bangladesh 8 July 1974 See Bangladesh-Brazil relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 July 1974[245] Relations have been good. In 2013, Bangladesh has sought Brazil's support for its candidature at the Human Rights Council in 2015 and non-permanent seat of the UN Security Council for 2016–17 term. In 2014, Brazil assured its support to Bangladesh for the posts of United Nations Human Rights Commission and CEDAW (The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women). Bangladesh also supported Brazil's candidature for the post of Director General of World Trade Organization.

  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dhaka.
 China 15 August 1974 See Brazil–China relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 August 1974[246]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
  • China has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Recife, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
 East Timor See Brazil–East Timor relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dili.
  • East Timor has an embassy in Brasilia.
 Georgia 28 April 1993 See Brazil–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 April 1993[247]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Brasília.
 India 6 April 1948 See Brazil–India relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 April 1948[248] The two countries share similar perceptions on issues of interest to developing countries and have cooperated in the multilateral level on issues such as reform to the UN and the UNSC expansion.[249]

  • Brazil has an embassy in New Delhi and a consulate-general in Mumbai.
  • India has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Indonesia March 1953 See Brazil–Indonesia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in March 1953[250] Both are large tropical country endowed with rich natural resources, Brazil and Indonesia possess the largest tropical rain forest of the world that contains the world's richest biodiversity, which gave them a vital role in global environment issues, such as ensuring tropical forests protection. Both countries leading the list of Megadiverse countries with Indonesia second only to Brazil.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Iran See Brazil–Iran relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Brasília.
 Iraq 1 December 1967 See Brazil–Iraq relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 December 1967[251]

  • Brazil maintains an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq maintains an embassy in Brasília.

Both countries are full members of the Group of 77. Brazil was the first Latin American country to reopen its embassy in Iraq since the 1991 Gulf War.[252]

 Israel 1949-2-7[253] See Brazil–Israel relations

Brazil played a large role in the establishment of the State of Israel. Brazil held the Presidency office of the UN General Assembly in 1947, which proclaimed the Partition Plan for Palestine. The Brazilian delegation to the U.N., supported and heavily lobbied for the partition of Palestine toward the creation of the State of Israel. Brazil was also one of the first countries to recognize the State of Israel, on 7 February 1949, less than one year after Israeli Declaration of Independence. Nowadays, Brazil and Israel maintains close political, economic and military ties. Brazil is a full member state of Israel Allies Caucus,[254] a political advocacy organization that mobilizes pro-Israel parliamentarians in governments worldwide. The two nations enjoy a degree of arms cooperation as Brazil is a key buyer of Israeli weapons and military technology.[255] Also, Brazil is Israel's largest trading partner in Latin America.[256] Brazil has the 9th largest Jewish community in the world, about 107,329 by 2010, according to the IBGE census.[257] The Jewish Confederation of Brazil (CONIB) estimates to more than 120,000.[258] Brazil-Israel relations have improved significantly during the presidency of Jair Bolsonaro since 2019. Brazilian president Bolsonaro has expressed his love for Israel several times.[259] He has even said to have turned Brazil into Israel's new best friend.[260]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Japan 1895 See Brazil–Japan relations
 Jordan 6 April 1959 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 April 1959 at Legation level[263]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Amman.
  • Jordan has an embassy in Brasília.
 Kazakhstan 22 September 1993 See Brazil–Kazakhstan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 September 1993[264]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Brasília.
 Kuwait 20 January 1968 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 January 1968[265]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Brasília.
 Lebanon 13 November 1945 See Brazil–Lebanon relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 November 1945[266]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Beirut.[267]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[268]
 Malaysia 11 August 1959 See Brazil–Malaysia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 August 1959[269]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Brasília.
 North Korea 9 March 2001[270] See Brazil–North Korea relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Pyongyang.
  • North Korea has an embassy in Brasília.
 Pakistan January 1951 See Brazil–Pakistan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in January 1951[118] Brazil-Pakistan relations are characterized as friendly and cooperative. In 2008, Brazil approved the sale of 100 MAR-1 anti-radiation missiles to Pakistan despite India's pressure on Brazil to avoid doing so.[271]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Islamabad.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Brasília.
 Palestine See Brazil–Palestine relations
  • Brazil has a representative office in Ramallah.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Brasília.
 Philippines See Brazil–Philippines relations

In June 2009, Brazil and the Philippines made their pledges as they signed mutual cooperation agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture.[272] The two countries committed themselves to take the necessary steps to implement the signed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Agriculture and the Memorandum of Understanding on Bioenergy Cooperation.[273] The Philippines and Brazil signed six memoranda of understanding and agreements on the development and production of renewable energy, and agriculture cooperation.[274] It intends to "facilitate technical cooperation... on the production and use of biofuels, particularly ethanol, and promote the expansion of bilateral trade and investment in biofuel,"[275]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Brasília.
 Qatar 20 May 1974 See Brazil–Qatar relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 May 1974[276]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Doha.[277]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Brasília.[278]
 Singapore 2 November 1967 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 November 1967[279]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore has an embassy in Brasília.
 South Korea 31 October 1959 See Brazil–South Korea relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 October 1959[126]

  • South Korea has an embassy in Brasília.[280]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Seoul.[281]
 Syria 13 November 1945 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 November 1945[282]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Damascus.
  • Syria has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Taiwan See Brazil–Taiwan relations
  • Brazil has a Commercial Office in Taipei.
  • Taiwan has an Economic and Cultural Office in Brasília and in São Paulo.
 Thailand 17 April 1959 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 April 1959[283]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Brasília.

Brazil is the main trading partner of Thailand in Latin America.[284]

 Turkey 1927[285] See Brazil–Turkey relations
 Vietnam 8 May 1989

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 May 1989[286]

The Brazilian Embassy in Hanoi was opened in 1994, being the first Latin American country to open an embassy in Hanoi. Vietnamese Presidents Lê Đức Anh and Trần Đức Lương have visited Brazil in October 1995 and November 2004, respectively.[287]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Brasília.

Europe

See also: Brazil–European Union relations

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 4 April 1961 See Albania–Brazil relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 April 1961[129]

  • Albania has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tirana.
 Andorra 9 July 1996 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 July 1996[288]
  • Andorra does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
  • Brazil is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain and maintains an honorary consulate in Andorra la Vella.
 Austria See Austria–Brazil relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Vienna.
 Bulgaria
  • Brazil has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Brasília.
 Czech Republic 1918 See Brazil–Czech Republic relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Denmark See Brazil–Denmark relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Copenhagen.
  • Denmark has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Estonia 16 December 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 December 1991[289]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is accredited to Brazil from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
 Finland 8 April 1929 See Brazil–Finland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 April 1929[290] Brazil recognised the independence of Finland on December 26, 1919.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate in São Paulo.
 France 25 October 1825 See Brazil–France relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 October 1825 when France recognized independent of Brazil[291] France has recognized Brazil as its special partner in South America and as a global player in international affairs. The two countries are committed to strengthening their bilateral cooperation in the areas for which working groups have been created: nuclear power, renewable energies, defence technologies, technological innovation, joint cooperation in African countries and space technologies, medicines and the environment.[292] Recently, France announced its support to the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[292]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Paris and consulates-general in Marseille and in Cayenne and Saint-Georges (both in French Guiana).
  • France has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and a consulate in Recife.
 Germany See Brazil–Germany relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
 Greece See Brazil–Greece relations

The countries have enjoyed "Bilateral relations [that] have always been good and are progressing smoothly," according to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[293]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greece has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate general in São Paulo.
 Holy See See Brazil–Holy See relations
 Hungary 1927 See Brazil–Hungary relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • The two countries signed the Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement in 1992.
 Iceland 1952
  • Brazil is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway and maintains an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
  • Iceland is accredited to Brazil from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Reykjavík and maintains honorary consulates in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
 Ireland 1 September 1975 See Brazil–Ireland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 September 1975[160]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Ireland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Italy 1834 See Brazil–Italy relations
 Latvia 7 November 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 November 1991[302]
  • Brazil is accredited to Latvia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Latvia is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
 Lithuania 5 November 1991 See Brazil–Lithuania relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 November 1991[303]

  • Brazil is accredited to Lithuania from its embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark and maintains an honorary consulate in Vilnius.[304]
  • Lithuania has a consulate-general in São Paulo.[305]
 Netherlands
  • Brazil has an embassy in The Hague a consulate-general in Rotterdam[306] and a consulate in Curaçao.[307]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brasilia and two consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[308]
 Norway 11 May 1908 See Brazil–Norway relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 May 1908[309]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Rio de Janeiro.
 Poland 27 May 1920 See Brazil–Poland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 May 1920[310]

  • Poland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Curitiba.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal 29 August 1825 See Brazil–Portugal relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 August 1825[311]

Portugal and Brazil have countless bilateral agreements in areas such as culture, language, R&D, immigration, defence, tourism, economy, environment, among others.[312][313] Portugal and Brazil hold regular Summits to discuss bilateral and multilateral agreements and current topics (last one in Bahia in 2008, before that one in Porto in 2005).[314] One rather controversial topic was the spelling reform that aims at homogenising spelling in lusophone countries. Both countries share a common heritage and are committed in its preservation, be it through bilateral agreements or involving other nations, such as in the framework of CPLP.[315] Both countries lobby within the UN to upgrade Portuguese to a working language in that Organisation.[316] Portugal has also lobbied for Brazil to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.[317] Finally, Portugal hosted the 1st EU-Brazil summit, in 2007.

 Romania 1928 See Brazil–Romania relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Rio de Janeiro.
 Russia October 3, 1828 See Brazil–Russia relations

Brazil–Russia relations have seen a significant improvement in recent years, characterized by an increasing commercial trade and cooperation in military and technology segments. Today, Brazil shares an important alliance with the Russian Federation, with partnerships in areas such as space and military technologies, and telecommunications.

 San Marino 1 April 2002 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 2002[318]
 Serbia 15 June 1938 See Brazil–Serbia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 June 1938[319]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Spain 1834 See Brazil–Spain relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and in São Paulo.
 Sweden 1826 See Brazil–Sweden relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Brasília.
  Switzerland
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bern and consulates-general in Geneva and Zürich.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Brasília.
 Ukraine 11 February 1992 See Brazil–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1992[320]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Brasilia, a consulate-general in Rio de Janeiro and a consulate in Curitiba.
 United Kingdom 18 October 1825 See Brazil–United Kingdom relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 October 1825 when United Kingdom recognized independent of Brazil[321]

  • Brazil has an embassy in London and a consulate-general in Edinburgh.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Belo Horizonte, Recife, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo..

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia See Australia–Brazil relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 Fiji 16 February 2006 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 February 2006[322]
  • Brazil is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Fiji does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
 New Zealand 4 March 1964 See Brazil–New Zealand relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 March 1964[323]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Brasilia and a consulate-general in São Paulo.

See also

References

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