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Ferrari S.p.A.
TypePublic (S.p.A.)
ISINNL0011585146 Edit this on Wikidata
Founded13 September 1939; 83 years ago (1939-09-13) in Modena, Italy (as Auto Avio Costruzioni)[1]
FounderEnzo Ferrari
44°31′57″N 10°51′51″E / 44.532447°N 10.864137°E / 44.532447; 10.864137
Area served
Key people
ProductsSports cars, luxury cars
Production output
Increase 13,221 units shipped (2022)[3]
RevenueIncrease 5.095 billion (2022)[3]
Increase 1.227 billion (2022)[3]
Increase 939 million (2022)[3]
Total assetsIncrease 6.86 billion (2021)[4]
Total equityIncrease 2.21 billion (2021)[4]
Number of employees
Increase 4,571 (2021)[4]
ParentFerrari N.V.
Footnotes / references
[3] [4][5]

Ferrari S.p.A. (/fəˈrɑːri/; Italian: [ferˈraːri]) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded in 1939 by Enzo Ferrari (1898–1988), the company adopted its current name in 1945 and began producing its line of cars in 1947. Ferrari became a public company in 1960, and from 1969 to 2014 it was a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.A. It was spun off from Fiat's successor entity, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, in 2016.

Ferrari's cars are known as symbols of success, wealth, speed, elegance, sportiness, and prestige.[6] The company currently offers a large model range which includes several supercars, grand tourers, and one SUV. Many early Ferraris, dating to the 1950s and 1960s, count among the most expensive cars ever sold at auction. Owing to a combination of its cars, enthusiast culture, and successful licencing deals, in 2019 Ferrari was labelled the world's strongest brand by the financial consultency Brand Finance.[7]

Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where its team, Scuderia Ferrari, are the series' single oldest and most successful. Scuderia Ferrari have raced since 1929, first in Grand Prix events and later in Formula One, where since 1952 they have fielded fifteen champion drivers, won sixteen Constructors' Championships, and accumulated more race victories, 1–2 finishes, podiums, pole positions, fastest laps and points than any other team in F1 history.[8][9] Historically, Ferrari were also highly active in sports car racing, where their cars took many victories in races like the Mille Miglia, Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Le Mans. Scuderia Ferrari fans, commonly called tifosi, are known for their passion and loyalty to the team.


Main article: History of Ferrari

Early history

Three Scuderia Ferrari cars in 1934, all Alfa Romeo P3s. Drivers, left to right: Achille Varzi, Louis Chiron, and Carlo Felice Trossi.
Three Scuderia Ferrari cars in 1934, all Alfa Romeo P3s. Drivers, left to right: Achille Varzi, Louis Chiron, and Carlo Felice Trossi.

Enzo Ferrari, formerly a salesman and racing driver for Alfa Romeo, founded Scuderia Ferrari, a racing team, in 1929. Originally intended to service gentleman drivers and other amateur racers, Alfa Romeo's withdrawal from racing in 1933, combined with Enzo's connections within the company, turned Scuderia Ferrari into its unofficial representative on the track.[10] Alfa Romeo supplied racing cars to Ferrari, who eventually amassed some of the best drivers of the 1930s, including Antonio Ascari, Giuseppe Campari, and Tazio Nuvolari.[11]: 43  From its founding until liquidation in 1937, Scuderia Ferrari won 144 races out of the 225 it entered.[10]

Late in 1937, Scuderia Ferrari was liquidated and absorbed into Alfa Romeo,[10] but Enzo's disagreements with upper management caused him to leave in 1939. He used his settlement to found his own company, where he intended to produce his own cars. He called the company "Auto Avio Costruzioni," and headquartered it in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari;[1] due to a noncompete agreement with Alfa Romeo, the company could not use the Ferrari name for another four years. The company produced a single car, the Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, which participated in only one race before the outbreak of World War II. During the war, Enzo's company produced aircraft engines and machine tools for the Italian military; the contracts for these goods were lucrative, and provided the new company with a great deal of capital. Under threat of Allied bombing raids, the company's factory was moved to Maranello, where it remains to this day.[1][11]: 45–47 [12]

Under Enzo Ferrari

Ferrari's factory in the early 1960s. Everything in its production line was handmade by machinists, who followed technical drawings with extreme precision.[13]
Ferrari's factory in the early 1960s. Everything in its production line was handmade by machinists, who followed technical drawings with extreme precision.[13]

In 1945, Ferrari adopted its current name. Work started promptly on a new V12 engine that would power the 125 S, which was the marque's first car, and many subsequent Ferraris. The company saw success in motorsport almost as soon as it began racing: the 125 S, which raced in 1947, placed first in six out of its ten races,[14][15] and several early victories, including the 1949 24 Hours of Le Mans and 1951 Carrera Panamericana, helped build Ferrari's reputation as a high-quality automaker.[16][17] By 1957, Ferrari had taken home three Formula One World Championships, three World Sportscar Championships, seven victories in the Mille Miglia, and two victories at the 24 Hours of Le Mans,[18] and its road cars, which became more well-appointed over time, were a favourite of the international elite.[6] Ferrari produced many families of interrelated cars, including the America and 250 series, and the company's first series-produced car was the 250 GT Coupé, beginning in 1958.[19]

In 1960, Ferrari was reorganized as a public company. It soon began searching for a business partner to handle its manufacturing operations: it first approached Ford in 1963, though negotiations fell through; later talks with Fiat, who bought 50% of Ferrari's shares in 1969, were more successful.[20][21] In the second half of the decade, Ferrari also produced two cars that upended its more traditional models: the 1967 Dino 206 GT, which was its first mid-engined road car, and the 1968 365 GTB/4, which had streamlined styling that modernised Ferrari's design language.[22][23] The Dino in particular was a decisive movement away from the company's conservative engineering approach, where every road-going Ferrari featured a V12 engine placed in the front of the car, and it presaged Ferrari's full embrace of mid-engine architecture, as well as V6 and V8 engines, in the 1970s and 1980s.[22]


Enzo Ferrari died in 1988, an event that saw Fiat expand its stake to 90%.[24] The last car that he personally approved — the F40 — expanded on the flagship supercar approach first tried by the 288 GTO four years earlier.[25] Enzo was replaced in 1991 by Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, under whose 23-year-long chairmanship the company greatly expanded. Between 1991 and 2014, he increased the profitability of Ferrari's road cars nearly tenfold, both by increasing the range of cars offered and through limiting the total number produced. Montezemolo's chairmanship also saw an expansion in licencing deals, a drastic improvement in Ferrari's Formula One performance (not least through the hiring of Michael Schumacher and Jean Todt), and the production of three more flagship cars: the F50, the Enzo, and the LaFerrari. In addition to his leadership of Ferrari, Montezemolo was also the chairman of Fiat proper between 2004 and 2010.[26]

After Montezemolo resigned, he was replaced in quick succession by many new chairmen and CEOs. He was succeeded first by Sergio Marchionne,[26] who would oversee Ferrari's initial public offering and subsequent spin-off from Fiat Chrysler Automobiles,[27][28] and then by CEO Louis Camilleri and chairman John Elkann.[29] Beginning in 2021, Camilleri was replaced as CEO by Benedetto Vigna, who has announced plans to develop Ferrari's first fully electric model.[30] During this period, Ferrari has expanded its production, owing to a global increase in wealth, while becoming more selective with its licencing deals.[31][32]


For a complete list of Ferrari racing cars, see List of Ferrari competition cars.

Ferrari 312T2 Formula One car driven by Niki Lauda
Ferrari 312T2 Formula One car driven by Niki Lauda

Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one-make race series.

1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model.

Scuderia Ferrari

Main article: Scuderia Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari has participated in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first F1 victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.

Fernando Alonso's Ferrari 150º Italia during the first practice session before the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix
Fernando Alonso's Ferrari 150º Italia during the first practice session before the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix

Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2014, the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles, 16 World Constructors Championship titles, 221 Grand Prix victories, 6736.27 points, 679 podium finishes, 207 pole positions, and 230 fastest laps in 890 Grands Prix contested. Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the F2004, with a further 3 set by the F2003-GA, F2008 and F10.

At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers. A five-year deal was agreed and although this was not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari.

A 312PB (driven by Jacky Ickx) during the team's final year in the World Sportscar Championship
A 312PB (driven by Jacky Ickx) during the team's final year in the World Sportscar Championship

In addition to Formula One, Ferrari also entered cars in sportscar racing, the two programs existing in parallel for many years.

In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years.

When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967. Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One.

During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965.

Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers. These include the 512 BB LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the 458 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.

Competizioni GT official drivers


Race cars for other teams

Throughout its history, Ferrari has supplied racing cars to other entrants, aside from its own works Scuderia Ferrari team.

In the 1950s and '60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams. One famous example was Tony Vandervell's team, which raced the Thinwall Special modified Ferraris before building their own Vanwall cars. The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car.[34]

Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008–09 season.[35] The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.

Ferrari currently runs a customer GT program for a racing version of its 458 and has done so for the 458's predecessors, dating back to the 355 in the late 1990s. Such private teams as the American Risi Competizione and Italian AF Corse teams have been very successful with Ferrari GT racers over the years. This car, made for endurance sportscar racing to compete against such racing versions of the Audi R8, McLaren MP4-12C, and BMW Z4 (E89) has proven to be successful, but not as successful as its predecessor, the F430. The Ferrari Challenge is a one-make racing series for the Ferrari 458. The FXX is not road legal and is therefore only used for track events.

Road cars

For a complete list, including future and concept car models, see List of Ferrari road cars.

166 Inter Touring Berlinetta
166 Inter Touring Berlinetta

The first vehicle made with the Ferrari name was the 125 S. Only two of this small two-seat sports/racing V12 car were made. In 1949, the 166 Inter was introduced marking the company's significant move into the grand touring road car market. The first 166 Inter was a four-seat (2+2) berlinetta coupe with body work designed by Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera. Road cars quickly became the bulk of Ferrari sales.

The early Ferrari cars typically featured bodywork designed and customised by independent coachbuilders such as Pininfarina, Scaglietti, Zagato, Vignale and Bertone.

The original road cars were typically two-seat front-engined V12s. This platform served Ferrari very well through the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968 the Dino was introduced as the first two-seat rear mid-engined Ferrari. The Dino was produced primarily with a V6 engine, however, a V8 model was also developed. This rear mid-engine layout would go on to be used in many Ferraris of the 1980s, 1990s and to the present day. Current road cars typically use V8 or V12 engines, with V8 models making up well over half of the marque's total production. Historically, Ferrari has also produced flat 12 engines.

For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB.[citation needed]

Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa (also mid-engined 12 cylinders) remains one of the most popular and famous Ferrari road cars of all time.

The company has also produced several front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the recent V12 model Lusso and V8 models Roma, Portofino and Lusso T. The California is credited with initiating the popular current model line of V8 front-engined 2+2 grand touring performance sports cars.[citation needed]

Starting in the early 2010s with the LaFerrari, the focus was shifted away from the use of independent coach builders to what is now the standard, Ferrari relying on in-house design from the Centro Stile Ferrari for the design of all its road cars.

Current models

Model Calendar year
Current model Vehicle description
Introduction Update/facelift
2019 Ferrari 812 Superfast S-A 6.5.jpg

812 Superfast 2017 2017 Front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer.
Ferrari Portofino M IMG 4351.jpg

Portofino M 2017 2017 2021 Retractable hardtop convertible grand tourer.
Ferrari Monza SP1, Paris Motor Show 2018, IMG 0643.jpg

Monza SP1 2019 2019 Limited production single-seater sports car, part of the new Icona range.
2019 Ferrari Monza SP2.jpg

Monza SP2 2019 2019 Limited production two-seater sports car, part of the new Icona range.
2020 Ferrari F8 Tributo 3.9.jpg

F8 2019 2019 Mid-engine sports car that replaced the Ferrari 488.
Red 2019 Ferrari SF90 Stradale (48264238897) (cropped).jpg

SF90 Stradale 2019 2019 Mid-engine, plug-in hybrid sports car.
Ferrari Roma IMG 5355.jpg

Roma 2020 2020 Grand tourer sports car.
Ferrari 296 GTB - Paris 06.jpg

296 GTB 2022 2022 Mid-engine, plug-in hybrid sports car.
2022-08-21 Monterrey Ferrari SP3.jpg

Daytona SP3 2022 2022 Limited production mid-engine sports car, part of the new Icona range.
2023 Ferrari Purosangue.jpg

Purosangue 2022 2023 Ferrari's first SUV; uses the same platform as the Roma.


In the 1950s and 1960s, clients often personalized their vehicles as they came straight from the factory.[36] This philosophy added to the mystique of the brand. Every Ferrari that comes out of Maranello is built to an individual customer's specification. In this sense, each vehicle is a unique result of a specific client's desire.

Ferrari formalized this concept with its earlier Carrozzeria Scaglietti programme. The options offered here were more typical such as racing seats, rearview cameras, and other special trim. In late 2011, Ferrari announced a significant update of this philosophy. The Tailor Made programme allows clients to work with designers in Maranello to make decisions at every step of the process. Through this program almost any trim, any exterior color or any interior material is possible. The program carries on the original tradition and emphasizes the idea of each car being unique.[36]


Enzo Ferrari

The 1984 288 GTO may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars. This pedigree extends through the Enzo Ferrari to the LaFerrari. In February 2019, at the 89th Geneva International Motor Show, Ferrari revealed its latest mid-engine V8 supercar, the F8 Tributo.[37]

Ferrari SF90 Stradale is the first-ever Ferrari to feature PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) architecture which sees the internal combustion engine integrated with three electric motors, two of which are independent and located on the front axle, with the third at the rear between the engine and the gearbox.[38]

Concept cars and specials

Ferrari has produced a number of concept cars, such as the Mythos. While some of these were quite radical (such as the Modulo) and never intended for production, others such as the Mythos have shown styling elements that were later incorporated into production models.

The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Millechili.

A number of one-off special versions of Ferrari road cars have also been produced, commissioned to coachbuilders by wealthy owners. Recent examples include the P4/5[39] and the 612 Kappa.

Ferrari Special Projects

The Special Projects programme, also called the Portfolio Coachbuilding Programme, was launched in 2008 as a way to revive the tradition of past one-off and limited production coachbuilt Ferrari models, allowing clients to work with Ferrari and top Italian coachbuilders to create bespoke bodied models based on modern Ferrari road cars.[40][41] Engineering and design is done by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with external design houses like Pininfarina or Fioravanti, and the vehicles receive full homologation to be road legal.[41] Since the creation of Ferrari's in-house styling centre in 2010 though, the focus has shifted away somewhat from outside coachbuilders and more towards creating new in-house designs for clients.[42][43]

The first car to be completed under this programme was the 2008 SP1, commissioned by a Japanese business executive. The second was the P540 Superfast Aperta, commissioned by an American collector.[41] The following is a list of Special Projects cars that have been made public:

Name Picture Year Based on Commissioned by Notes
Ferrari SP1.jpg
2008 F430[44] Junichiro Hiramatsu[44] Design by Leonardo Fioravanti, inspired by the 1998 F100 concept by Fioravanti.[44]
P540 Superfast Aperta
Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta.jpg
2009 599 GTB[45] Edward Walson[45] Inspired by a similarly gold-painted and open-topped one-off built by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi on a Ferrari 330 LMB chassis.[41][45] Design by Pininfarina
Superamerica 45
Ferrari Superamerica 45 in Villa Erba.jpg
2011 599 GTB[46] Peter Kalikow[46] Rotating targa top;[46] design by Ferrari Styling Centre
2012 458 Italia[47] Eric Clapton[47] Designed by Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, in homage to the 512 BB.[47]
2013[48] 599 GTO[48] Cheerag Arya[48]
Ferrari SP FFX.jpg
2014 FF[49] Shin Okamoto[49] Design by Pininfarina[49]
Ferrari F12 TRS
Festival automobile international 2015 - Ferrari F12 TRS - 007 (cropped).jpg
2014 F12berlinetta[50] Barchetta body, inspired by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa. Design by Ferrari Styling Centre.[50]
Ferrari SP America
Ferrari SP America front.jpg
2014 F12berlinetta Danny Wegman[51] Design by Pininfarina
Ferrari 458 MM Speciale
FoS20162016 0624 132509AA (27809762691).jpg
2016 458 Speciale[52] Design by Ferrari Styling Centre.[52]
SP275 RW Competizione
Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione.jpg
2016 F12tdf Rick Workman[53] Inspired by the 1964 275 GTB/C Speciale. Design by Pininfarina in collaboration with Ferrari Styling Centre.[54]
Ferrari J50
2017 488 Spider Design by Ferrari Design Center team in Maranello directed by Flavio Manzoni.[55]
2018 488 GTB Inspired by the F40 and 308.[56]
Ferrari SP3JC
Ferrari SP3JC.jpg
2018 F12tdf John Collins[57] Designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre. Two matching cars ordered, one in LHD, the other in RHD with different liveries.[58] Took 3.5 years to complete. Presented in 2018.
Ferrari P80 C.jpg
2019 488 GT3 One-off track-only car inspired by the 330 P3, 330 P4 and the Dino 206 S.
Ferrari Omologata
Ferrari Omologata side.png
2020 Ferrari 812 Superfast Design by Ferrari Design Center team in Maranello directed by Flavio Manzoni[59]
Ferrari BR20
No image 3x4.svg
2021 Ferrari GTC4Lusso Fastback coupé instead of a shooting brake. Inspired by the 410 Superamerica and 500 Superfast[60]

Bio-fuel and hybrid cars

An F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599. Called the "HY-KERS Concept", Ferrari's hybrid system adds more than 100 horsepower on top of the 599 Fiorano's 612 HP.[61] Also in mid-2014, the flagship LaFerrari was put into production.

Naming conventions

From the beginning, the Ferrari naming convention consisted of a three-digit unitary displacement of an engine cylinder with an additional suffix representing the purpose of a vehicle. Therefore, Ferrari 125 S had 1.5 L (1,496.77 cc) V12 engine with a unitary displacement of 124.73 cc; whilst S-suffix represented Sport. Other race cars also received names invoking particular races like Ferrari 166 MM for Mille Miglia. With the introduction of road-going models, the suffix Inter was added, inspired by the Scuderia Inter racing team of Igor Troubetzkoy. Popular at that time 166-series had 2.0 L (1,995.02 cc) engines with 166.25 cc of unitary displacement and a very diverse 250-series had 3.0 L (2,953.21 cc) of total displacement and 246.10 cc of unitary. Later series of road cars were renamed Europa and top-of-the-line series America and Superamerica.

Until the early 1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement and a number of cylinders:

612 Scaglietti Sessanta Edition
612 Scaglietti Sessanta Edition

Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:

This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4.[62] Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4 run by NART (who raced Ferraris in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911.[63]

The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers – for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.

In the mid-1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice abandoned after the F512 M and F355, but adopted again with the F430, but not with its successor, the Ferrari 458).


The "Prancing Horse"

Main article: Prancing Horse

Francesco Baracca, originator of Ferrari's prancing horse.
Francesco Baracca, originator of Ferrari's prancing horse.

Ferrari's symbol is the "Prancing Horse" (Italian: Cavallino Rampante, lit.'little prancing horse'), a prancing black horse on a yellow background. Minor details of its appearance have changed many times, but its shape has remained consistent: it is always presented either as a shield, with the Italian tricolour above the horse and the initials SF ("Scuderia Ferrari") below; or as a rectangle, replacing "SF" with the word "Ferrari" rendered in the company's trademark typeface.[64]

Enzo Ferrari offered an account of the horse's origins. In his story, after a 1923 victory in Ravenna, the family of Francesco Baracca, a deceased flying ace who painted the emblem on his airplane, paid him a visit. Paolina de Biancoli, Francesco's mother, suggested that Ferrari adopt the horse as a good luck charm: he accepted the request, and the Prancing Horse was first used by his racing team in 1932, applied to their Alfa Romeo 8C with the addition of a canary yellow background — the "colour of Modena," Enzo's hometown.[64][65]: 43  The rectangular Prancing Horse has been used since 1947, when the Ferrari 125 S — also the first Ferrari-branded sports car — became the first to wear it.[64]


Main article: Rosso corsa

A Ferrari 550 painted in rosso corsa. Both varieties of the Prancing Horse logo are present: the shield is located in front of the door, the rectangle is on the bonnet. The horse alone can also be found on the wheels, grille, and seats.
A Ferrari 550 painted in rosso corsa. Both varieties of the Prancing Horse logo are present: the shield is located in front of the door, the rectangle is on the bonnet. The horse alone can also be found on the wheels, grille, and seats.

For many years, rosso corsa ('racing red')[66] was the required colour of all Italian racing cars. It is also closely associated with Ferrari: even after livery regulations changed, allowing race teams to deviate from their national colours, Scuderia Ferrari continued to paint its cars bright red, as it does to this day.[67] On Ferrari's road-going cars, the colour has always been among the company's most popular choices: in 2012, 40 percent of Ferraris left the factory painted red, while in the early 1990s the figure was even higher, at 85 percent.[66][68] Some Ferrari vehicles, like the 288 GTO, have only been made available in red.[66]

Although rosso corsa is the colour most associated with Ferrari,[66][69] it has not always been the colour of choice. Ferraris raced by privateers have run in a rainbow of colours, and one 250 GT SWB, used as a test mule for the 250 GTO, was a rare non-red factory-backed car: it raced in blue.[70][71] In a particularly noteworthy case from 1964, while protesting the FIA's homologation requirements, the company moved its racing assets to NART, an affiliated, United States-based racing team. As a result, Ferrari and driver John Surtees won the 1964 Formula One season in American colours — blue, with a white racing stripe.[72][73] Red has also become less common on Ferrari's road cars, fighting with newly popular colours like yellow, silver, and white.[68][69]

Speaking to both the popularity of rosso corsa and the power of the Ferrari brand, Enzo Ferrari is reported to have once said the following: "Ask a child to draw a car, and he will certainly paint it red."[66]

Brand image

Ferrari meticulously manages its brand image and public perception: it goes to great lengths to protect its trademarks, and its customers are expected to honour its rules and guidelines when caring for their cars. The company is noted for its frequent and diverse lawsuits, which have centred around such subjects as the shape of the Ferrari 250 GTO's bodywork,[74] exclusive rights to model names (including "Testarossa" and "Purosangue"),[75][76] replica vehicles, and several unsanctioned owner modifications.[77]

This pink Ferrari 360 may be captivating, but it's against the company's wishes: Ferrari offers no pink paint from the factory.
This pink Ferrari 360 may be captivating, but it's against the company's wishes: Ferrari offers no pink paint from the factory.

Ferrari aims to cultivate an image of exclusivity and refined luxury. To facilitate this, vehicle production is deliberately limited to below customer demand, and purchasers are internally ranked based on their desirability and loyalty.[78] Some cars may only be purchased by customers who have already owned multiple Ferraris,[79] and the company's most exclusive supercars, such as the LaFerrari, have wait lists many times in excess of total production, with only the most loyal customers selected to purchase one.[80] In 2015, the company's head of sales stated that the purpose of this strategy was to maintain the brand's value, and to "keep alive this [sic] dream that is called Ferrari."[78]

Sometimes, Ferrari's desire to maintain its brand perception goes against the wishes of its clientele. In one case, the company sued the fashion designer Philipp Plein over "distasteful" Instagram posts featuring his personal 812 Superfast. The posts, which showcased two models in suggestive positions atop the car, were seen by Ferrari as "unlawfully appropriating" the Ferrari brand to promote Plein's clothing, and as being outside Ferrari's intended brand perception.[81] Furthermore, the company places restrictions on what owners may do with their cars: they are not allowed to undertake certain modifications,[77] and the company's right of first refusal contract, designed to discourage speculation and flipping, prohibits unauthorised sales within the first two years of ownership.[82] Purchasers who break these rules are placed on a "blacklist," and may not be permitted to buy a Ferrari vehicle through official means.[83] These owner restrictions came to high profile in 2014, when the musician Deadmau5 was sent a cease and desist letter regarding his highly customised Ferrari 458: the car, which he dubbed the "Purrari," possessed custom badges and a Nyan Cat-themed wrap, and was put up for sale on Craigslist.[77][84]

Ferrari does encourage its buyers to personalise their cars, but only through official channels, which include its Tailor Made programme for bespoke trim packages and special coachbuilding initiatives for more demanding commissions.[85] The customisation options offered through these channels are extensive, though they are always in line with Ferrari's desired branding — for example, the company offers no pink paint for its cars. In 2017, the CEO of the company's Australasia branch commented that this and similar customisations are "against the company's ethos," and that such a stance is "a brand rule. No pink. No Pokémon Ferraris!"[86]

Corporate affairs

In 1963, Enzo Ferrari was approached by the Ford Motor Company about a possible buy out.[87] Ford audited Ferrari's assets but legal negotiations and talks were unilaterally cut off by Ferrari when he realized that the deal offered by Ford would not enable him to stay at the helm of the company racing program. Henry Ford II consequently directed his racing division to negotiate with Lotus, Lola, and Cooper to build a car capable of beating Ferrari on the world endurance circuit, eventually resulting in the production of the Ford GT40 in 1964.

As the Ford deal fell through, FIAT approached Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased controlling interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10% share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari.

Ferrari has an internally managed merchandising line that licenses many products bearing the Ferrari brand, including eyewear, pens, pencils, electronic goods, perfume, cologne, clothing, high-tech bicycles, watches, cell phones, and laptop computers.

Ferrari also runs a museum, the Museo Ferrari in Maranello, which displays road and race cars and other items from the company's history.

Formula Uomo programme

In 1997, Ferrari launched a long term master planned effort to improve overall corporate efficiency, production and employee happiness. The program was called Formula Uomo and became a case study in social sustainability.[88] It took over ten years to fully implement and included over €200 million (2008) in investment.[89]

Technical partnerships

Ferrari has had a long-standing relationship with Shell Oil. It is a technical partnership with Ferrari and Ducati to test as well as supply fuel and oils to the Formula One, MotoGP and World Superbike racing teams. For example, the Shell V-Power premium gasoline fuel has been developed with the many years of technical expertise between Shell and Ferrari.[90]

Ferrari has had agreements to supply Formula One engines to a number of other teams over the years, and currently supply the Alfa Romeo and Haas F1 F1 teams.

Sales history

As of the end of 2019, the total of Ferrari built and sold cars in their whole company history is 219,062.[91]

Annual Ferrari sales to end customers (number of type-approved vehicles)
Year Sales
1947[92] double-dagger3
1948[92] double-dagger5
1949[92] double-dagger21
1950[92] double-dagger25
1951[92] double-dagger33
1952[92] double-dagger44
1953[92] double-dagger57
1954[92] double-dagger58
1955[92] double-dagger61
1956[92] double-dagger81
1957[92] double-dagger113
1958[92] double-dagger183
1959[92] double-dagger248
1960[92] double-dagger306
1961[92] double-dagger441
1962[92] double-dagger493
1963[92] double-dagger598
1964[92] double-dagger654
1965[92] double-dagger619
1966[92] double-dagger928
Year Sales
1967[92] double-dagger706
1968[92] double-dagger729
1969[92] double-dagger619
1970[92] double-dagger928
1971[92] double-dagger1,246
1972[92] double-dagger1,844
1973[92] double-dagger1,772
1974[92] double-dagger1,436
1975[92] double-dagger1,337
1976[92] double-dagger1,426
1977[93] double-dagger1,798
1978[92] double-dagger1,939
1979[92] double-dagger2,221
1980[92] double-dagger2,470
1981[92] double-dagger2,565
1982[92] double-dagger2,209
1983[94] double-dagger2,366
1984[95] double-dagger2,856
1985[93] 3,051
1986[93] 3,663
Year Sales
1987[96] 3,942
1988[97] 4,001
1989[97] 3,821
1990[98] 4,293
1991[98] 4,487
1992[98] 3,384
1993[98] 2,345
1994[98] 2,671
1995[98] 3,144
1996[99] 3,350
1997[99] 3,581
1998[100] 3,652
1999[100] 3,775
2000[101] 4,070
2001[102] 4,289
2002[103] 4,236
2003[104] 4,238
2004[105] 4,975
2005[106] 5,409
2006[107] 5,671
Year Sales
2007[108] 6,465
2008[109] 6,587
2009[110] 6,250
2010[111] 6,461
2011[112] 7,001
2012[113] 7,318
2013[114] 6,922
2014[115] dagger7,255
2015[116] dagger7,664
2016[117] dagger8,014
2017[118] dagger8,398
2018[119] dagger9,251
2019[120] dagger10,131
2020[121] dagger9,119
2021[122] 11,115
2022[3] 13,221
double-dagger Figure refers to units produced rather than to units sold
dagger Figure refers to units shipped rather than to units sold
Annual Ferrari sales to end customers (number of type-approved vehicles)


In January 2020 the Italian carmaker said it will recall 982 vehicles for passenger airbags due to the Takata airbag recalls.[123] If the inflator explodes, the airbag will spew metal shrapnel at passengers, which can cause severe injury.[123][124] Every car involved will get a new passenger-side airbag assembly, complete with a new inflator without the dangerous propellant.[123]

On 8 August 2022, the company recalled almost every car it's sold in the US since 2005 over a potential for brake failure.[125][126] According to an NHTSA recall filing, 23,555 Ferrari models sold in America are fitted with a potentially faulty brake fluid reservoir cap that may not vent pressure adequately.[125] The fix is simple.[125]


Roughly thirty Ferrari boutiques exist worldwide, with two owned by Ferrari and the rest operating as franchises. The stores sell branded clothes,[127] accessories and racing memorabilia. Clothing includes upscale and lower-priced collections[128] for men, women, and children.

Some stores include race car simulation games for entertainment.[129]


There are currently two Ferrari-themed amusement parks in the world.

Ferrari World Abu Dhabi

Main article: Ferrari World Abu Dhabi

Opened in 2010, Ferrari World Abu Dhabi is the first Ferrari-branded theme park in the world and boasts 37 rides and attractions. Located on Yas Island in Abu Dhabi, it is home to the world's fastest roller coaster - Formula Rossa, and a dynamic coaster with one of the world's tallest loop - Flying Aces.[130]

Ferrari Land in PortAventura

Main article: Ferrari Land

Opened in 2017, Ferrari Land in PortAventura World resort is the second such Ferrari-themed amusement park in the world, after Ferrari World Abu Dhabi. With 16 rides and attractions, it is home to Europe's fastest and highest vertical accelerator coaster - Red Force.[131]

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General references