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Television in Brazil has grown significantly since the first broadcasts in 1950, becoming one of largest and most productive commercial television systems in the world.[1] Its biggest network, TV Globo, is the largest commercial network in South America, and is one of the major television exporter globally, particularly of telenovelas, having become popular in many countries.[1] There are more than 90 free-to-air television networks (national and regional), as well as satellite channels broadcasting throughout the country.


Early years

In 1939, Telefunken, a German manufacturing and electronics company, held the first television exhibition during the Sample Fair Expo in Germany. Then in July 1941, RCA and NBC debuted their first television station in New York, in what would become the very first commercial TV station in the world. The broadcast tower, installed at the top of the Empire State Building, allowed the station to broadcast on Channel 1 in the immediate vicinity of Manhattan in deference to FCC rules which allowed the earliest broadcasters to use Channel 1 on the VHF band for experimental commercial broadcasts. By 1946 shortly after World War II, in agreement with the US government and David Sarnoff's RCA, NBC switched its broadcast frequency to VHF channel 4, and the VHF transmission system was adopted in the US, operating 12 VHF channels from 2 to 13 by order of the FCC.

In Brazil around the same time, the concessions for the first television broadcast network were decreed and distributed by President Eurico Gaspar Dutra's administration, and a cornerstone was placed for the very first transmitter in Brazil for the first commercial network, Rede Tupi. It was initially located in the municipality of Morro do Pão de Açúcar, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. By 1949, a group of technicians and engineers arrived in Brazil and visited the planned location for the broadcast tower for the first time only to find that due to the topography in Rio, the planned broadcast tower site wouldn't be the ideal place for its installation. As media mogul Assis Chateaubriand was interested in the opening of the first broadcast television network in Brazil and Latin America and already knew that the US was crucial in sponsoring the first TV broadcast in Cuba on Christmas Day of 1950, he decided to transfer to São Paulo for the inaugural broadcast, and the government gave the concession of channel 3, given by Radio Difusora in order to start Rede Tupi's operations.

Then, Chateaubriand ordered the broadcasting equipment necessary, for the station had already been built, just in time for this installation. In July 1950, the equipment arrived by ship in Port Santos and was accompanied to the capital by one of the many artists of the Emissoras Associadas group in São Paulo via motorcade. The motorcade was a hit, and crowds gathered to see the equipment being driven to the new station, a preview of what the new station would offer.[2]


The first broadcasts in Brazil were for the 1950 World Cup, in which the country hosted.

The above statement is contradicted by the following article that appeared in the Journal Dos Sports on 16 June 1950:

Oficializada a proibição das reportagens durante os jogos. Não será permitida, tambem, qualquer transmissão ou experiencia de televisão. Confirmando o que tivemos opportunidade de adiantar a CBD divulgou ontem em nota official a seguinte comunicação: "A Confederação Brasiliera de Desportos, de pieno acordo, com as recomendações expressas da FIFA, comunica aos interesrados:

a) - Não será permitido, no Estadio Municipal, ou outro qualquer local onde serão realizados os jogos da "Copa do Mundo", o servico de reportagens nos vestiarios, antes e durante os citados jogos.

b) - As reportagens, apos as partidas, ficarão a criterio das delegações participantes do Campeonato.

c) - Não será permitida a presenca de jornalistas e locutores, assim como o uso de fiosdentro do campo.

d) - Está teminantemente proibida qualquer transmissão ou experiencia, por meio de aparelhos de televisão.

Which according to Google Translate means:

The ban on reporting during games was made official. It will not be allowed, also, any transmission or television experience. Confirming that we had the opportunity to advance, the CBD released the following communication yesterday in an official note: "The Confederação Brasiliera de Desportes, in full agreement, with the express recommendations of FIFA, informs those interested:

a) - It will not be allowed, in the Municipal Stadium, or any other place where the "World Cup" games will be held, the service of reporting in the locker rooms, before and during the aforementioned games.

b) - The reports, after the matches, will be at the discretion of the participating delegations in the Championship.

c) - The presence of journalists and announcers, as well as the use of wires within the field, will not be allowed.

d) - Any transmission or experience through television sets is strictly prohibited.

Finally, on the 18th of September, 1950, network television in Brazil made its official debut in São Paulo with TV Tupi on channel 3, in an historical ceremony that was considered simplistic for the occasion in one question away. And Chateaubriand, owner of the new channel, had transmitters built across the city so that the people of the so-called Paulista would know what television is, as many people still didn't even know about TV at all. A number of TV sets were given to restaurants, bars and other places so that those who have not yet brought TVs would see the new medium themselves. It was the first Lusophone or Portuguese-speaking country to introduce television, even before the home country of Portugal with RTP (1955). It was also the fifth nation in the world to have a television station with daily broadcasts, behind the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Mexico.[3] The first television show on Tupi was first broadcast on the eve of September, and is considered the first Brazilian television program, TV na Taba, in an allusion to the indigenous people, who were already inhabited the Brazilian lands in the pre-Cabral era.

The network's symbol, a small Indian boy with an antenna on his head, appeared with the opening message: "Good evening. You are in the open TV station in Brazil," considering to be the first line of Brazilian television, starring the young actress Sonia Maria Dorce, then aged 6.[4][5] The symbol of Tupi was that of a Native Brazilian kid with a feather on the head, in another nod to the indigenous peoples of the country.

In the 1950s, Brazilian television was marked by informality, since there were no trained professionals in the country with any experience in this media field.

On January 20, 1951, Tupi began airing in Rio de Janeiro on channel 6, with two transmitters installed at the strategic points located from the expanding signals in its transmitters in Urca. The new regional studios, as well as the broadcast transmitters, opened in time for the celebrations of the feast of Saint Sebastian, the city's patron and one of the big events before the traditional Carnival. The opening ceremony of the new officers and studios featured the blessing given by Frei José Francisco de Guadalupe Mojica (Frei José Mojica), an actor who left the cinema industry to pursue a religious career. The studios were located on Venezuela Avenue, in downtown Rio, where Radio Tamoio's studios were used as a function of the studio, and the station's auditorium and technical centers was operated in the former premises of Cassino da Urca, on João Luiz Alves Avenue, in Urca.

In 1952, Reporter Esso, a radio news bulletin, made its television premiere on Tupi replacing Imagines do Dia. The newscast was broadcast on regional lines, anchored by Gontijo Teodoro in Rio and Randal Juliano in São Paulo.

In 1953, Victor Costa, who was the director of Radio Nacional from the 1940s, bought the São Paulo counterpart and formed the Victor Costa Organization, which took over Radio Excelsior's operations from its former owner, Paulo Machado de Carvalho, who sold the station to the VCO with the objective of putting money to defray the costs of the concession of the future channel 7. Machado de Carvalho also decided to dispose of his part of the association in Rio and sold itself to Pipa do Amaral, who became the sole owner of the station. They decided to face the competition by combining its stations to create "Emissoras Unidas," an association of Paulo Machado de Carvalho, including Radios Record, Panamericana (now Jovem Pan) and São Paulo.

In the same year, Machado de Carvalho opened the nation's second TV station, TV Record, on channel 7 in São Paulo. The station went on the air on the 27th of September, and the studios was located in Miruna Avenue in the Aeroporto District. It became the TV unit of Machado de Carvalho's Emissoras Unidas.

In the same year, "Alô, Doçura", an original series created by Cassiano Gabus Mendes, went on the air on Tupi. Starring Eva Wilma and John Herbert, the program was shown on Tupi on channels 3 and 6.

Another characteristic of television productions of this early period was live impromptu, as there was no videotape. The high costs of TV sets, which were imported, restricted the access of the media to the urban elites of major cities.[1] Technical resources were primary, offering broadcasters just enough to keep the stations on the air. It was during that period that TV news and telenovelas were established.[1]

In 1954, Victor Costa decided to buy Radio Mundial, owned by Diario da Noite in Rio, which held the concession of channel 11 in the city. Victor already had, with the purchase of Radio Excelsior, the concession of channel 9 in São Paulo, making a clear that Costa's desire decided to start a new network of TV stations.

The first broadcast of soccer matches were broadcast on Record, with the narration by Geraldo Jose de Almeida. It would become the first television network to broadcast live sporting events, like soccer matches.

Also, the death of President Getúlio Vargas was only reported at 01:00 PM, when Tupi in Rio was on the air. In São Paulo, channel 3 premiered the first children's production, Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo, based on the books by author Monteiro Lobato. It was shown once a week, and was also broadcast on Emissoras Associadas in Rio.

On July the 15th, 1955, TV Rio went on air on channel 13, at the initiative of Joao Batista de Amaral, brother-in-law of Machado de Carvalho, as an affiliate of Emissoras Unidas. Its studios and offices was located in the Casino Atlantico in Atlantic Avenue, postal 6, Copacabana.

The two stations decided to build a link between two cities, same exactly as what the technological method came from the US, linking city by city until completion of the route. TV Rio built its link to Guaratinguetá, half of distance from Rio, and Record end a link to São Paulo.

In the same year, Victor Costa acquired TV Paulista on channel 5, preferring to what he bought a station ready to have the assembly of the new one with concession given by Radio Excelsior. The studios were relocated to Palmeiras Street in Santa Cecilia, where Radio Nacional São Paulo and Excelsior were located. Soon afterwards, Victor Costa offered the concession of channel 9 in São Paulo up for sale.

On the 8th of September, 1955, TV Itacolomi went on the air in Belo Horizonte on channel 4 — the first television station in the state of Minas Gerais. The station was owned and operated by and the key station of TV Tupi and Emissoras Associadas.

The advent of videotape around 1960 brought imported programs to Brazilian television.[1] As a typical characteristic of countries developing their television systems, imported shows dominated the programming for much of the decade, but their presence also stimulated some efforts at creating local networks.[1] TV Tupi soon faced strong competition from yet another network, TV Excelsior, owned by Victor Costa, who would begin building a national TV network.

Expansion, Rede Globo's beginnings

Theatre Record, the main headquarters of RecordTV in São Paulo
Centro de Televisão da Anhanguera in Osasco, headquarters of SBT—the second largest TV network in Brazil.
The TV Bandeirantes Tower is the tallest tower in the city of São Paulo, and one of the largest in South America.

Television became a mass medium in Brazil earlier than in most developing countries.[1] The military dictatorship which took power in 1964 saw audiovisual communication as a tool for creating a stronger national identity, a broader consumer economy, and controlling political information.[1] The military pushed television deeper into the population by subsidizing credit for set sales, building national microwave and satellite distribution systems, which prompted the growth of Rede Globo, which they chose as a privileged partner.[1][6] TV Excelsior, an opponent of the regime, on the other hand, was forced to close after losing government advertisement.

Globo, launched a few months after the 1964 coup, created the first true national network by the late 1960s.[1] Censorship of news was extensive under the military governments between 1966 and 1978, but it also encouraged national television program production.[1] In the early 1970s, several government ministers pushed the commercial networks to develop more Brazilian programming and reduce reliance on imported programs, particularly those with violent and sexual content.[1] While Globo adopted an international model for operations, 90 percent of its content was produced in Brazil.[6]

The 1960s represented a formative period for television development.[1] Telenovelas had largely been patterned after those in other Latin American countries, even using imported scripts, but during that decade they were developed into a considerably more sophisticated genre, specifically after the airing of Beto Rockfeller, a well-produced story about a Rio de Janeiro good-lifer, in 1968 by Tupi.[1] By the 1970s, telenovelas were the most popular programs and dominated prime time on the major networks, Globo and Tupi.[1] Globo, in particular, began to attract major writers and actors from both film and theater to work in its telenovelas.[1] The Brazilian telenovelas became good enough, as commercial television entertainment, to be exported throughout Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa.[1] Brazilian exports reached over a hundred countries and the programs have often proved to be great international hits.[1] This is particularly the case with historical telenovelas such as Escrava Isaura.[1]

Alongside telenovelas, the show de auditório (a form of variety show) was carried over from radio, which often featured a mix of entertainment, music, comedy, and game show segments. These shows appealed heavily to the lower- and middle-classes, and often featured content that was considered sensational and vulgar for the period—leading to them falling out of favour by the late-1960s due to the military government.[7][8]

Color broadcasting

Between 1962 and 1963, Rede Tupi and Rede Excelsior made the first unofficial transmissions in color, in specific programs in the city of São Paulo (both using NTSC). On February 19, 1972, color broadcasting officially began, using the PAL-M TV standard. This has the same line/frame rate as NTSC, but better color encoding.

Satellite television broadcasts began in 1960. Rede Tupi was the pioneer satellite broadcaster when it broadcast Brasilia's opening in the spring of that year, and soon it began select nationwide broadcasts thru satellite transmission.

The rise of Rede Globo

From the early 1970s to late 1980s, Globo dominated both the audience and the development of television programming.[1] It had a 60-80% share in major cities at any given time.[1] As television researcher Joseph Straubhaar declared, "even people who might have had questions about the news almost always accepted the Globo novelas".[6] During this period, Globo was accused of being the mouthpiece of the dictatorship, mainly because of its omission in covering the Diretas Já movement, in which thousands of Brazilians gathered on public squares to demand a direct election for president.[1] In 1980, Tupi went bankrupt and was closed by the military government. Its signal was split and given to Silvio Santos, who launched SBT, and Adolpho Bloch, who launched Rede Manchete. Since Tupi's disappearance, Globo virtually dominated the market alone. The only time its leadership was threatened was when Manchete aired Pantanal in 1990. Nevertheless, Manchete never achieved the same success with any other of its telenovelas, and would have the same fate of Tupi, ceasing its operations in May 1999, and having its signal replaced by that of RedeTV!.

With Globo dominating the ratings, other broadcast television networks found themselves pursuing smaller, more specific audience segments largely defined by social class.[1] SBT targeted lower middle class, working class and poor audiences, mostly with variety and game shows,[1] in addition to soaps imported from Mexico's Televisa. This strategy gained it a consistent second place in ratings for most of the 1980s and 1990s.[1] On the other hand, Manchete initially targeted a more elite audience, with news, high budget telenovelas, and imported programs, but found the segment too small to gain an adequate advertiser support.[1] Bandeirantes tended to emphasize news, public affairs and sports.[1] All three ultimately wished to pursue a general audience with general appeal programming, such as telenovelas, but discovered that such efforts would not generate an audience sufficient to pay for the increased programming costs.[1]

In 1984, Globo initially supported the military government against Diretas Já, a popular campaign for the direct election of a civilian government,[1] while other television networks, most notably Manchete, supported the change. Perceiving that it might literally lose its audience to competitors, Globo switched sides and supported the transition to a civilian regime, which was indirectly elected in a compromise situation.[1] The new political circumstances immediately reduced political censorship and pressure on broadcasters.[1]

In the 1990s, UHF television channels were launched, such as music oriented MTV Brasil, and the Catholic channel Rede Vida. Also during that period, TV Cultura and Rede Record, both based in São Paulo, began to air their signal in national broadcasting systems.

Audience decline, Globo versus Record

Further information: List of most watched Brazil television broadcasts of 2019 and List of most watched Brazil television broadcasts of 2020

Rede Globo ratings at 9 p.m. (2000–2015)
Year Telenovela Share (*) +/-
2000–2001 Laços de Família 44.9% -
2001 Porto dos Milagres 44.6% -0.3%
2002 O Clone 47.0% +2.4%
2002–2003 Esperança 38.0% -9.0%
2003 Mulheres Apaixonadas 46.6% +8.6%
2003–2004 Celebridade 46% -0.6%
2004–2005 Senhora do Destino 50.4% +4.4%
2005 América 49.4% -1.0%
2006 Belíssima 48.5% -0.9%
2006–2007 Páginas da Vida 46.8% -1.7%
2007 Paraíso Tropical 42.8% -4.0%
2007–2008 Duas Caras 41.1% -1.7%
2008–2009 A Favorita 39.5% -1.6%
2009 Caminho das Índias 38.8% -0.7%
2009–2010 Viver a Vida 35.8% -3.0%
2010–2011 Passione 35.1% -0.7%
2011 Insensato Coração 36% +0.9%
2011-2012 Fina Estampa 39% +2.00%
2012 Avenida Brasil 39% -
2012-2013 Salve Jorge 34% -5.00%
2013-2014 Amor à Vida 36% +2.00%
2014 Em Família 30% -6.00%
2014-2015 Império 33% +3.00%
2015 Babilônia 25% -8.00%

(*) 1% comprises approximately 62,000 households in the Greater São Paulo area.[9]

Source: UOL

The 2000s saw the decline of television audience in the country, as internet access grew rapidly.[10] The daily average of TV sets turned on dropped from 65% in 1982–1991 to 42% in 2008.[11] In the decade, the top five TV networks in the country lost altogether 4.3% of their share.[12] SBT lost 44% of its viewership in the prime time, while Globo lost 9%.[13] The biggest decline for Globo were in its showcase telenovelas, aired at 9 p.m., which reached an all-time low during the decade. The network's latest telenovela in the time slot, Viver a Vida, scored the lowest ratings of the past ten years.[14] According to Renata Pallottin, a professor at University of São Paulo's Art and Communication School, this happens because recent telenovelas, which has the same basic story sketches since the 1970s, has proven to be unappealing to younger audiences, who watch American television series on cable TV or surf the web instead.[11] As such, telenovelas audience grew significantly older and richer in the past decade.[11]

While other TV networks face the lack of interest among viewers, one TV network weathered the decline fairly unscathed: Rede Record. In fact, the network rose its audience by 123% in the decade, partially due to investments of over US$150 million per year.[13] Although Globo maintains more than the double of Record's average ratings, the latter has been able to surpass Globo's audience on specific time slots, such as Sundays,[15] and mornings.[16] In some state capitals, such as Goiânia, Fortaleza, and Belém, for instance, Record's Domingo Espetacular already surpasses the audience of Globo's Fantástico,[17] while Record's Fala Brasil already surpasses Globo's Bom Dia Brasil in São Paulo. Globo also faces a decrease of its audience in Rio de Janeiro, where the network is headquartered. On December 11, 2009, Record surpassed the audience of Globo in Rio during the broadcast of The Elite Squad.[18] Almost a year later, on December 2, 2010, Globo came on an unprecedented third place in the Greater Rio ratings in the 11 p.m.–12 a.m. time slot.[19] On a previous occasion, Record came first in the area's ratings from 7 a.m. to 12 a.m. on September 8, 2010.[20]

A recent research conducted by Deloitte showed that surfing the web has surpassed watching TV as the entertainment activity preferred by most Brazilians.[12] Other forms of entertainment, such as watching DVDs, and viewing cable TV have also increased their popularity significantly. From 2000 to 2010, the number of households with access to cable TV increased 152%, while the DVD market saw an expansion of 430% in the same period.[12] The number of TV sets not turned on in any of the free-to-air channels—which indicates that they are being used for watching DVD or cable TV or playing videogames, also increased from 3.5% to 6.7% of the share in the decade.[12] In 2010 it further increased to 7.7% of the share, surpassing the audience of Record. Cable TV accounted for 4.5% of this, while the remaining 3.2% accounted for watching DVD and/or playing videogames.[21]

Cable television

Cable television services in Brazil were allowed to start business in 1995, according to federal law 8977/95. Since then, there were no major advances in terms of access to the technology. Brazil has one of the lowest number of households with access to cable television, as a result of the combination of high prices charged by providers and the reduced purchasing power of most Brazilians.[22] Cable television in Brazil, as of 2010, was available to only 10 million households (around 30 million viewers, which represents less than 20% of the country's population).[23] Most of the users are from the upper class (70%).[22] While the lower class represents 50% of the country's households, only 1% of them have access to cable television.[22]

The Digital TV Tower Brasilia, dubbed Flor do Cerrado.

The cable television market used to be almost monopolized by satellite TV provider SKY Brasil and cable TV provider NET, both of them partially owned by Organizações Globo. However, in 2010, Globo sold 19% of its shares in SKY to the DirecTV Group, making Globo owner of only 7% of SKY shares.[24] In the same year, Embratel made an offer to buy all of Globo's shares in NET for R$4.58 billion,[25] even though Embratel has to wait the approval of Bill N° 119, that will allow companies from countries other than Brazil to own cable operations. Since 2006, large national and international phone operators, such as Embratel, Telefónica, and Oi, began to enter the market. Due to cable regulations, telephone companies are using DTH rather than IPTV to launch their TV operations. In 2010's third trimester, the market share of cable companies was: NET with 44,8%, SKY with 25,7%, Via Embratel with 9,8%, Telefónica TV Digital with 5,1%, OiTV with 3,1%, Abril (TVA) with 1,8% and smaller companies with 9,6% of the market.[26]

Digital television

Digital terrestrial television was officially adopted by Brazil on 2 December 2007, using the ISDB-T International standard, a variant of the Japanese ISDB standards which uses H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for video compression and HE-AAC for audio compression, and support for mobile television using the 1seg standard. The government estimated that it would take seven years for DTT service to become available across the country; beginning with the greater São Paulo metropolitan, Belo Horizonte in early March 2008, and Rio de Janeiro in late May 2008. Analog television will be discontinued in phases until 2023.[27] Major Brazilian networks broadcast their digital feeds in 1080i high-definition television.

DTV in Brazil supports interactive television through the Ginga platform.[28]

On 18 January 2022, the Fórum Sistema Brasileiro TV Digital Terrestre (SBTVD Forum) recommended the Brazilian Government new technologies that would lead to Brazil's "TV 3.0" system, including the use of ATSC 3.0 technologies in the new standard. The new system is expected to begin deployment by 2024.[29]

Reality/Game Shows (2021-2024)

All of them are national versions and some of them are coupled with other larger programs.

Title TV channel Genre Period
Big Brother Brasil Globo reality/game show 2002-present
The Voice Brasil reality show 2012-2023
The Voice Kids reality show 2016-2023
The Voice + reality show 2021-2022
Dança dos Famosos (Dancing with the Stars) reality show 2005-present
Show dos Famosos (Your Face Sounds Familiar) reality show 2017-2021
No Limite (Survivor) reality show 2021-2023
Quem Quer Ser um Milionário? (Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?) game show 2017-present
The Wall Brasil (The Wall) game show 2018-present
Tem Ou Não Tem (Family Feud) game show 2020-present
The Masked Singer Brasil reality show 2021-present
Batalha do Lip Sync (Lip Sync Battle) reality show 2023-present
Acredite Em Quem Quiser (To Tell the Truth) game show 2022-present
Pequenos Gênios (Genius Junior) game show 2018-present
Duelo de Famílias (Family Game Fight!) game show 2022-present
Jogo de Panelas (Come Dine with Me) reality show 2012-present
Sobe O Som game show 2021-present
Caldeirola reality show 2022-present
Mestre do Sabor reality show 2019-2021
Zig Zag Arena game show 2021
Minha Mãe Cozinha Melhor Que a Sua reality show 2023
Estrela da Casa (similar format Star Academy) reality/game show 2024
Quem Vem Pra Cantar? (Duos Mystères) reality/game show 2024
Salvou, É Seu!' (The Million Pound Drop) game show 2024
A Fazenda (The Farm) Record reality/game show 2009-present
Canta Comigo (All Together Now) reality show 2018-present
Canta Comigo Teen (All Together Now) reality show 2020-present
Top Chef Brasil (Top Chef) reality show 2019-present
Power Couple (זוג מנצח VIP) reality/game show 2016-2022
A Grande Conquista reality/game show 2023-present
Ilha Record (similar format Desafío) reality/game show 2021-2022
Troca de Esposas (Wife Swap) reality show 2019-present
Paredão dos Famosos (Hollywood Squares) game show 2021-present
Isso Eu Faço (I Can Do That) game show 2014-present
Vai Dar Namoro - (Hora do Faro) reality show 2009–present
Famosas em Apuros - (Hora do Faro) reality show 2021–present
Pronto Pra Fama - (Hora do Faro) reality show 2023–present
Casais em Apuros reality show 2023–present
? (Who's Still Standing?) game show 2024
Game dos Games (Game of Games) game show 2021 (cancelled)
Bake Off Brasil SBT reality show 2015–present
Bake Off Celebridades reality show 2021–present
Roda a Roda Jequiti (Wheel of Fortune) game show 2003–present
Passa ou Repassa (Double Dare) game show 2013–present
Cozinhe se Puder - Mestres da Sabotagem (Cutthroat Kitchen) reality/game show 2021–present
Esquadrão da Moda (What Not to Wear) reality show 2009–present
Te Devo Essa! Brasil (Property_Brothers) reality show 2021
Nada além de Um Minuto (Minute to Win It) game show 2018–present
Programa Silvio Santos - Gincana (Takeshi's Castle) game show 2008–2021
O Melhor (The Winner Is) reality/game show 2022
Wall Duet Brasil (The Wall Song) reality show 2021-2023
Shadow Brasil reality show 2018–present
Quem Arrisca Ganha Mais game show 2021–present
Comprar É Bom, Levar É Melhor game show 2017–present
Show do Milhão PicPay game show 2021
Púlpitos da Sorte game show 2023-present
Topa um Acordo Pague Menos (Let's Make a Deal) game show 2023-present
Minha Mulher que Manda (My Wife Rules) reality/game show 2018–present
Drive Thru Okê reality/game show 2022
Ex-Maridos Contra Ex-Mulheres reality/game show In project
O Mais Fraco Vai Embora (Weakest Link) game show In project
Hotel dos Artistas (El hotel de los famosos) reality/game show In project
MasterChef Brasil Band reality show 2014-present
MasterChef Junior reality show 2022–present
MasterChef Profissionais reality show 2022–present
MasterChef + reality show 2022–present
Largados e Pelados (Naked and Afraid) reality show 2021-present
Desafio em Dose Dupla Brasil (Dual Survival) reality show 2022
Pesadelo na Cozinha (Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares) reality show 2017-2021
1001 Perguntas game show 2022
Duelo de Mães reality show 2021-2022
Mega Senha (Million Dollar Password) RedeTV! game show 2010-present
O Céu é o Limite (L'eredità) game show 2017-present
Operação de Risco (COPS) reality show 2010–present
Operação Cupido game show 2022
Ultra Show game show 2023-present
Shark Tank Brasil (Dragons' Den) reality show 2022
Imersão reality show 2021
Bela do Verão reality show 2021
Tá Certo? TV Cultura game show 2017-present
Prelúdio reality show 2005-present
Talentos reality show 2020-2021
Cultura, O Musical reality show 2019-2021
A Bordo, o Reality (similar format Bienvenidos a bordo) TV A Crítica reality show 2019-present
The Box (Cooking reality) reality show 2018-present
Tudo em Família TV Aparecida game show 2018-present
Revelações Brasil reality show 2021-present
Revelações Sertanejo reality show 2018-present
Quarta Show reality/game show 2021-present
Quizz Enem Rede Meio Norte game show 2023-present
Super Merendeiras - Merendeiras do Brasil TV Escola/RedeTV! reality show 2018-2022
Túnel do Amor Multishow reality show 2022-present
Se Sobreviver, Case! reality show 2020-present
Let Love (Lang leve de liefde) reality show 2023-present
Bar Aberto reality show 2020-present
O Plano É Esse reality show 2021
De Férias com o Ex Brasil (Ex on the Beach) MTV Brasil reality show 2016-present
De Férias com o Ex Caribe (Ex on the Beach) reality show 2022-present
Drag Race Brasil (RuPaul's Drag Race) reality show 2023-present
Rio Shore (Jersey Shore) reality show 2021-present
Dating Naked Brasil (Dating Naked) reality show 2024
Shaking The Bar Sony reality show 2023-present
Self Made Brasil reality show 2022
A Ponte: The Bridge Brasil (The Bridge) HBO Max/Discovery reality show 2022-present
The Taste Brasil (The Taste) GNT reality show 2015-present
Extreme Makeover Brasil: Casa dos Sonhos (Extreme Makeover) reality show 2020-present
Cook Island - Ilha do Sabor reality show 2022-present
The Rolling Kitchen Brasil reality show 2021-2022
Cozinheiros em Ação reality show 2013-2021
Que Seja Doce reality show 2023
Eisenbahn Mestre Cervejeiro TNT reality show 2023-present
Drag Me as a Queen (Brasil) E! reality show 2017-2022
Segue o Baile reality show 2023-present
Batalha Makers Brasil Amazon Prime Video/L!ke reality show 2019-2022
Queer Eye Brasil (Queer Eye) Netflix reality show 2022
Casamento às Cegas: Brasil (Love Is Blind) reality show 2020-present
Iron Chef: Brasil (Iron Chef) reality show 2022
The Circle Brasil (The Circle) reality show 2020-2021
Ilhados com a Sogra reality show 2023-present
Brincando com Fogo: Brasil (Too Hot to Handle) reality show 2021-present
Ideias à Venda reality show 2022
Nasce Uma Rainha (A Queen Is Born) reality show 2020-2021
LOL: Se Rir, Já Era! (LOL) Amazon Prime Video reality show 2021-present
Soltos reality show 2020-present
Ilha da Tentação (Temptation Island) reality show 2024
Caravana das Drags reality show 2023-present
Match nas Estrelas reality show 2023-present
The Cut Brasil (The Cut) HBO Max reality show 2021-present
Queen Stars Brasil reality show 2022
Corrida das Blogueiras YouTube reality show 2018-present
A Ilha dos Famosos reality show 2018-2021
Atua ou Surta reality show 2023-present
Pedreiro Top Brasil reality show 2023-present
Ilhados com Beats IGTV reality show 2021
Manda Jobs Beats reality show 2021

Free national terrestrial channels

Channel Category No. of affiliates No. of transmitters (total) Position
Globo General/Commercial 126 2.561 Steady
Record General/Commercial 135 1.080 Steady
SBT General/Commercial 146 1.194 Steady
Band (Bandeirantes) General/Commercial 86 842 Steady
RedeTV! General/Commercial 87 307 Steady
TV Cultura Public/Commercial 75 429 Steady
TV Brasil Public 80 2.261 Steady
Rede Brasil General/Commercial 19 41 Increase
TV A Crítica General/Commercial 10 101 Increase
Gazeta General/Commercial 16 58 Decrease
TV Aparecida General/Religious/Commercial 3 91 Steady
Record News News/Commercial 13 120 Decrease
Rede Vida Religious/Commercial 7 515 Steady
TV Mais Família General/Religious/Commercial 0 16 Increase
Rede Meio Norte General/Commercial 28 54 Increase
CNT General/Commercial 5 89 Decrease
Canção Nova Religious 8 379 Steady
RIT Religious 6 154 Steady
NGT General/Educational 4 5 Decrease
RBTV General/Commercial 4 22 Increase
Top TV Music 3 10 Increase
TV Novo Tempo Religious 5 207 Decrease
TV Diário General/Commercial 0 18 Decrease
Rede Cidade Verde General/Commercial 18 33 Increase
Rede Família (RFTV) General/Commercial 0 12 Steady
ISTV General/Educational 1 12 Increase
RBI General/Commercial 1 84 Decrease
Rede 21 Sport/Commercial 0 15 Increase
Canal Gov Government 3 1.075 Increase
Rede Minas Public 39 421 Decrease
TV União (Rede União) Teenage 4 7 Steady
Amazon Sat Nature-Eco/General/Commercial 0 23 Steady
TV Pai Eterno Religious 1 104 Increase
TV8 General/Commercial 1 2 Decrease
Astral TV General/Commercial 2 3 Increase
Boa Vontade TV Religious 2 123 Steady
TVT Government 3 3 Steady
Ideal TV General/Commercial 1 48 Decrease
TV da Gente Afro/Educational 0 1 Steady
Futura Educational 14 289 Steady
TV Escola Educational 3 1.523 Decrease
SescTV Educational 2 3 Steady
Rede Gospel Religious 3 18 Decrease
Rede Gênesis Religious 0 24 Increase
TV Câmara local Subchannel/Government 59 59 Steady
Kiss TV Subchannel/Music 0 1 Decrease
Rede Século 21 Religious 6 61 Decrease
Rede Super Religious 10 30 Decrease
TV Evangelizar Religious 15 86 Decrease
RIT Notícias News 3 19 Increase
Rede Boas Novas Religious 6 63 Decrease
TV Feliz Religious 0 6 Increase
TV Nazaré Religious 17 30 Steady
TV Senado Government 0 1.659 Increase
TV Universal Religious 12 ? Decrease
Rede Mundial Religious 3 85 Decrease
TV Mundo Maior Religious 2 8 Increase
TV Plenitude Religious 0 ? Decrease
Canal Saúde Subchannel/Public 0 1.123 Increase
TV Câmara Government 1 1.659 Steady
TV Assembleia Subchannel/Government 26 1.452 Steady
TV Justiça Government 3 3 Steady
Ponto Jus Subchannel/Government 0 1 Steady
TV Verdade Religious 1 68 Steady
Terra Viva Rural 0 1 Steady
MCI TV Subchannel/Music 0 1 Decrease
Canal Educação Subchannel/Public 4 ? Increase
Univesp TV Subchannel/Public 3 254 Steady
Multicultura Educação Subchannel/Public 5 255 Steady
Rede Vida Educação Subchannel/Educational 0 515 Steady

Future free national terrestrial channels

Channel Category No. of transmitters Situation
Rede Massa General/Commercial ? + (5 affiliates) From a free regional terrestrial broadcaster with the intention of national expansion
RTN TV General/Commercial 12 From a free regional terrestrial broadcaster with the intention of national expansion
TV Gazeta Goiás General/Commercial 3 + (2 affiliates) From a free regional terrestrial broadcaster with the intention of national expansion
Rede Difusora General/Commercial ? + (23 affiliates) From a free regional terrestrial broadcaster with the intention of national expansion
TV Diversa Educational/Commercial 41 From a free regional terrestrial broadcaster with the intention of national expansion

Free regional terrestrial channels

Channel Category No. of transmitters Location
TV Paraná Turismo (E-Paraná) Public 10 + (2 affiliates) State of Paraná
CBI TV (Mega TV) Religious/Commercial 2 São Paulo and DF
Rede Sul de Televisão (TV Urbana) General/Commercial ? State of Rio Grande do Sul
TV Educativa do Pará Public 64 State of Pará
TV Inova Business 94 State of Santa Catarina
Rede Minas Educa Educational 421 State of Minas Gerais
TV Transamérica General/Commercial 1 Curitiba/State of Paraná
Santa Cecília TV Educational 5 Coast of the state of São Paulo
TV Thathi Educational 1 Some parts of the interior of the state of São Paulo
TV Aldeia Public 3 State of Acre
Fonte TV Religious/Educational 4 State of Goiás
TV Horizonte Religious 8 State of Minas Gerais
TV Horizonte Educação Educational 5 State of Minas Gerais
TV Mantiqueira Public/Community 4 In some regions
TV Século 21 Educação Educational 61 In some regions
Rede New Interactive/Commercial ? In some regions
98 Live General/Commercial 1 + (1 affiliate) State of Minas Gerais
CJC Religious 1 (affiliate) Rio de Janeiro
RBC Religious 15 State of Pernambuco
Rede 41 Educational ? Some parts of the interior of the state of São Paulo
TVCI (RCI) Religious/Commercial 7 State of Paraná
TV Ativa General/Commercial 1 Some parts of the interior of the state of São Paulo
TV Verde Vale Educational 1 State of Ceará
TV Terra do Sol Public 1 State of Ceará
TV Padre Cícero Religious 1 (affiliate) State of Ceará
TV Mato Grosso General/Commercial 1 State of Mato Grosso
TVM Belém General/Commercial 1 State of Pará
TV Templo Religious 3 São Paulo
TV 10 Maringá General/Commercial 3 State of Paraná
TV Caravelas Public/Community ? Some parts of the interior of the state of Minas Gerais
COM Brasil TV Public/Community 14 (affiliates) Rebroadcast by some affiliates
UTV Brasil General/Commercial 4 (affiliates) In some regions of the state of São Paulo, Goiás and DF
Canal Um Europa Religious 1 São Paulo
TV FL Religious 1 São Paulo
Rede América General/Commercial ? Some regions of the state of São Paulo and Minas Gerais
Universo TV Religious 3 State of Minas Gerais
Canal Empreender Entrepreneurship/Commercial 1 São Paulo
Regional Educational Subchannels (RES) Subchannel/Educational 601 In some affiliates
Channels from prefectures and other small companies Public/Commercial 65 In some cities

Defunct, extinct or replaced free terrestrial channels

Channel Category Period
TV Shoptime Commercial 1995-2023
ZTV General/Commercial 2022-2023
TV Brasil 2 Public 2019-2023
Loading Pop and Geek/Commercial 2020-2021
TV NBR Government 1998-2019
Cine+ Films/Commercial 2016-2019
Esporte Interativo BR Sport/Commercial 2007-2018
TV Ultrafarma Commercial 2015-2017
TVCOM General/Commercial 1995-2015
TV Shop Tour Commercial 1987-2015
Mix TV Music and Young People/Commercial 2005-2014
MTV Brasil Youth and Entertainment/Commercial 1996-2009
TV Show Time Commercial 2006-2008
Rede Mulher Woman/Commercial 1994-2007
TVE Brasil Public 1975-2007
TV JB General/Commercial 2007
TV! General/Commercial 1999
Manchete General/Commercial 1983-1999
TV Jovem Pan General/Commercial 1991-1995
Rede OM General/Commercial 1982-1993
REI General/Commercial 1969-1989
Rede Tupi General/Commercial 1950-1980
TV Continental General/Commercial 1959-1971
TV Excelsior General/Commercial 1960-1970
Emissoras Unidas General/Commercial 1959-1967

Displaced free terrestrial channels

Channel Category Situation
Polishop TV Commercial 2020, from free TV to cable and satellite TV
CentralTV General/Commercial 2019, from free TV to cable and satellite TV
Life Channel Brasil General/Commercial 2018, from free TV to cable and satellite TV
TV Mackenzie Academic/Scientific 2008-2017, from free TV to web TV
TV Rá-Tim-Bum Subchannel/Children 2008-2016, from free TV to cable and satellite TV
Ulbra TV General/Commercial 2005-2013, from own broadcaster to affiliate of TV Cultura
PlayTV General/Commercial 2006-2008, from free TV to cable and satellite TV
Canal Rural Rural/Commercial 1998-1999, from free TV to cable and satellite TV
GloboNews News/Commercial 1996-2016, from encoded TV to cable and satellite TV
ESPN Sport/Commercial 1989-1994, from free TV to cable and satellite TV

Cable and satellite

Free national satellite channels (2023)

Channel Category Definition Tuning
CentralTV General HD Nova Parabólica-TVRO
CNN Brazil News HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Rá-Tim-Bum Children HD StarOne D2 - Banda C
CineBrasil TV Films HD StarOne C3 - Banda C/KU
Nosso Futebol Sport HD Amazonas 2/3/5 - Banda C e Ku
Woohoo Sport, Music and Young People HD Intelsat 14/Amazonas 2/3/5 - Banda C/Ku
AgroBrasil TV Rural SD SES 6 - Banda C
ZooMoo Kids Children and Nature HD Intelsat 11/SES 6/ES 14 - Banda C
Fish TV Sport Fishing HD StarOne C3 - Banda C/KU
New Brasil Variety HD StarOne C3 - Banda C/KU
TV MilAgro Brasil Agribusiness SD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Canal do Criador Agribusiness SD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
PlayTV+ General HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Jovem Pan News News HD StarOne D2 - Banda C/Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Rede América General HD StarOne D2 - Banda C
Canal Rural Rural HD StarOne D2/C3 - Banda C/Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Agro Canal Rural HD StarOne D2 - Banda C/Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Canal do Boi Rural HD StarOne D2 - Banda C/Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Polishop TV Commercial HD StarOne D2 - Banda C/Ku/TVRO
Box Brazil Play Variety HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
Prime Box Brazil Films HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
Travel Box Brazil Tourism HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
Music Box Brazil Music HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
FashionTV Brasil Variety HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
BM&C News News HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
Box Kids TV Children HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
Markket Variety HD Intelsat 14 45ºW - Banda C
Life Channel Brasil Variety HD StarOne D2/C4 - Banda C/Ku
Aki Tem TV Religious HD StarOne D2/C4 - Banda C/Ku
TV Maná Brasil/Kuriakos TV Religious HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Padre Cícero Religious HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
AgroPlus Agribusiness HD Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Maranata Religious HD Nova Parabólica-TVRO-StarOne D2
Ypê TV General HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
BR8 TV Regional HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Vivax TV General HD Intelsat 14/StarOne D2 - Banda C/Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
WooHoo Esportes Sport HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV CEL Variety HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Litoral RN Regional HD Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Centro Sul Regional HD Nova Parabólica-TVRO
TV Gazin Commercial HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Ultrafarma TV Variety HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/Nova Parabólica-TVRO
Medalhão Persa Commercial HD Intelsat 14 - Banda C
TV Mais Conasems Variety HD Eutelsat 65 West A - Banda C e Ku
TV Família do Reino Religious SD SES 10 - Banda Ku
TV Jockey Sport SD StarOne C3 - Banda C/KU
TV Turfe Sport SD StarOne C3 - Banda C/KU
Rede Mosaico Variety HD SES 6 - Banda C
Canal Libras Educational SD StarOne C3 - Banda C/KU
TV Verdes Campos Sat Variety HD ABS 3A - Banda C
C3-TV News HD Nova Parabólica-TVRO
F11 TV Variety HD TVRO-StarOne D2
Antena VIP Variety HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/TVRO-StarOne D2
MasperTV Variety HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/TVRO
tvPT Variety HD StarOne D2 - Banda Ku/TVRO-StarOne D2

Pay and cable satellite channels

Major pay television providers are Claro (cable and satellite), SKY (satellite), Vivo TV (cable/IPTV/satellite), Oi TV (satellite television).

National channels

Multinational channels


As referenced by journalist Eugênio Bucci, the problem of "audiovisual media ownership concentration is relatively sharper" in Brazil when compared to the United States.[30] According to the study Donos da Mídia (English: Media owners), Rede Globo alone controls 340 television stations, more than SBT and Rede Record combined.[31] This is largely attributed to the fact that television in the country was launched in the early 1950s by the private sector, without much state regulation and control[32] — in a manner very similar to the system of for-profit, private networks of American TV and away from the state-owned, public TV stations in Europe and in the Communist bloc. The first national public television network, TV Brasil, was only launched on December 2, 2007 (before that, since the 1960s there were local public-educative TV stations controlled by the state's governments), the same day that digital television was introduced in the country, initially limited to the cities of Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Luís and São Paulo.[citation needed]

Intellectuals and journalists in Brazil, mainly in the left of the political spectrum, criticize Brazilian TV as being too much Americanized and promoter of irrational, superficial consumerism and of having a general conservative bias, neglecting representation and respect in relation to traditionally oppressed classes and peoples like the Afro-Brazilian peoples and religion, Native Brazilians, poor women, favela inhabitants, atheists, peasants and LGBT people.[citation needed]

Most-viewed channels

This list does not include thematical TV channels, streaming, games, and Internet (YouTube and others).

Viewing shares, 2023:

Position Channel Group Share of total viewing (%)
1 Globo Organizações Globo 41.0%
2 Record Central Record de Comunicação 12.9%
3 SBT Grupo Silvio Santos 11.5%
4 Cable and Satellite TV channels Cable and Satellite TV channels 10.3%
5 Band Grupo Bandeirantes de Comunicação 6.0%
6 TV Brasil Brazil Communication Company 2.1%
7 RedeTV! Grupo TeleTV 2.0%
8 TV Cultura Padre Anchieta Foundation 1.9%
9 Rede Brasil Sistema de Comunicação Pantanal Ltda 1.5%
10 TV A Crítica Rede Calderaro de Comunicação 1.4%
11 Gazeta Fundação Cásper Líbero 1.3%
12 TV Aparecida Rede Aparecida de Comunicação 1.2%
13 Record News Central Record de Comunicação 1.0%
14 Rede Vida INBRAC - Grupo Monteiro de Barros de Comunicação 0.8%
15 TV Mais Família Grupo Patati Patatá 0.6%
16 Rede Meio Norte Grupo Meio Norte de Comunicação 0.5%
17 CNT Organizações Martinez 0.4%
18 Canção Nova Fundação João Paulo II 0.3%
19 RIT Fundação Internacional de Comunicação 0.2%
20 NGT Fundação de Fátima - Fundação Veneza 0.2%
- Others Other terrestrial channels 2.9%

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Straubhaar, Joseph. "BRAZIL". The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  2. ^ TV Ano 70 - O Início - Episódio 1, archived from the original on 2021-12-21, retrieved 2021-04-14
  3. ^ Renato Cruz (2008). TV digital no Brasil: tecnologia versus política. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Editora Senac. p. 39. ISBN 978-85-7359-755-4.
  4. ^ "Sonia Maria Dorce - Está no ar... - Guia do Estudante". Archived from the original on 2013-12-18.
  5. ^ "Digital TV in Brazil: a path to health democracy". 2005-01-21. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  6. ^ a b c Shah, Angilee. "Network-Builder Describes Role in Brazil's TV Globo" Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine. UCLA International Institute.
  7. ^ Newcomb, Horace (2014-02-03). Encyclopedia of Television. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-19472-7.
  8. ^ Cole, Richard R. (1996). Communication in Latin America: Journalism, Mass Media, and Society. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8420-2559-1.
  9. ^ "Audiência De Televisão". IBOPE. 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  10. ^ (in Portuguese) Tomazzoni, Marco. "Internet bate TV aberta como passatempo nacional". Último Segundo. August 31, 2010.
  11. ^ a b c "Audiência das novelas da Globo" Archived 2011-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. Veja, November 2008.
  12. ^ a b c d "Internet bate TV aberta como passatempo nacional". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  13. ^ a b (in Portuguese) Feltrin, Ricardo. "SBT perde um terço de telespectadores na década". Folha de S. Paulo. December 18, 2009.
  14. ^ (in Portuguese) Prado, Antonio Carlos. "Viver a vida é trair". Istoé. February 12, 2010.
  15. ^ "Record consolida segundo lugar e se aproxima da Globo". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  16. ^ "Salto da Record foi maior no Rio e à noite". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  17. ^ "Audiência do Fantástico chegou a cair pela metade em dez anos". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  18. ^ "Com 'Tropa de Elite', Record supera audiência da Globo no Rio". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  19. ^ "Globo perde audiência e fica em 3º lugar no Rio". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  20. ^ "Record deixa Globo para trĂĄs e lidera audiĂŞncia no Rio de Janeiro pela 1ÂŞ vez". 1976-08-29. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  21. ^ "Ibope de TV paga, DVD e games ultrapassa Record e é o novo vice-líder". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  22. ^ a b c (in Portuguese) "TV por assinatura" Archived 2010-04-16 at the Wayback Machine. Instituto Brasileiro de Defesa do Consumidor.
  23. ^ "TV paga no Brasil passa barreira de 10 milhões de assinantes". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  24. ^ "Globo vende parte das ações na Sky". 8 June 2010. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  25. ^ (in Portuguese) [1]
  26. ^ "". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  27. ^ "Brazil Delays Analog Switch-Off to 2018". Meio & Mensagem. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  28. ^ "Brazil's Ginga middleware slips to 2013". Advanced Television. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  29. ^ "Key ATSC 3.0 Technologies Selected By Brazil For Its Next-Generation Digital TV Standard" (Press release). Advanced Television Systems Committee. 18 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  30. ^ BUCCI, Eugênio. Sobre Ética e Imprensa. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2000.
  31. ^ (in Portuguese) "Donos da mídia - As redes de TV" Archived 2011-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Lima, Venício (April 24, 2010). "Quem "controla" a mídia?". Observatório da Imprensa (in Portuguese). 586. ISSN 1519-7670. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. Here [in Brazil] we always had concentration on media control, because, unlike what happens in the rest of the world, there has never been concern from our legislators with cross-ownership of media

Further reading