Autonomous councils in India
Autonomous councils in North East India

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy within their respective states.[1] Most of these autonomous district councils are located in North East India with the exception of two in Ladakh and one in West Bengal. Presently, 10 Autonomous Councils in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura are formed by virtue of the Sixth Schedule[2] with the rest being formed as a result of other legislation.

Powers and competencies

Executive and legislative powers

Under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India, autonomous district councils can make laws, rules and regulations in the following areas:[1]

Judicial powers

Autonomous district councils have powers to form courts to hear cases where both parties are members of Scheduled Tribes and the maximum sentence is less than 5 years in prison.[1]

Taxation and revenue

Autonomous district councils have powers to levy taxes, fees and tolls on: building and land, animals, vehicles, boats, entry of goods into the area, roads, ferries, bridges, employment and income and general taxes for the maintenance of schools and roads.[1]

List of autonomous administrative divisions

Autonomous district councils operating under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India are shown in bold.

Sl. No. State/UT Autonomous Council Headquarters Formation Last Election Chief Executive Member Party of Chief Executive Member Current Party Position
1 Assam Bodoland Territorial Council Kokrajhar 2003 2020 Pramod Boro UPPL(NEDA) Total-40

Govt:- UPPL-15 BJP-12 GSP-1

Opp:- BPF-12

2 North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council Haflong 1951 2019 Debolal Gorlosa BJP

(NEDA)

Total-28

Govt:- BJP-25

Opp:- IND-3 NOM-2[3]

3 Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council Diphu 1952 2022 Tuliram Ronghang BJP

(NEDA)

Total-26

Govt:- BJP-26

Opp:- 0

4 Tiwa Autonomous Council Morigaon 1995 2020 Jiban Chandra Konwar BJP

(NEDA)

Total-36

Govt:- BJP-33 AGP-2

Opp:- INC-1

5 Mising Autonomous Council Dhemaji 1995 2019 Ranoj Pegu SGS Total-35

Govt:- SGS-29 BJP-5

Opp:- IND-1

6 Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council Dudhnoi 1995 2019 Tankeswar Rabha BJP

(NEDA)

Total-36

Govt:- BJP+RHJMC-34

Opp:- INC-1 AGP-1

7 Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council Dibrugarh 2005 2019 Dipu ranjan Markari BJP

(NEDA)

Total-26

Govt:- BJP-20

Opp:- INC-5 IND-1

8 Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council Titabar 2005 2022 Kumud Ch Kachari BJP

(NEDA)

Total-22

Govt:- BJP-14 AGP-3

Opp:- INC-4 IND-1

9 Deori Autonomous Council Narayanpur 2005 2022 Madhav Deori BJP

(NEDA)

Total-22

Govt:- BJP-11 AGP-1

Opp:- IND-8 INC-2

10 Moran Autonomous Council Tinsukia 2020 Dipon Moran
11 Matak Autonomous Council Chring Gaon 2020
12 Bodo Kachari Welfare Autonomous Council Simen Chapori 2020 Mihiniswar Basumatary
13 Kamatapur Autonomous Council Abhayapuri 2020 Gokul Barman
14 Ladakh Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil Kargil 2003 2023 Mohammad Jaffer Akhone Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Total-30

Govt:- Jammu & Kashmir National Conference-10 Indian Natonal Congress-8

Opp:- IND-5 BJP-3

15 Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh Leh 1995 2020 Tashi Gyalson Bhartiya Janata Party Total-30

Govt:- Bhartiya Janata Party-16

Opp:- INC-9 IND-1

16 Manipur Chandel Autonomous District Council Chandel 1971[4] 2015 Ksh. Siddharth, MCS
17 Churachandpur Autonomous District Council Churachandpur 1971[4] 2015 Lalthazam, MCS
18 Sadar Hills Kangpokpi 1971[4] 2015 James Doujapao Haokip, MCS
19 Manipur North Autonomous District Council Senapati 1971[4] 2015 H L Jain, MCS
20 Tamenglong Autonomous District Council Tamenglong 1971[4] 2015 Ningreingam Leisan[5]
21 Ukhrul Autonomous District Council Ukhrul 1971[4] 2015 David Kashungnao, MCS
22 Meghalaya Garo Hills Autonomous District Council Tura 1973 2021 Benedick R Marak NPP

(NEDA)

Total-29

Govt:- National People's Party (India)-11 BJP-2 Garo National Council-1 IND-3

Opp:- AITC-12

23 Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council Jowai 1973 2019 T Shiwat National People's Party (India)

(NEDA)

Total-29

Govt:- NPP-12 UDP-10

Opp:- INC-4 AITC-3

24 Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council Shillong 1973 2019 Titosstarwell Chyne National People's Party (India)(NEDA) Total-29

Govt:- NPP-7 UDP-6 HSPDP-2 PDF-1

Opp:- INC-10 Oth:- AITC-3

25 Mizoram Chakma Autonomous District Council Kamalanagar 1972 2023 Rasik Mohan Chakma MNF Total-20

Govt:- MNF-12

Opp:- INC-6 BJP-1

26 Lai Autonomous District Council Lawngtlai 1972 2020 V. Zirsanga MNF Total-25

Govt:- MNF-20

Opp:- IND-3 BJP-1 INC-1

27 Mara Autonomous District Council Siaha 1972 2022 M Laikaw BJP Total-25

Govt: BJP -16 Opp:- INC - 4 MNF - 5

28 Tripura Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Khumulwng 1982 2021 Purna Chandra Jamatia TIPRA Total-30

Govt:- TIPRA-18 IND-1

Opp:- BJP-9

29 West Bengal Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Darjeeling 2012 2022 Anit Thapa BGPM Govt:- BGPM-27 AITC-5 IND-3

Opp:- HP-8 IND-2


Legends
Party ECI Recognition[6]
AKRSU(K) All Koch-Rajbanshi Students’ Union N/A
AITC All India Trinamool Congress State Party
AGP Asom Gana Parishad State Party
BJP Bharatiya Janata Party National Party
BPF Bodoland People's Front State Party
GNC Garo National Council Registered Unrecognized Party
GSP Gana Suraksha Party Registered Unrecognized Party
HSPDP Hill State People's Democratic Party State Party
INC Indian National Congress National Party
JKNC Jammu & Kashmir National Conference State Party
KADF Karbi Anglong Democratic Forum N/A
MNF Mizo National Front State Party
NPP National People's Party National Party
PDF People's Democratic Front State Party
RHJMC Rabha Hasong Joint Movement Committee N/A
SGS Sanmilita Gana Shakti Registered Unrecognized Party
TIPRI The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance State Party
UDP United Democratic Party (Meghalaya) State Party
UPPL United People's Party Liberal State Party


De facto self-governing areas

North Sentinel Island

North Sentinel Island is situated in the island chain of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which is a union territory of India. It is home to the Sentinelese people, who are among some of the world's last uncontacted peoples. They reject any contact with other people and are among the last people to remain virtually untouched by modern civilization. There has never been any treaty with the people of the island nor any record of a physical occupation.

The Andaman and Nicobar Administration has stated[7] that they have no intention of interfering with the Sentinelese's lifestyle or habitat. Although the island is likely to have suffered seriously from the effects of the December 2004 tsunami, the survival of the Sentinelese was confirmed when, some days after the event, an Indian government helicopter observed several of them, who shot arrows at the hovering aircraft to repel it.

Although this has not been done with any formal treaty, the official policy of minimal interference has ensured that they have de facto autonomy and sovereignty over their island under the framework of the central and local governments.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Sixth Schedule of The Constitution of India" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  2. ^ "Union Cabinet approves amendment in Sixth Schedule to strengthen 10 North East autonomous councils". 24 January 2019. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  3. ^ "BJP sweeps Assam tribal council elections". The Hindu. 12 January 2024. Archived from the original on 13 January 2024. Retrieved 13 January 2024.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Autonomous District Councils Manipur in brief By Haokholal Hangshing". e-pao.net. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  5. ^ "MCS, MPS officers transferred : 16th jul22 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". e-pao.net. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 7 April 2023.
  6. ^ "ECI". Archived from the original on 27 September 2021.
  7. ^ The Sentineli Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "Administration in India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands has finally decided upon a policy of minimal interference". Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2008.