Tulu Nadu
Region
South Canara, an erstwhile district, forms the centre of the Tuluva region called
South Canara, an erstwhile district, forms the centre of the Tuluva region called 'Tulu Nadu'.
Coordinates: 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40Coordinates: 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40
Country India
StateKarnataka, Kerala
DistrictsDakshina Kannada, Udupi, and Kasaragod
Largest CityMangalore
No. of districts & Talukas3 District and 18 Taluks
Area
 • Total10,432 km2 (4,028 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[3]
 • Total4,574,385
 • Density356.1/km2 (922/sq mi)
Demonym(s)
Languages
 • Lingua FrancaTulu
 • SpokenTulu, Konkani, Kannada, Malayalam, Beary
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0824, 0825
ISO 3166 codeISO 3166-2:IN
Vehicle registrationKA19, KA20, KA21, KA62, KA70, KL14.

Tulu Nadu, also called Bermere sristi[citation needed] or Parashurama Srishti, is a region and a proposed state on the southwestern coast of India.[4] The Tulu people, known as 'Tuluva' (plural 'Tuluver'), speakers of Tulu, a Dravidian language, are the preponderant ethnic group of this region.[5] South Canara, an erstwhile district and a historical area, encompassing the undivided territory of the contemporary Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka State and Kasaragod district of Kerala state forms the cultural area of the Tuluver.[6]

Historically, Tulu Nadu lay between the Gangavalli River (Uttara Kannada district) in the north and the Chandragiri River (Kasaragod district) in the south.[7] Currently, Tulu Nadu consists of the Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka state and Kasaragod district of Kerala state.[8] This region is not an official administrative entity.[9][10]

Mangalore, the fourth largest (in terms of area and population)[11] and a major city of Karnataka is the largest city of Tulu Nadu.[12] Udupi and Kasaragod are the other major cities of this region.[13]

Etymology

According to Keralolpathi, the name Tuluva comes from that of one of the Cheraman Perumal kings of Kerala, who fixed his residence in the northern portion of his dominions just before its separation from Kerala, and who was called Tulubhan Perumal.[14]

Mythology

According to mythology, the district was reclaimed by Parashurama from the sea.[15] According to the 17th-century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala and Tulu Nadu were recovered from the Arabian Sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parashurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram 'The Land of Parasurama'[16]). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.[17] The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parashurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers.[18]

History

Royal emblem of the Alupas, the ruling dynasty of the region from the 2nd century to the 15th century CE
Royal emblem of the Alupas, the ruling dynasty of the region from the 2nd century to the 15th century CE
Extent of the Alupa kingdom
Extent of the Alupa kingdom
A regional map of Tulu Nadu in Karnataka. Tulu Nadu also includes Kasaragod district of Kerala state.
A regional map of Tulu Nadu in Karnataka. Tulu Nadu also includes Kasaragod district of Kerala state.

Ancient period

According to the works of Sangam literature (300 BCE – 300 CE),[19][20][21] Tulu Nadu was one of the 12 socio-geographical regions included in the ancient Tamilakam.[22] Tulu Nadu must certainly at one time have formed part of ancient Kerala (Chera dynasty), where the western coastal dialect of Old Tamil (Karintamil) was spoken.[14] It must have separated from Tamilakam sometime between 300 CE and 500 CE, when the Kadambas invaded the northern portions of Chera kingdom.[14] No definite historical record relating to Tulu Nadu, other than those were found from Sangam literature, have been found of earlier date than 8th or 9th century CE.[14]

Alupa dynasty

Ptolemy, the 2nd-century geographer identifies the Tulu Nadu region as Olokhoira which is widely believed to be a corruption of the term Alva Kheda, 'the land of the Alvas'.[2] Historically, Tulu Nadu included the two separate lands of Haiva and Tuluva.[citation needed] The longest-ruling and oldest known native dynasty of Tulu Nadu was that of the Alupas (c. 5th – 14th century CE).[23] Their kingdom was also known as Alvakheda. They initially ruled independently and later were the feudatories of the prominent dynasties. The Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi was the earliest, under which the Alupas flourished. Later the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Badami, Chalukyas of Kalyani, Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (Halebidu) and Rayas of Vijayanagara were the overlords. The Alupas, however, were independent and their subordination was nominal at best. They ruled until the Vijayanagara Empire took control of Tulu Nadu from 14th to the 17th centuries[24]

During the rule of Vijayanagara, Tulu Nadu was administered in two parts – Mangaluru Rajya and Barkuru Rajya. Tulu Nadu was governed by the native feudatories of the Vijayanagara Empire until the 18th century. These feudatories gained power towards the end of the Alupa period. An Old Malayalam inscription (Ramanthali inscriptions), dated to 1075 CE, mentioning king Kunda Alupa, the ruler of Alupa dynasty of Mangalore, can be found at Ezhimala (the former headquarters of Mushika dynasty) near Cannanore, in the North Malabar region of Kerala.[25]

Notable among them were[23] the Chowtas of Ullal and Moodabidri (c. 1160 – c. 1801 CE), Ajilas of Venur (c. 1418–1800 C.E), the Savanta or Samantha Rajas of Mulki (c. 1411–1700), the Bhairarasa Odeyas of Karkala (c. 1240–1650 C.E), the Tolaharas of Suralu (c.1139-1800 C.E), the Bangas of Bangadi (c. 1410–1800 C.E.), the Rajas of Kumbla (c. 12th century – 1800 C.E) and the Rajas of Vitla (c. 1436–1800 C.E).

The region became extremely prosperous during the Vijayanagara period with Barkur and Mangalore gaining importance. After the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Keladi Nayakas of Ikkeri controlled much of Tulu Nadu.[26] Over the following many centuries, more ethnic groups migrated to the area. Konkanis from Goa arrived by sea, as Mangalore was a major port that served not only the Portuguese but also the Arabs for maritime trades. Jains were already a prominent group and even today are uniquely preserved in Tulu Nadu. Though small in number, the Jains left behind indelible reminders of their glory with temples (bastis) in (Moodabidri) and monolithic statues of Bahubali in Karkala, Venoor and Dharmasthala. In the 16th century, there was a large influx of Catholics to Tulu Nadu from Goa.[citation needed]

Under Portuguese rule, the region was called the Misao do Sul (Mission of the South). In the 18th century, it was conquered by Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore. After the British defeated Haidar's successor Tipu Sultan in 1799, the region was attached to the Madras Presidency before being reverted to the state of Mysore after independence. Mysore has since been renamed Karnataka. At the end of the 18th century, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan controlled the region. Mangalore played a prominent role in Tipu's battles with the British. The British gained full control in 1801, after Tipu's death in 1799. The British ruled the region with Madras (now Chennai) as its headquarters. Tipu conquered the region and the British conquered it from him. Under the British, the region was organised into the districts of North Canara and South Canara respectively.[citation needed]

As per Hindu mythology, Parashurama commanded Lord Varuna to make the seas recede to make the Tulu Nadu.[27][28]
As per Hindu mythology, Parashurama commanded Lord Varuna to make the seas recede to make the Tulu Nadu.[27][28]

When the states were reorganised on linguistic basis in 1956, Tulu Nadu (South Canara) which was earlier a part of Madras Presidency and North Canara which was a part of Bombay Presidency became part of the newly formed Mysore state, which was later renamed as Karnataka. Kasargod became part of the newly formed state of Kerala. The Tuluvas began demanding official language status for Tulu and a separate state named Tulu Nadu for themselves. Organisations like the Tulu Rajya Horata Samiti have taken up the cause of the Tuluvas and meetings and demonstrations were held at towns like Mangalore and Udupi to voice their demand.[29][30]

Demographics

South Canara in 1909
South Canara in 1909
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1871 918,362—    
1881 959,514+4.5%
1891 1,056,081+10.1%
1901 1,134,713+7.4%
1941 1,522,016+34.1%
1951 1,748,991+14.9%
Sources: Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 14,[31] and 1951 Census Handbook of South Canara[32]

Religion in South Canara (1951)[32]

  Hinduism (76.58%)
  Islam (14.31%)
  Christianity (8.85%)
  Other (0.26%)

Language in South Canara (1951)[32]

  Tulu (39.94%)
  Malayalam (24.19%)
  Kannada (17.20%)
  Konkani (13.59%)
  Other (5.08%)
Temple stambha, South Canara
Temple stambha, South Canara

South Kanara had a total population of 1,748,991 in 1951, of whom 76.58% were Hindus, 14.31% Muslim and 8.85% Christian.[32] The most widely spoken language was Tulu which was the mother tongue of 40 percent of the population, followed by Malayalam which formed the mother tongue of 24 percent each of the population. Around 17 percent of the total population spoke Kannada. Around 13 percent of the population speaks Konkani as their mother tongue. In 1901, South Kanara had a density of 109 inhabitants per square kilometre (282/sq mi).[citation needed]

The 1908 Imperial Gazetteer of India lists South Canara, along with the Thanjavur and Ganjam districts, as the three districts of the Madras Presidency where Brahmins are most numerous.[31]

The majority of the people were Billavas and Bunts. There were more Brahmins (12% of the population) in South Kanara than any other district of the Madras Presidency making South Kanara, along with Tanjore and Ganjam as one of the three districts of the province where Brahmins were most numerous.[31]

The original indigenous people of the region are Tuluvas (Bunts, Billavas, Mogaveeras, Tulu gowda, Kulalas, Devadigas, Bearys, Jogis) and Malayalis in the Kasaragod Taluk (Nambudiris, Nairs, Thiyyas, Mappilas etc). The Brahmins who settled first belonged chiefly to the Sthanika and thus they were called as Tulu Brahmins. Others were Shivalli, Saraswat, Havyaka, Kotaha sub-sections, Mahars, the hill-tribes (Koragas).[33]

Language

Main article: Tulu language

Tulu script has been used for Tulu since at least the 10th century.[34]
Tulu script has been used for Tulu since at least the 10th century.[34]

The most widely spoken Language is Tulu which belongs to the Dravidian family of languages, and whose native speakers are referred to as Tuluva. The number of Tulu speakers was estimated to be about 1.7 million in 2001,[35][36] although some sources quote as many as 3 million.[37] The other languages spoken in Tulu Nadu include Kundagannada, Arebhashe, Malayalam, Konkani, Koraga and Beary.[37]

The Tulu script, originating from the Grantha script, and bears high similarity to the Malayalam script. It was used by Tuluvas for centuries before it was eventually replaced by the Kannada script. Most Sanskrit works and Tulu classics are present in this script, with a few in other scripts. This script was used by Brahmins.[38]

Geography and climate

A Yakshagana artist portraying a rakshasa (demon)
A Yakshagana artist portraying a rakshasa (demon)
A typical house in Tulu Nadu, with the roof constructed using Mangalore tiles
A typical house in Tulu Nadu, with the roof constructed using Mangalore tiles

Tulu Nadu lies along the Konkan Coast.[39] Tulu Nadu is bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the east by the Western Ghats. With Chandragiri river forming a historical southern border. Tulu Nadu spans an area of 8,441 km2 (3,259 sq mi), roughly 4.4 per cent of the total geographical area of present-day Karnataka and Kasaragod district is the northernmost district of Kerala.[citation needed]

Tulu Nadu also experiences heavy rainfalls during Monsoon season. The coastal area of Tulu Nadu is very rich concerning rainforests and backwaters. The region has a tropical climate; with hot and humid summers, hot winter days, and heavy monsoon. Summer and winter months experience similar temperate conditions, with average temperatures ranging from 24–33 °C (75–91 °F).[citation needed] with monsoon having cooler weather.

Monsoon starts in the beginning of June, heaviest rainfall during Aati month, which spans from mid-july to mid-august. Occasional rain persists till deepawali and marnemi festivals in October-november. Winter lasts from December to early February. Summer from mid-February till May. With occasional tropical rain during April and may.

Culture

Cultural flag of Tulunadu region in India
Cultural flag of Tulunadu region in India
Chaturmukha Basadi, Karkala
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodabidri
Madhvacharya, a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the philosophy of Dvaita or Dualism[40]
Madhvacharya, a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the philosophy of Dvaita or Dualism[40]

The Yakshagana is a night-long dance and drama performance practised in Tulu Nadu with great fanfare.[41][42] Pilivesha is a unique form of folk dance in the region fascinating the young and the old alike, which is performed during Marnemi (as Dussehra is called in Tulu) and Krishna Janmashtami.[43] Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) is one more popular dance performed during Dasara in Tulu Nadu.[44] Daivaradhane (Spirit worship), which is usually done at night is practised here. Kambala (Buffalo race) is conducted in water filled paddy fields. The Bhuta Kola is similar to Theyyam in Kerala.[45][46] Korikatta (cockfight) is another favourite sport for the people. Nagaradhane (Snake worship) is practised in the Tulu Nadu according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species on the top.[47]

Udupi cuisine is popular across South India, mostly due to Udupi restaurants, which are primarily vegetarian. Apart from Southern India, there are famous Udupi Hotels in Mumbai and New Delhi too.[citation needed]

Economy

Historically, Tulu Nadu was primarily dependent on agriculture and fishing. The main crops grown were rice, Bengal gram, horse gram, vegetables and fruits. Plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, cocoa, cashew nut, and pepper are also grown. In the early 20th century, the Mangalore tile industry, cashew nut processing, and the banking industry grew substantially. Tulu Nadu is called "the cradle of Indian banking".[48] Five major banks of India (Syndicate Bank, Canara Bank, Corporation Bank, Vijaya Bank and Karnataka Bank) have their origins here.

Bank Founded Place Founded by Ref.
Canara Bank 1906; 116 years ago (1906) Mangalore Ammembal Subba Rao Pai [49]
Karnataka Bank 1924; 98 years ago (1924) Mangalore - [50]
Vijaya Bank 1931; 91 years ago (1931) Mangalore A. B. Shetty [51]
Syndicate Bank 1925; 97 years ago (1925) Manipal T. M. A. Pai, Upendra Pai and Vaman Kudva [52]
Corporation Bank 1906; 116 years ago (1906) Udupi Khan Bahadur Haji Abdulla Haji Kasim Saheb Bahadur [53]

In the early part of the 21st century the area has been transforming itself into a hub of the information technology and medical services industries. There has been large-scale decline in agriculture and related industries due to the non-availability of labour and preference for white-collar jobs. Agricultural land is being converted to commercial and real estate properties, and environmental pollution is increasing drastically due to large-scale deforestation and increase in automobile use. A public sector petroleum refinery (MRPL) was established in the 1990s. Some chemical plants (e.g., fertilizers and pesticides) have been established. This region contributes the second highest revenue to Karnataka state after the city of Bangalore. This region has an international airport at Mangalore which is well connected to the rest of India and middle eastern countries. New Mangalore Port (NMPT) is one of the major port of India located at Panambur, Mangalore.[54]

Education

This section contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. Please remove or replace such wording and instead of making proclamations about a subject's importance, use facts and attribution to demonstrate that importance. (October 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Tulu Nadu is one of the most prominent educational hub on the western coast of India.[citation needed] There are hundreds of professional colleges in Tulu Nadu.[citation needed] Thousands of students from all over India and countries abroad study in these institutions.[citation needed] Mangalore and Manipal are the major cities that accommodate these students. National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK, Surathkal, owned by Central Government) is ranked as one of the best engineering college in Karnataka and is one among the top ten engineering colleges of India. Kasturba Medical College was ranked 9th[55] and 21st among the medical colleges of India in the NIRF 2020 Rankings.[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tourism in DK District". National Informatics Centre, Karnataka State Unit. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
  2. ^ "Tour to Udupi". Tourism of India. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
  3. ^ "Census GIS India". Census of India. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
  4. ^ Anthropological Survey of India (Department of Anthropology) (1980). Bulletin of the Anthropological Survey of India, Volume 25. Director, Anthropological Survey of India, Indian Museum. p. 41.
  5. ^ Minahan, James B. (2012). "Tuluvas". Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. Ethnic Groups of the World (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-660-7.
  6. ^ Bhat, N. Shyam (1998). "Introduction". South Kanara, 1799–1860: A Study in Colonial Administration and Regional Response. Mittal Publications. pp. 1–16. ISBN 9788170995869.
  7. ^ Bhatt, P. Gururaja (1969). Antiquities of South Kanara. Prabhakara Press. p. 2.
  8. ^ "Tuluvere Paksha seeks separate statehood for Tulu Nadu, language". Deccan Herald. 28 March 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  9. ^ Unnithan, Rajmohan (7 January 2020). "A case for including Tulu in the Eighth Schedule". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  10. ^ B, Sreekantswamy (21 July 2017). "With separate 'flag,' Tulu activists up demand for statehood". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Largest cities of karnataka". worldlistmania. 16 January 2021.
  12. ^ Sheth, Anisha (6 November 2014). "This city has six names in six languages, and the official one Mangaluru, is the least popular". The News Minute. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  13. ^ Malli, Karthik (28 February 2019). "Mapping Tulu: A rich oral tradition with deep roots in Karnataka". The News Minute. Retrieved 15 January 2020. Tulu is a southern Dravidian language that's spoken by 1.85 million people in Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kerala's Kasargod district.
  14. ^ a b c d J. Sturrock (1894). Madras District Manuals – South Canara (Volume-I). Madras Government Press.
  15. ^ "History of Mangalore" (PDF). ICICI. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  16. ^ S.C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006) "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: Volume 14.", p. 18
  17. ^ Aiya VN (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government Press. pp. 210–12. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
  18. ^ Srinivisa Iyengar, P. T. (1929). History of the Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Madras: Asian Educational Services. p. 515. ISBN 978-8120601451.
  19. ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0.
  20. ^ Nadarajah, Devapoopathy (1994). Love in Sanskrit and Tamil Literature: A Study of Characters and Nature, 200 B.C.-A.D. 500. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1215-4.
  21. ^ University, Vijaya Ramaswamy, Jawaharlal Nehru (25 August 2017). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-0686-0.
  22. ^ A handbook of Kerala Band 1 (2000), T. Madhava Menon, International School of Dravidian Linguistics, p.98
  23. ^ a b Bhat, N. Shyam (1998). South Kanara, 1799–1860: A Study in Colonial Administration and Regional Response. Mittal Publications. pp. 17–45. ISBN 9788170995869. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  24. ^ "Alupa dynasty". Shastriya kannada.
  25. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 483.
  26. ^ Shastry, Bhagamandala Seetharama (2000). Goa-Kanara Portuguese Relations, 1498–1763. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 112,145–147,180–204. ISBN 8170228484.
  27. ^ "Tulu Nadu: The Land and its People by Dr. Neria H. Hebbar". Boloji. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  28. ^ "Brahmins of Tulu Nadu – Madhwa Samajam Kollam". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  29. ^ "News headlines". DHNS. 21 October 2006. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  30. ^ "Tulu organisations to meet soon". The Hindu. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  31. ^ a b c The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. 14. Clarendon Press. 1908.
  32. ^ a b c d Government of Madras (1953). 1951 Census Handbook- South Canara District (PDF). Madras Government Press. p. 147.
  33. ^ Silva, Severine; Fuchs, Stephan (1965). "The Marriage Customs of the Christians in South Canara, India". Asian Folklore Studies. Nanzan University. 24 (2): 2–3. doi:10.2307/1177555. JSTOR 1177555.
  34. ^ "ScriptSource – Tulu". tuluscriptsource. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  35. ^ "Census of India – Statement 1". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  36. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009), "Tulu", Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.), SIL International, retrieved 12 November 2009.
  37. ^ a b D.N.S. Bhat (1998). Sanford B. Steever (ed.). The Dravidian Languages. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 0-415-10023-2.
  38. ^ Dr. K Padmanabha Kekunnaya. "Tulu Language and Script". Shivalli Brahmins. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  39. ^ Lozupone, Patsy; Beehler, Bruce M.; Ripley, Sidney Dillon (2004). Ornithological gazetteer of the Indian subcontinent. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International. p. 82. ISBN 1-881173-85-2.
  40. ^ "Madhvacharya | Udupi Philosopher | Personalities". Karnataka.com. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  41. ^ "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
  42. ^ Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-86450-161-2.
  43. ^ Stanley G. Pinto (26 October 2001). "Human 'tigers' face threat to health". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  44. ^ Stephen D'Souza. "What's in a Name?". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  45. ^ "'Devakoothu'; the lone woman Theyyam in North Malabar". Mathrubhumi.
  46. ^ "Devakoothu: This year, Devakoothu gets a new face | Kozhikode News – Times of India". The Times of India.
  47. ^ "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". Mangalorean.com. 18 August 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  48. ^ http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/15944/12/12_chapter%204.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  49. ^ "Canara Bank :: About Us :: Profile". canarabank.com. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  50. ^ "Welcome to Karnataka Bank Ltd". karnatakabank.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  51. ^ "Vijaya Bank". vijayabank.com. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  52. ^ "Syndicate Bank- ourprofile". syndicatebank.in. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  53. ^ "History | Corporation Bank". www.corpbank.com. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  54. ^ Gavin Shatkin (14 August 2013). "Chapter 10 : Planning Mangalore: Garbage Collection in a Small Indian City". Contesting the Indian City: Global Visions and the Politics of the Local. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-29584-7.
  55. ^ "Top 10 medical colleges, universities, and institutes in India". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  56. ^ "MoE, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)". nirfindia.org. Retrieved 23 October 2021.

Further reading