Flag of Braga
Coat of arms of Braga
Coordinates: 41°33′4″N 8°25′42″W / 41.55111°N 8.42833°W / 41.55111; -8.42833
Country Portugal
Intermunic. comm.Cávado
Parishes37, see text
 • PresidentRicardo Rio (PSD)
 • Total183.40 km2 (70.81 sq mi)
200 m (700 ft)
Highest elevation
558 m (1,831 ft)
 • Total193,333
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC±00:00 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+01:00 (WEST)
Postal code
Area code253

Braga (Portuguese: [ˈbɾaɣɐ] ; Proto-Celtic: *Bracara) is a city and a municipality, capital of the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga and of the historical and cultural Minho Province. Braga Municipality had a resident population of 193,333 inhabitants (in 2021),[1] representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal by population. Its area is 183.40 km2.[2] Its agglomerated urban area extends to the Cávado River and is the third most populated urban area in Portugal, behind Lisbon and Porto Metropolitan Areas.

It is host to the oldest Portuguese archdiocese, the Archdiocese of Braga of the Catholic Church and it is the seat of the Primacy of the Spains. During the Roman Empire, then known as Bracara Augusta, the settlement was the capital of the Roman province of Gallaecia and later would become the capital of the Kingdom of the Suebi that was one of the first territories to separate from the Roman Empire in the 5th century. Inside of the city there is also a castle tower that can be visited. Nowadays, Braga is among the most noted entrepreneurial and technological centers of the country,[3][4][5][6][7] as well as a major hub for inland Northern Portugal, and it is an important stop on the Portuguese Way path of the Road of St James. The city hosted two games of the UEFA Euro 2004[8] and was the European Youth Capital in 2012.[9]


See also: Timeline of Braga and Ecclesiastical history of Braga

A 16th-century map of Braga, when the city was enclosed by its mediaeval wall. The large building in the centre is the Cathedral, while the Episcopal Palace and courtyards can be seen above the cathedral and the ancient Castle of Braga
Ponte de Prozelo, Braga
The 18th century municipal hall that houses the local government authority
The skyline of Braga during the mid-19th century.


Human occupation of the region of Braga dates back thousands of years, documented by vestiges of monumental structures starting in the Megalithic era. During the Iron Age, the Castro culture extended into the northwest, characterized by Bracari peoples who occupied the high ground in strategically located fortified settlements (castrum).

The region became the domain of the Callaici Bracarii, a Celtic[10] tribe who occupied what is now northern Portugal, Galicia and Asturias in the northwest of Iberia.

Roman rule

The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, and finished it, by conquering the northern regions, during the reign of Emperor Augustus. The civitas of Bracara Augusta was founded in 16 BC; in the context of the administrative reorganization of these Roman acquisitions, Bracara was rededicated to the Emperor taking on the name Bracara Augusta. The city of Bracara Augusta developed greatly during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century.

Towards the end of the 3rd century, the Emperor Diocletian promoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative area Conventus bracarensis, the southwestern area of the newly founded Roman province of Gallaecia.

Braga in Late Antiquity and Middle Ages

The city was described as prosperous by the poet Ausonius, in the 4th century.[11] Between 402 and 470 the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula occurred, and the area was conquered by the Suebi, a Germanic people from Central Europe. According to records the city was protected by a wall, still in use since the 3rd century, and the old Roman amphitheatre was repurposed into a fortress.[11] In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia covering what is present-day's Northern half of Portugal,[12] Galicia and Asturias, which they maintained as Gallaecia, and had Bracara as their capital. This kingdom was founded by Hermeric and lasted for over 150 years. However, the departure of the Vandals and the arrival of the Visigoths brought a new instability to the region. Between 419 and 422, Braga was threatened by the Vandals so it prepared itself for a siege, closed its gates and refused to open them; this led to the destruction of the surrounding countryside.[11] Nevertheless, between 429 and 455, the Suebi made a military comeback in Iberia reinforcing their hold in Galeicia and Lusitania.[11] In 455, while the Visigothic king Theodoric II sacked Braga, utterly destroying many historical and archaeological records,[11] the Suebi king Rechiar escaped the city, wounded, to Porto.[13] However, records of a list of dioceses and parishes of Braga, made in 570 still exist.[11] By about 584, the Visigoths took permanent control of Gallaecia from the Suebi, and Braga was made a provincial capital.

Because historians are still unsure of the dating of the Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão, in Lamego, currently Braga hosts the oldest chapel in Portugal, the Chapel of São Frutuoso. The chapel was built by the Visigoths on top of a Roman temple to Asclepius and it was made to be a Royal Chapel. In 656 AD, it was consecrated by Saint Fructuosus[11] to be used as his tomb.

A 17th-century engraving of Braga, showing the walls of the city, which were progressively demolished to make way for new constructions
A view of Rua Júlio Lima at the beginning of the 20th century

Historical records show, so far, that the first known bishop of Braga was named Paternus,[11] who famously renounced priscillianism at the First Council of Toledo, in September of 400 AD. We also have records of a bishop named Balconius (415-447), who was also recorded to be present when the Iberian clergy received, in 435, a German priest from Arabia accompanied by several Greeks with news from the Council of Ephesus (431).[11] Balconius was also a contemporary and correspondent of Pope Leo I.[11]

Tradition, however, states that Saint Peter of Rates was the first bishop of Braga, a Jew personally elevated to the role by Saint James. Another bishop, Saint Ovidius (d. 135 AD) is also sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city.

Braga had an important role in the Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius (a friend of Augustine of Hippo) wrote several theological works that expounded the Christian faith. While thanks to the work of Saint Martin of Braga the Suebi in Iberia renounced the Arian and Priscillianist heresies during two synods held here in the 6th century.[11] It is also worth noting that Rechiar, the suebi king, was also the first Germanic king in Europe to convert to Chalcedonian Christianism, predating Clovis of the Franks.[14] At the time, Martin also founded an important monastery in Dumio (Dume), and it was in Braga that the Archbishopric of Braga held their councils. There were also some attempts at further elevating the religious status of the city, such as Paulus Orosius and Avitus of Braga's attempt at bringing relics of Saint Stephen, from the Holy Land to Braga. Originally, Avitus entrusted the delivery of the relics to Paulus Orosius, however, after arriving at Majorca, the theologian heard news of the invasion of the peninsula by the Vandals and halted his pilgrimage to return to North Africa. The relics never reached their destination and their fates are unknown.[15]

As a consequence, the Archbishops of Braga later claimed the title of Primatus Totus Hispania, claiming supremacy over the entire Hispanic church. Yet, their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania, and today they only retain the title of Primate of Portugal. The bishop Balconius, who was later elevated to become the first Archbishop of Braga, and according to later sources, was also the first to be given said title.[16][17]

The transition from Visigothic reigns to the Muslim conquest of Iberia was very obscure, representing a period of decline for the city. The Moors briefly captured Braga in 714–716, but were repelled by Christian forces under Alfonso I of Asturias in 741,[18] (alongside Chaves, Porto and Lamego), with intermittent attacks until 868 when they were definitively ousted by Alfonso III of Asturias. The bishopric was restored in 1070 and elevated to new heights. The first new Archbishop, Peter of Braga (?-1096), immediately started rebuilding the Cathedral (which was modified many times during the following centuries). According to historical records and oral tradition, the Archbishop Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela, fearing the rise of the Cathedral of Braga, stole the relics of Braga's saints in an attempt to diminish the religious importance of the city.[17] The relics only returned to Braga in the 1990s.

When, after his death, Alfonso III the Great of the Kingdom of Asturias divided his kingdom among his sons in 908, he assigned the Kingdom of Galicia to Ordoño of Galicia, who established his capital in Braga.[19] Between 1093 and 1147, Braga became the residential seat of the Portuguese court. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Geraldo de Moissac reclaimed the archbishopric seat for Braga, with power over a large area in Iberia. The medieval city developed around the cathedral, with the maximum authority in the city retained by the archbishop.

Braga in the Kingdom of Portugal

Braga as the main center of Christianity in Iberia, during the Reconquista (until the emergence of Santiago de Compostela and, later, the conquest of Toledo from the Muslims, in 1085), held a prominent stage in medieval politics, being a major contributor to the Independence of Portugal with the intervention of the Archbishop D. Paio Mendes in the Vatican, with Pope Alexander III, which lead to the promulgation of the Bula Manifestis Probatum, in 1179, recognizing Portugal as an independent Kingdom under D. Afonso I Henriques. It is traditionally told that the future king was baptized by Saint Gerald of Braga, although the exact location is still being debated.[20] Because of this support for D. Afonso Henriques, the new king gave large privileges to the city of Braga handing it over to direct control of the Church, basically making it a personal fiefdom of the Archbishop. This legal particularism continued all throughout history until the instauration of the Republic giving the city and its surrounding area the nickname of "Paiz Bracarense" (roughly translated as "Country of Braga").[21]

In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with the Age of Portuguese Discoveries (which favoured cities like Lisbon, Évora and Coimbra, new seats for the Portuguese court). Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals and new churches, managed to modernize the community. He expanded and remodelled the cathedral by adding a new chapel in the Manueline style, and generally turning the mediaeval town into a Renaissance city.

A similar period of rejuvenation occurred during the 18th century, when the archbishops of the House of Braganza contracted architects like André Soares and Carlos Amarante, to modernize and rejuvenate the city; they began a series of architectural transformations to churches and civic institutions in the Baroque style, including the municipal hall, public library, the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and many urban palaces. D. Luís de Sousa was another main archbishop who, with other merits, ordered the Church of the Parish of Saint Victor to be rebuilt, ordered the Campo de S. Ana to be enlarged, to rebuild the Church of S. Vicente, to requalify the Chapel of S. Sebastian and the construction of the Igreja dos Congregados which would later be monumentalized into the current version of the Basilica of the Congregados. Likewise, under the auspices of this diplomatic archbishop, the canon of the Braga Chapter, João Meira Carrilho, ordered the construction of the Chapel of the Congregation of the Oratory that existed within the Campo de S. Ana (modern day Avenida Central).[22] The old fortress built on top of the Roman amphitheatre still stood in the 18th century (a description of it was made during the reign of Queen D. Maria I), in the southern part of Maximinos.[11]

In 1758, Braga, like many other places, was included in the census requested by the monarchy, under the 1st Marquis of Pombal. These records are known as the Parochial Memories (Memórias Paroquiais) which can be consulted through various sources.[23]

In March 1809 it was the scene of the Battle of Braga, when French troops under Marshal Soult took the town from its Portuguese garrison. With the invasion of French troops, during the Peninsular Wars the city was relegated, once again, to a provincial status. But, by the second half of that century, with influence from Portuguese immigrants living in Brazil, new money and tastes resulted in improvements to architecture and infrastructures.

Braga in the Republic

The Castle of Braga, previously located in the city center, was destroyed in 1905 (to great popular fanfair), despite attempts to save it by several people such as archaeologist Albano Belino, who tried to change the location of his municipal museum to the building in an attempt to protect it. Belino, disgusted, suffered from a stroke, passing away the following year and ending up donating his estate to the Archaeological Museum of the Martins Sarmento de Guimarães Society. Albano Belino's dream of creating a museum in Braga was only realized in 1918, with the founding of a museum directly precursor to the Dom Diogo de Sousa Regional Museum of Archaeology.

On May 28, 1926, General Gomes da Costa began his march to Lisbon starting the Revolution of May 28, where he abolished the First Republic and implementing the dictatorial government which would eventually become the Estado Novo. In the tenth anniversary of the Revolution, dictator António de Oliveira Salazar, visited the city prompting a large fair, a parade and a speech, which he gave on the balcony of the Town Hall. Afterwards, the dictator would return several times to the city in its anniversary, such as the 40º anniversary.[24]

In the 20th century Braga faced similar periods of growth and decline; demographic and urban pressures, from urban-to-rural migration meant that the city's infrastructures had to be improved in order to satisfy greater demands.


Physical geography

Snow in Braga. Picture: Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte

Situated in the heart of Minho, Braga is located in a transitional region between the east and west: between mountains, forests, grand valleys, plains and fields, constructing natural spaces, moulded by human intervention. Geographically, with an area of 184 square kilometres (71 sq mi) it is bordered in the north by the municipalities of Vila Verde and Amares, northeast and east by Póvoa de Lanhoso, south and southeast with Guimarães and Vila Nova de Famalicão and west by the municipality of Barcelos.[25]

The topography in the municipality is characterized by irregular valleys, interspersed by mountainous spaces, fed by rivers running in parallel with the principal rivers. In the north it is limited by the Cávado River, in the south by terrain of the Serra dos Picos to a height of 566 metres (1,857 ft) and towards the east by the Serra dos Carvalhos to a height of 479 metres (1,572 ft), opening to the municipalities of Vila Nova de Famalicão and Barcelos. The territory extends from the northeast to southwest, accompanying the valleys of the two rivers, fed by many of its tributaries, forming small platforms between 20 metres (66 ft) and 570 metres (1,870 ft).

The municipality lies between 20 metres (66 ft) and 572 metres (1,877 ft), with the urbanized centre located at approximately 215 metres (705 ft). In the north, where the municipality is marked by the Cavado, the terrain is semi-planar, the east is mountainous owing to the Serra do Carvalho 479 metres (1,572 ft), Serra dos Picos 566 metres (1,857 ft), Monte do Sameiro 572 metres (1,877 ft) and Monte de Santa Marta 562 metres (1,844 ft). Between the Serra do Carvalho and Serra dos Picos is the River Este, forming the valley of Vale d’Este. Similarly, between the Serra dos Picos and Monte do Sameiro exists the plateau of Sobreposta-Pedralva. To the south and west, the terrain is a mix of mountains, plateaus and medium-size valleys, permitting the passage of the River Este, and giving birth to other confluences including the River Veiga, River Labriosca and various ravines.


Braga has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate similar to other cities in the northwest Iberian Peninsula except for having significantly hotter summer temperatures due to being some distance from the ocean: the absolute maximum is as much as 5 °C (9 °F) higher than neighbouring A Coruña or Santiago de Compostela. The highest and lowest recorded temperatures are 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) and −6.3 °C (20.7 °F) respectively. The climate is affected by the Atlantic Ocean which influences westerly winds that are channeled through the region's valleys, transporting large humid air masses. Consequently, the climate tends to be pleasant with clearly defined seasons. The air masses have the effect of maintaining morning relative humidity around 80%: annual mean temperatures hover between 12.5 °C (54.5 °F) and 17.5 °C (63.5 °F). Owing to nocturnal cooling, frost usually forms frequently between three and four months of the year (about 30 days of frost annually), and annually the region receives 1,449 millimetres (57.0 in) of precipitation, with the major intensity occurring between fall/winter and spring.

Climate data for Braga, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1941–2006, altitude: 190 m (620 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 13.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 4.3
Record low °C (°F) −6.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 176.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14.8 13.5 12.2 13.5 13.4 8.2 5.4 4.7 7.4 12.7 13.1 15.5 134.4
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia[26]

Human geography

Panorama of Braga, as seen from the Picoto hill
A similar panorama taken from the Este River valley
Distribution of civil parishes in the municipality of Braga
Population of the
municipality of Braga
1849 40,004—    
1900 58,339+45.8%
1911 60,836+4.3%
1920 57,019−6.3%
1930 60,761+6.6%
1940 75,846+24.8%
1950 84,142+10.9%
1960 92,938+10.5%
1970 96,220+3.5%
1981 125,472+30.4%
1991 141,256+12.6%
2001 164,192+16.2%
2011 181,474+10.5%
2021 193,333+6.5%

The municipality is densely populated, with approximately 962 inhabitants per square kilometre, equivalent to 181,474 residents (2011); it is one of the more populous territories in Portugal, as well as one of the "younger" markets.[27] The majority of the population concentrates in the urban area of Braga, itself, where densities are more than 10000 per square kilometre.

The Bracarense population consists of approximately 78954 male and 85238 female individuals, with 35% of the population less than 25 years of age, while seniors conform to 11% of the population; the working population of the municipality occupies 54% of this structure.[27] Although largely native Portuguese, other segments of the population include Brazilians, Africans (principally from the former Portuguese colonies), Chinese and eastern European peoples, namely Ukrainians.[27]

Beach in Cávado River, Braga

The urban structure includes approximately 70,268 residences (2001), even as the typical classic representation of family only includes 51,173 members in the municipality.[27] The "extra" homes are primarily temporary residences, normally for students, migrant workers and professionals working in the city. There is, also, a great number of homes owned by Portuguese residents living overseas (who use the homes periodically while in Portugal) even as constant and development has attracted new growth in the population.[27] Further, the difference in resident to transitory population means that, on average, the population of Braga hovers between 174,000 and 230,000 individuals annually.[27]

Growth in the population, roughly 16.2% between 1991 and 2001, occurred mainly in the older suburban civil parishes, such as Nogueira (now abolished) (124.6%), Frossos (now abolished) (68.4%), Real (now abolished) (59.8%) and Lamaçães (now abolished) (50.9%).[27][28]

Civil parishes

Administratively, the municipality is divided into 37 civil parishes (freguesias):[29]

There is no formal city government, only municipal government authority, with local administration handled by the individual juntas de freguesia or civil parish councils.


The International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL) in Braga.

The major industries in the municipality are construction, metallurgy and mechanics, electrical and electronic equipment, software development and web design. The computer industry is significant. Braga hosts PRIMAVERA – Business Software Solutions SA (PRIMAVERA BSS) company headquarters,[30][31] a Portuguese multinational software company best known for its leading enterprise project management software. The International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), a joint research center in nanotechnology established and funded by both the Portuguese and the Spanish governments, is also headquartered in Braga. The automotive industry has a long history in Braga. Aptiv operates a technical center for the development and production of automotive infotainment systems.[32] This plant was previously owned by Grundig. Next to Aptiv, Robert Bosch GmbH operates a similar technical center, mainly for branches of infotainment and sensors. This plant was previously founded by Blaupunkt. Bosch has been working closely with the University of Minho in Portugal since 2012, producing one of the country's largest university-corporate partnerships. In the process, many projects for the mobility of the future are being tackled. In 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Portuguese Prime Minister António Costa were on site for the launch of a new technology campus.[33] The university, headquartered in Braga, is also by itself a major driving force of the city's economy.


The municipality has a small-sized airfield (Aerodromo de Braga) in Palmeira. The major international airport used by the people of Braga is the Sá Carneiro International Airport (also known as Porto Airport) located 50 kilometres (31 mi) away, in Porto Metropolitan Area. Access to the international airport located near Porto is made by public transit from Braga city centre (roughly 40 minutes) or aerobus (50 minutes).

Braga is serviced by both regional and high-speed rail connection to major urban centres in the country and abroad.

It has an efficient bus network (TUB - Transportes Urbanos de Braga) with 76 lines in the urban area and over a 300 km network.


The remains of the historic keep of the Castle of Braga, a defensive structure that circled the old town
The Chapel of the Coimbras, one of the first Manueline era chapels in Braga

The Arch of Rua Souto, commonly referred as the Arco da Porta Nova, an 18th-century ceremonial arch

The region of Braga is scattered with Neolithic, Roman, Medieval and Modernist monuments, buildings and structures attracting tourists. Although there are many examples of these structures, only the following have been classified by the Instituto de Gestão do Património Arquitectónico e Arqueológico as National Monuments:


Roman milestone XXIX on Via Romana XVIII – the road linking the Iberian cities of Bracara Augusta and Asturica Augusta




The sculpted black rock of the Sé Cathedral of Braga: seat of the Archbishop of Braga and Primate of Portugal and of the Hispanias.
The simple Romanesque façade of the Church of São Paulo
The Pópulo Church, that includes convent, dependencies and cloister
The Church of Santa Cruz courtesy the Irmandade de Santa Cruz
The city's annual Bracara Augusta Roman historical reenactment festival, which transforms the city's historical center and its citizens to their ancient selves.


Braga, Portugal

In addition, many of the district's treasures and historical artifacts are housed in several museums that are scattered throughout the city, such as:


Circo Theatre, Avenida da Liberdade, Portugal

The city is the headquarters and main campus for the Universidade do Minho (Minho University), a public university founded in 1973.[42] A campus of the oldest private university of Portugal, a branch of the Universidade Católica Portuguesa, is also established since 1947,[43][44] as well as the Escola Secundária Sá de Miranda (the oldest Secondary school in Braga).[45]

In the late 2000s, the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory also opened their international research centre in the city. Besides scientific research and technological development, this laboratory is a center of postgraduate education.[46]

The Braga Pedagogical Farm is a farm dealing with animals and agriculture, welcoming extra-curricular activities from schools and visitors.[47][48]


Estádio Municipal de Braga

Braga's major sports club, Sporting Clube de Braga (SC Braga), was founded in 1921 and its main men's football team play in the top division of Portuguese football, the Primeira Liga, from Braga Municipal Stadium, carved out of the Monte Castro hill that overlooks the city. The success of SC Braga's football team in the first quarter of the 21st century, including participations in the UEFA Champions League, winning the Taça de Portugal (Portuguese Cup) for the second time in 2016 and the third in 2021 and reaching the UEFA Europa League final in 2011, which they lost to fellow Portuguese side FC Porto, improved it on the UEFA club rankings and Portugal's professional football landscape to such an extent that SC Braga started to be dubbed the fourth greatest football club in Portugal, only surpassed by the well-established classic Big Three.[49][50][51][52][53][54]

ABC Braga, founded in 1933, is a decorated professional handball team which has won several major trophies in the sport.[55][56]

The Rampa da Falperra, established as such since 1950 but whose historical origins can be traced back to 1927, nowadays a round of the European Hillclimb Championship, is held every year in the outskirts of the city.[57]

The Circuito Vasco Sameiro race track and the adjacent Kartódromo Internacional de Braga (KIB) kart racing track are located around the local airfield.[58] The racing track held European Touring Car Cup events in 2009 and 2010, and the KIB has held rounds of the Karting World Championship.

Notable citizens

Paulo Orosio
Statue of Manuel Gomes da Costa in Braga

Public service

Arts & Science

Carlos Amarante


Emanuel Silva, 2008

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Portugal

Braga is twinned with:[59]

See also


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  2. ^ Eurostat Archived 7 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Marmé, Paulo (12 October 2023). "Braga no centro da estratégia da Issuu". Forbes Portugal (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  4. ^ "Mercedes abre centro tecnológico em Braga. Quer contratar 100 pessoas em 2022". (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  5. ^ "Bosch investe 15 milhões para ampliar fábrica de Braga". (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  6. ^ "Criação de empresas cresce em Braga e descem as insolvências e encerramentos". Diário do Minho (in Portuguese). 3 February 2022. Retrieved 7 December 2023.
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  12. ^ Thompson, E. A. Romans and Barbarians: The Decline of the Western Empire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982. ISBN 0-299-08700-X pp. 153–154.
  13. ^ Díaz Martínez, Pablo de la Cruz (2011). El reino suevo (411-585). Tres Cantos, Madrid, España. ISBN 978-84-460-3648-7. OCLC 958059531.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  14. ^ Visigothic Spain : new approaches. Edward James. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1980. ISBN 0-19-822543-1. OCLC 5100979.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
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  18. ^ Menéndez Pidal, Ramón (1906). PRIMERA CRÓNICA GENERAL. ESTORIA DE ESPAÑA DE ALFONSO X (2022 ed.). Biblioteca Digital de Castilla y León. p. 357. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
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