Município de Manaus
Municipality of Manaus
Skyline with the Arena da Amazônia
Church of Saint Sebastian
Municipal Clock Tower
Flag of Manaus
Official seal of Manaus
A Paris dos Trópicos (The Paris of the Tropics); Mãe dos Deuses (Mother of the Gods)
"A metrópole da Amazônia" (The metropolis of the Amazon)
Location in the state of Amazonas
Location in the state of Amazonas
Manaus is located in Brazil
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 3°7′8″S 60°1′18″W / 3.11889°S 60.02167°W / -3.11889; -60.02167
Country Brazil
FoundedOctober 24, 1669
 • MayorDavid Almeida (Avante)
 • Metropolis11,401.092 km2 (4,401.97 sq mi)
 • Urban
427 km2 (165 sq mi)
92 m (302 ft)
 • Metropolis2,219,580 (7th)
 • Density191.45/km2 (450.29/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,676,936 (11th)
Demonym(s)Manauara, Manauense
GDP (PPP, constant 2015 values)
 • Year2023
 • Total (Metro)$37.4 billion[2]
 • Per capita$16,400
Time zoneUTC−4 (AMT)
Postal code
69000-001 to 69099-999 and 69400-000 to 69899-999
Area code+55 (92)
HDI (2010)0.737 – high[3]

Manaus (Portuguese: [mɐˈnaws, ma-]) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Amazonas. It is the seventh-largest city in Brazil, with an estimated 2020 population of 2,219,580 distributed over a land area of about 11,401 km2 (4,402 sq mi). Located at the east centre of the state, the city is the centre of the Manaus metropolitan area and the largest metropolitan area in the North Region of Brazil by urban landmass. It is situated near the confluence of the Negro and Amazon rivers. It is one of the two cities in the Amazon Rainforest with a population of over 1 million people, alongside Belém.

The city was founded in 1669 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856, it returned to its original name.[4]

Manaus is located in the center of the Amazon rainforest, and home to the National Institute of Amazonian Research, being the most important center for scientific studies in the Amazon region and for international sustainability issues.[5] It was known at the beginning of the century as Heart of the Amazon and City of the Forest.[6] Currently, its main economic engine is the Industrial Park of Manaus, a Free Economic Zone.[7] The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute, and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house, zoological and botanical gardens, an eco-park, and regional and native peoples museums.[8]

The Solimões and Negro rivers meet just east of Manaus and join to form the Amazon River (using the Brazilian definition of the river; elsewhere, Solimões is considered the upper part of the Amazon[9]). Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the Paris of the Tropics. Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art, architecture, and culture with them. Manaus was one of the twelve Brazilian host cities of the 2014 World Cup, as well as one of the five subsections of the 2016 Summer Olympics.


The name Manaus comes from the native people called Manaós, which means Mother of the Gods.[10]


See also: History of Manaus

Bust of Francisco de Orellana, the Spaniard who sailed the Amazon River in 1542
Prospectus of the Rio Negro Fortress, founded in 1669

Early settlement of Manaus

The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish arrival at the mouth of the Amazon River. The Spanish then continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668–1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by the Portuguese in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannons guarding the curtains.[11] It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.[11]

The population grew so much that, in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated to Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who, in time, became the patron saint of the city.[12] A Royal Charter of March 3, 1755 created the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but with the governor, Lobo D'Almada, fearing a Spanish invasion, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13, 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town status and named Manaus. On October 24, 1848, under Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, it was renamed the City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4, 1856, the governor, Herculano Ferreira Pena, finally gave it the name "Manaus".[13]


Eduardo Ribeiro Avenue, c. 1901.

The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Native Americans, and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of the then state of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.[14] The involvement of rebels from the Upper Amazon (Manaus today) in what was originally a movement based in Belém was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the Upper Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, occupying Manaus twice, and, in most settlements, their arrival was greeted by the non-white population spontaneously joining their ranks, leading to a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state.[15]

Rubber boom

Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world".[16] Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne."[17] The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, and using marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow fever.[18] The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, was effectively closed for most of the 20th Century. However it was used in scenes of the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo (1982). After a gap of almost 90 years, it reopened to produce live opera in 1997 and is now attracting performers from all over the world.[19]

When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region to be cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia,[Note 1] Brazil and Peru lost their monopoly on the product. The rubber boom ended abruptly, many people left its major cities, and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had made possible electrification of the city before it was installed in many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run. The city was not able to generate electricity again for years.[19]

Free zone

In the 1960s during the establishment of the military dictatorship in Brazil, the newly installed government concerned about the "demographic gap in Brazil", began to introduce numerous projects in the interior of the country, especially in the Amazon region, with the introduction of the Manaus free trade zone in 1967,[20] and with the opening of new roads within the region, the city had a wide period of investments in financial and economic capital, both national and international, attracted by the tax incentives granted by the free zone, in this period, Manaus had enormous demographic growth becoming one of the most populous cities in Brazil.[21]

Recent events

Manaus was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and one of the seats of some Olympic football games.[22] It was the only host city in the Amazon rainforest and the most geographically isolated, being further north and west than any of the other host cities. A massive prison riot occurred in January 2017, having begun in Manaus and later spreading to two additional cities in Brazil,[23] thus unleashing security problems within the country.[24][25]

During the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, an estimated 76% of the population of Manaus was infected with coronavirus,[26] and the possibility of herd immunity was discussed.[27][28] However, a second outbreak infected people in Manaus, this time with the Lineage B.1.1.248 variant starting in early January 2021.[29][30]


Aerial view of the Amazon Rainforest, near Manaus

The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 158.06 inhabitants per square kilometre (409.4/sq mi). It is the neighboring city of Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara, and Novo Airão.


Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon Rainforest. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species-rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[31] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon rainforest.[32]

Green areas

Anavilhanas National Park.
Anavilhas National Park ground view.

Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus is densely developed and has few green areas in the city. The largest green areas are:


Manaus has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system, just dry enough in its driest month to not be a tropical rainforest climate, with the average annual compensated temperature of 27.4 °C (81.3 °F) and high air humidity, with a rainfall index around 2,300 mm (90.6 in) annually. The seasons are relatively well-defined concerning rain: July to September is relatively dry, and December to May is very rainy. Thunderstorms are frequent every day in the summer, but they can occur at any time of the year. There have been occasional occurrences of hail in the city.[37]

Due to the city's proximity to the equator, the heat is constant in the local climate. There are no cold days in winter, and rarely very intense polar air masses in the South-Central part of Brazil and in the southwest of the Amazon have some effect on the city, as occurred in August 1955. But although they are rare, they influence the climate, causing the temperature to drop to 18 °C (64.4 °F) or below.[38] The proximity to the forest usually avoids extremes of heat and makes the city wet.[39]

According to the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), the highest temperature registered in the city was 39 °C (102.2 °F), in 2015 and the lowest was 12 °C (53.6 °F) in 1989.

On November 26, 2009, a case of acid rain was recorded in Manaus. Air pollution, caused in large part by the accumulation of smoke from burning, associated with the carbon dioxide[dubious ] emitted by cars, was the cause of this phenomenon. Although the incidence of acid rain is common in some Brazilian capitals where there is a great concentration of cars, in Manaus and other cities of the Amazonas the situation is aggravated by the prolonged period of drought with the smoke from forest fires.[40]

Climate data for Manaus (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1872–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.6
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.6
Record low °C (°F) 18.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 305.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 18.7 17.6 19 17.5 15.5 10.4 6.8 5.7 6.1 8.3 10.3 15.3 151.2
Average relative humidity (%) 84.8 85.1 85.8 85.6 84.4 80.8 77.4 74.6 74.6 76.1 79.3 83.0 81.0
Average dew point °C (°F) 24.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 122.7 98.0 104.3 113.6 141.9 191.0 223.1 222.5 196.4 173.5 150.7 126.6 1,864.3
Mean daily daylight hours 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.1
Average ultraviolet index 12 12 12 12 12 11 10 12 12 12 12 12 12
Source 1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia[41][42][43][44][45][46][47]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[48]NOAA[49] Weather atlas(Daylight-UV)[50]


The urban area covers all or part of four river basins, all tributaries of the Rio Negro. The São Raimundo and Educandos streams are completely contained in the city. The Tarumã Açu forms the western boundary of the city in its lower reaches, and is fed by several tributaries that originate in the Ducke Reserve and run through the north and west of the city. The Puraquequara forms the east boundary of the urban area in its lower section.[51]


See also: Brazilians, Demographics of Brazil, and Immigration to Brazil

São Sebastião square
Manaus region seen from space in 2018.

According to the IBGE in 2019, there were 2,182,763 people residing in the city, and 2,676,936 people in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 191.45 inhabitants per square kilometre (495.9/sq mi).

Racial composition 2022[52]
Mixed 69.6%
White 23.7%
Black 5.6%
Amerindian 0.9%
Asian 0.2%

Manaus is the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasília, Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.

The city's population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital (Brasilia). Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.

According to the results of the last census, the city's population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 in 1970. By 1990, the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90 inhabitants per square kilometre (230/sq mi).

According to a 2013 genetic study, the ancestry of the inhabitants of Manaus is 45.9% European, 37.8% Native American, and 16.3% African.[53]


See also: Religion in Brazil, Protestantism in Brazil, and Roman Catholic Church in Brazil

St. Sebastian Church

The city has been influenced by Catholicism since the time of European colonialism, and the majority of Manauenses are Catholic—there are nevertheless dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city. Judaism, Candomblé, Islam, and spiritualism, among others, are also practised.[11] The city's Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora da Conceição is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.

The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian Church, Calvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Anglican Episcopal Church, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, and the Jehovah's Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also has a large presence, with a LDS temple having been built in the city, the sixth in Brazil.[54]

Districts and regions

Metropolitan region

The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM) is a metropolitan area that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.


Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West, and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007).[55] The northern region of the city has had the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the Nova Cidade neighborhood. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income.[56] The Eastern Zone is known for having a large number of hills.


Further information: pt:Lista de bairros de Manaus and Compensa

The first neighborhood (bairro) established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began to be occupied since the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.

Manaus has the largest neighborhood in Latin America, the neighborhood of Cidade Nova, which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. Cidade Nova is larger than all the cities inside the rest of Amazonas state.[57] With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.

The wealthiest neighborhood in Manaus is Adrianópolis, located in the Central-South Area of the city. Downtown Manaus is located in the Southern area of the city, next to Rio Negro River. After years of development, the historical center has been neglected by the authorities and it has become an area mostly for commerce and poor housing. There is a plan to restore the city centre to its former glory by removing beggars and irregular sellers from sidewalks and by doing that provide more safety for tourists and locals who are trying to walk in the historical areas of the city. All these plans were prompted by the 2014 World Cup.


See also: Economy of Brazil and Free Economic Zone of Manaus

Mario Ypiranga Avenue

Manaus is the sixth-largest economy in Brazil. According to IBGE in 2014, its GDP was R$67,5 billion.[58] The per capita income for the city was R$33,446.[59] Although the main industry of Manaus through much of the 20th century was rubber, its importance has declined. Given its location, fish, wild fruits like Açaí and Cupuaçu, and Brazil nuts initiate important trades, as do petroleum refining, soap manufacturing, and chemical industries. Over the last decades, a system of federal investments and tax incentives has turned the surrounding region into a major industrial center (the Free Economic Zone of Manaus).

The mobile phone companies LG, Nokia, Samsung, Siemens, Sagem, Gradiente, and BenQ-Siemens operate mobile phone manufacturing plants in Manaus.[60][61] Plastic lens manufacturer Essilor also has a plant here. The Brazilian sport utility vehicle manufacturer Amazon Veiculos is headquartered in Manaus.[62] Two airlines, MAP Linhas Aéreas and Manaus Aerotáxi, have headquarters on the grounds of Eduardo Gomes International Airport in Manaus.[63][64]

Free Trade Zone

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The initial idea of a Free Trade Port in Manaus came from Deputy Francisco Pereira da Silva and was subsequently formalized by Law No. 3.173 on June 6, 1957. The project was approved by the National Congress on October 23, 1951, under No. 1.310 and regulated by Decree No. 47.757 on February 2, 1960. It was then amended by rapporteur Maurício Jopper, an engineer, who by agreement with the original author, justified the creation of a Free Trade Zone instead of a Free Trade Port.

For the first ten years, the ZFM (Manaus Free Trade Zone) was located in a warehouse rented from Manaus Harbour, in the Port of Manaus, and relied on federal funds. It was perhaps due to this lack of its own resources that there was little credibility in the project. On February 28, 1967, President Castelo Branco signed Decree-Law No. 288, which redefined the Manaus Free Trade Zone in more concrete terms. The new Decree-Law stipulated that the Manaus Free Trade Zone would have a radius of 10 km (6.2 mi) with an industrial center as well as an agricultural center and that these would be given the economic means to allow for regional development in order to lift the Amazon out of the economic isolation that it had fallen into at that time.

On August 28, 1967, the Manaus Free Trade Zone Authority, SUBFRAME, was created. SUBFRAME is an independent body with its own legal status and assets and has financial and administrative autonomy. Tax incentives and the subsequent complementary legislation created comparative advantages in the region with respect to other parts of the country and as a result the Manaus Free Trade Zone attracted new investment to the area. These incentives constituted tax exemptions administered federally by SUBFRAME and SUDAM.

Government and politics

Further information: List of mayors of Manaus

See also: pt:Lista de vereadores de Manaus and pt:Câmara Municipal de Manaus

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2018)

There is a prison, Anisio Jobim Penitentiary Complex.[65]

Education, science and technology

National Institute of Amazonian Research
Amazon Biotechnology Center

Manaus has research centers, technology and public and private universities.



Manaus International Airport

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is the airport serving Manaus. The airport has two passenger terminals, one for scheduled flights and the other for regional aviation. It also has three cargo terminals.

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is Brazil's third largest in freight movement,[66] handling the import and export demand from the Manaus Industrial Complex. For this reason, Infraero invested in the construction of the third cargo terminal, opened on December 14, 2004. TAM Airlines also inaugurated its own cargo terminal near the airport in 2008, which claims to be the largest cargo terminal in Brazil. The country's major dedicated freight route is between Manaus and Viracopos International Airport, which is operated by wide-body jets. Other freight routes include North America and Europe.

The passenger terminal had been fully refurbished and expanded in time for the 2014 FIFA Football World Cup, which held 4 games in Manaus. The airport currently operates daily international flights to Miami and Orlando, United States, by American Airlines and LATAM Airlines Brasil; to the city of Panama, by Copa Airlines; and to Barcelona, Venezuela, by Avior Airlines. The airport has direct flights to all major airports in Brazil, operated by the three major carriers: Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines, and Azul Brazilian Airlines. The airport's IATA code is MAO.

Manaus Air Force Base - ALA8, one of the most important bases of the Brazilian Air Force, is located in Manaus at the former Ponta Pelada Airport.

Apart from the Eduardo Gomes International Airport and Ponta Pelada Airport, Manaus still has an operational airstrip used by small propeller aircraft and helicopters about 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city centre, simply known as the "Aeroclube" ("airclub"). On Sundays, it is used for parachuting and where flying classes can be hired. Due to the fact that it is surrounded by residential areas, and has a recent history of crashes, it is under constant pressure to be moved.


Gilberto Mestrinho road complex
Rio Negro Bridge

There are two federal highways that intersect Manaus. There is a paved road heading North (BR-174) connecting Manaus to Boa Vista, the capital of the State of Roraima and to Venezuela. Strictly speaking, Manaus is connected by road to the rest of Brazil, as it is possible to drive continuously from Manaus into Venezuela, and then reenter Brazil through the BR-364 in Acre and its capital, Rio Branco, therefore passing through the countries of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. As such a route is impractical for most motorists, the vast majority of transportation to and from Manaus is by boat or plane, except for journeys to Roraima. The Independent noted that "there are still no roads to Manaus" from the rest of the country.[67]

The BR-319 heads South connecting Manaus to Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia. However, access to this highway requires a ferry crossing to Careiro, across the Rio Negro and Amazon River, which takes about 40 minutes, and then is only paved for about another 100 kilometers (60 mi) to Castanho. After that, the highway is not paved, and cannot be used. Various governments have promised to recover this land-link with the rest of the country, but environmental issues, high costs and complicated logistics have impeded any progress so far.

The two major state highways are the AM-010 and the AM-070. The AM-010 heads east, to Itacoatiara, Amazonas at the banks of the Amazon River, which is the third largest city of the state. The AM-070 heads south, starting on the other side of the new Rio Negro Bridge at Manaus, and reaching Manacapuru, which lies at the banks of the Solimoes River, also known as the upper River Amazon, and which is the fourth largest city of the state. Both roads are paved and operate all year round.


Main article: Port of Manaus

Port of Manaus

Ships dock at the main port in Manaus directly downtown on the banks of the Negro River. The terraced city is home to a network of bridged channels that divide it into several compartments. Several mobile phone companies have manufacturing plants in the port area, and other major electronics manufacturers also have plants there. Major exports going through the port include Brazil nuts, chemicals, petroleum, electrical equipment, and forest products. [citation needed]


Regular Manaus taxis are white and can be stopped anywhere. They are organized into separate cooperatives, each with their own contact phone numbers. All taxis are metered, which does not necessarily mean the meter will be used.

The 'special' taxi cars are typically black and of a higher quality than the white taxis, and will charge a fixed rate for all journeys or daily hire. Most can only be booked locally; however, the reputable Brazil Airport Transfers[68] has recently started providing airport transfer and general transportation services in Manaus.


The bus system in Manaus is quite extensive and there are buses and vans that go to most destinations, including the popular tourist destinations. There is a very simple bus website that permits the planning of routes.

Panorama of the Rio Negro Bridge, which connects the cities of Manaus and Iranduba. It is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Brazil, being 3,595 meters (11,794 ft) in length.

Events and holidays

A float at Manaus Carnival, 2016.

The annual calendar of festivals in Manaus starts in late February / early March. The Manaus carnival (carnaval) celebrations are a good start to upcoming events and include traditional processions and samba dancing at the Sambódromo in the Centro de Convenções (Convention Centre). May is a popular time to pay a visit to Manaus, since the city hosts both the Ponta Negra Music and the Amazonas de Opera festivals during this month. Staged at the Teatro Amazonas, the Opera Festival lasts around three weeks and usually runs into early June. The Floclorico do Amazonas (Amazonas Folklore Festival) is in June, and this has grown to become a major event, involving a huge array of folk dancing and music, culminating in the Procissao Fluvial de São Pedro (St. Peter River Procession), when hundreds of riverboats sail along the Rio Negro, honouring the patron saint of fishermen.

October 24 was the day in 1848 that Manaus legally became a city. This anniversary is always cause for a party, culminating in fireworks at the end of the day. In November is the week-long Amazonas Film Festival, with films and documentaries often emphasising ecology, ethnology and human relationships.[69]

Sights and attractions

Amazon Theatre, in Manaus. More than 120 years old, it represents the city's heyday during the rubber boom.[70]

Because of Manaus' location within the Amazon rainforest, it attracts a substantial number of Brazilian and foreign tourists, who come to see wildlife on land and in the rivers. It is also home to one of the most endangered primates in Brazil, the pied tamarin.

Tour boats leave Manaus to see the Meeting of the Waters, where the black waters of the Negro River meet the brown waters of the Solimoes River, flowing side by side without mixing for about 9 km (6 mi). Visitors can also explore river banks and "igarapes", swim and canoe in placid lakes, simply walk in the lush forest or stay at hotels in the jungle.

About 18 km (11 mi) from downtown is Ponta Negra beach, a neighbourhood that has a beachfront and popular nightlife area.[71] A luxurious hotel is located at the west end of Ponta Negra; its zoo and orchid greenhouse as well as preserved woods and beach are open for public visits.

The Mercado Adolpho Lisboa, founded in 1882, is the city's oldest marketplace, trading in fruit, vegetables, and especially fish. It is a copy of the Les Halles market of Paris.[72] Other interesting historical sites include the customs building, of mixed styles and medieval inspiration; the Rio Negro Palace cultural center; and the Justice Palace, right next to the Amazonas Opera House.

Manaus has also many large parks with native forest preservation areas, such as the Bosque da Ciência and Parque do Mindú. The largest urban forest in the world is located within the Federal University of Amazonas, which was founded on January 17, 1909, and is the oldest federal university in Brazil.

Manaus also has several Malls such as Manauara Shopping, Amazonas Shopping Center, Millennium Shopping, Shopping Ponta Negra, Studio 5 Festival Mall, Shopping Cidade Nova, Manaus Plaza Shopping, Shopping Sao José, and other small Shopping Areas. Most of these malls include large food courts and movie theaters.


The city's cultural calendar throughout the year includes the Opera, Theater, Jazz, and Cinema festivals, as well as Boi Manaus (usually held around Manaus' anniversary on the 24th of October), which is a great celebration of Northern Brazilian culture through Boi-Bumbá music.

Further information on the period instruments music group: Amazonas Baroque Ensemble

Amazonas Opera House

Main article: Amazon Theatre

The Amazonas Opera House, inaugurated in 1896, has 700 seats and was constructed with bricks brought from Europe, French glass, and Italian marble. Several important opera and theater companies, as well as international orchestras, have already performed there. The theater is home to the Amazonas Philharmonic orchestra which regularly rehearses and performs there along with choirs, jazz bands, dance performances, and more.[73]


Lagoa do Japiim Park

Ponta Negra Cultural, Sport, and Leisure Park

Ponta Negra beach, located 13 km (8.1 mi) from downtown Manaus, is one of the city's most important tourist attractions. It also has an amphitheater with a capacity of 15.000 people.

Lua Beach.

Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden

The Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, inside a 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) ecological reserve, holds a huge number of plant and animal species.[74]

Mindu Municipal Park

Cruise ship on the Negro River on the way to the city of Manaus.

It is located in an urban area, in the November 10 Park district. It was created in 1992 to be an area of ecological interest. It covers an area of 330,000 m2 (3,552,090 sq ft) of forest remaining from the Township, and is used for scientific, educational, cultural and tourist activities. It is one of the last habitats for the pied tamarin, a species of monkey that only inhabits the Manaus region and is considered to be at high risk of extinction. It is possible to walk through four distinct ecosystems in the park: land covered by secondary growth, firm ground brush, sandbanks and degraded areas that were illegally cleared in 1989. It also has an amphitheater for 600 people, gardens planted with medicinal and aromatic herbs, an orchid nursery, aerial trails, and signs aiming to develop environmental education programs.[75]

Public swimming areas

The Tarumã, Tarumãzinho, and Cachoeira das Almas bayous (branches of rivers), located near the city, are leisure spots for the population on weekends. Manaus has several public swimming areas that are being remodeled and urbanized lately. There are also many private clubs that can be visited.

Meeting of Waters

The natural phenomenon of the confluence of the Rio Negro's water and the Solimões River's water

Main article: Meeting of Waters

The Meeting of Waters (Portuguese: Encontro das Àguas) is a natural phenomenon caused by the confluence of the Rio Negro's dark water and the Solimões River's muddy brown water that come together to form the Amazonas River. For 6 km (3.7 mi) or more, both rivers' waters run side by side without mixing. The reason for this is not clear, although it is likely that the main factors are differences in the speed of the current, the volumes of water and the different densities of the two rivers. It is not thought that other differences between the two rivers (temperature and acidity) affect the mixing process significantly.[76] The Negro River flows approximately 2 km/h (1.2 mph) at 28 °C (82 °F), while the Solimões River flows 4 to 6 km/h (2.5 to 3.7 mph) at 22 °C (72 °F).[77]


The zoo is open to the public. It is managed by the Brazilian Army and has approximately 300 species of animals from the Amazon fauna.[78]

Beaches and waterfalls

For outings to beaches and parks situated near the city, it is often necessary to use boats. The beaches are formed right after the river water level starts dropping, which lasts from August to November. Starting in December, as the river rises, the waters invade the sand and the woods on the banks. The Paricatuba Waterfall, located on the right bank of the Negro River, along a small tributary, is formed by sedimentary rocks, surrounded by abundant vegetation. Access is by boat. The best time to visit is from August to February. Love Cascade located in the Guedes bayou, with cold and crystal clear water, is accessible only by boat and, then, hiking through the forest.

Tupé Beach is approximately 34 km (21 mi) from Manaus. This beach is well frequented by bathers on holidays and weekends. It is accessible only by boat. Moon Beach is located on the left bank of the Negro River, 23 km (14 mi) from Manaus. It is accessed only by boat. The beach is shaped like a crescent moon and is surrounded by rare vegetation. Lion Waterfall is located on km 34 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara).

Ponta Negra Beach in 2014.


Main articles: 2014 FIFA World Cup and Sports in Brazil

Arena Amazônia
Internal view of arena


The most successful club in Manaus is Nacional Futebol Clube, founded on 13 January 1913. Formerly a participant of the highest division several times between 1970 and 1990, Nacional are 40-time state champions, which makes them the highest-ranked Amazonian football club in the CBF ranking, the national state championships record holder, and the state record holder for the most championship titles.

The city has quite a few other clubs with distinguished histories such as Atlético Rio Negro Clube, also founded in 1913, but in November, who have won the state championship 17 times. National Fast Club, founded after a split from Nacional Clube, have won six state championships, in addition to being Northern Region champions and Northeastern Championship runners-up in 1970. São Raimundo EC, founded on November 18, 1918. They have won the state championship six times and the North Cup 3 times. Sul América Esporte Clube, founded on 1 of May, 1932. They have won the state championship twice in 1992 and 1993. Finally, Atlético Clipper Clube who have twice finished as runners-up in the state championship in 1996 and 2002.

Manaus Futebol Clube, founded in 2013, competes in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série C.

2014 FIFA World Cup

Manaus was chosen in 2009 to be a host city for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, after a competition to represent the North Region of Brazil with neighboring Pará state capital, Belém.

Manaus was restructured in order to host such a big event. A new airport was built, streets throughout the city were repaved and new and improved sidewalks were built. The communications infrastructure of the city was improved with 4G networks installed by the biggest mobile phone carriers in Brazil.

The Vivaldão, previously the largest stadium in Manaus, was inaugurated in 1970 by the Brazilian national team in their last game in the country before they headed to their victorious 1970 World Cup in Mexico. It was demolished to be replaced by the 44,000 seater Arena Amazônia for the 2014 World Cup.[79]

The first 2014 World Cup match held in Manaus was England vs Italy on June 14. The second match was Cameroon vs Croatia on June 18, to be followed by USA vs Portugal on June 22. The last was Honduras vs Switzerland on June 25. Manaus, known for its intense heat and humidity, was the site of the World Cup's first-ever official water break on June 22 in the match between Portugal and the United States.

Brazilian jiu-jitsu

Manaus is the origin of several world-champion Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belts, mixed martial artists and submission grapplers. Champions such as Fredson Paixão, Wallid Ismail, Saulo Ribeiro, Cristiane De Souza, Alexandre Ribeiro, Ronaldo Souza, Diogo Reis, Micael Galvão, Fabricio Andrey, and Bibiano Fernandes hail from Manaus. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a major component of MMA (mixed martial arts). José Aldo (born September 9, 1986) is a black belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu and a notable UFC fighter. Aldo defeated Mike Brown at WEC 44 to win the title and has since successfully defended his WEC title against Urijah Faber & Manvel Gamburyan. He later became the UFC Featherweight champion, with title defenses against such notable fighters as Mark Hominick and Kenny Florian.

International relations

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Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil

Manaus is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ For an account, see The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power, and the Seeds of Empire, by Joe Jackson.



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General bibliography