Dancer's headpiece in the form of Panjurli (boar face deity), LACMA 18th century CE

Būta Kōlā,[note 1] also referred to as Daiva Kōlā or Daiva Nēmā, is a shamanistic dance performance prevalent among the Hindus of Tulu Nadu and parts of Malenadu of Karnataka and Kasargod in northern Kerala, India. The dance is highly stylized and performed as part of 'Bhootaradhane' or worship of the local deities worshipped by the Tulu speaking population. It has influenced Yakshagana folk theatre.[1] Būta kōlā is closely related to Theyyam of North Malabar region.

List of Daivas

Koragajja, is the most worshipped Daiva by the Tulu people and is prayed to for help in solving any problem, to get back something lost, or to get any work done on time.[2]


Panjurli, a Boar face Deity.

A boar spirit that is worshipped to ward off the menace of wild boars in order to protect the crops.[3] According to Tulu mythology, a wild boar died in Lord Shiva's celestial garden. The boar's offspring was adopted by Goddess Parvati. The young boar became destructive as he grew older and began destroying the plants and trees in Lord Shiva's garden. Lord Shiva became upset by this and decided to kill him. Goddess Parvati, however, defended the boar and asked her husband to pardon him. So instead of killing him, Lord Shiva banished the boar to Earth as his gana and tasked him with protecting the people of Earth and assured him that he will be revered by the people as a protector god. This particular boar became a Bhoota (Divine Spirit) known as Panjurli.[4] But some people syncretise Panjurli with Varaha, the boar incarnation of Lord Vishnu, since the two deities are boars. He's also a Rudransh because of it he is also known as Shiva Shambhootha Or one who has the powers of Mahadev. Panjurli Daiva is also the one of the earliest daivas who is worshipped in all over Tulunad his earliest worship dates back to 700 BCE-800 BCE along with Bermer Daiva (Brahma). The idea behind the worship of Panjurli is that wild boars destroyed crops and thus, farmers started worshipping a boar king who was known as Panjurli and in return they believe that panjurli protects the crops.

Bobbarya, the God of the seas, is worshipped mostly by members of the fishing community.[5]

Kalkuda and Kallurti, are Daivas who are brother and sister. According to legend, Kalkuda was a great sculptor who built the Gommateshwara statue in Karkala. After he completed building beautiful temples and monumental statues, the ruler of Karkala cut off his left arm and right leg so that he could not create such beautiful sculptures for any other king. On seeing her brother's state, Kallurti vowed to take revenge and requested Lord Shiva to turn them into deities. Shiva agreed and the pair then took violent revenge on the king, his family, and his kingdom. Their destruction was only stopped when a master magician promised them that they would be worshipped as and how they wanted.[6]


As per legend, he was born out of a stone. The Goddess Parvati discovered this stone in a pile of ash. Guliga was created when Lord Shiva flung this ash into the water and was sent to Lord Vishnu after his birth so that he may serve him.

Guliga Daiva at Bhootaradhane Ceremony.

However, Guliga was extremely destructive and this greatly annoyed Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu exiled Guliga to Earth as a result and tasked him with protecting the people on Earth.[4]

Kōṭi Cennayya, Koti and Chennayya are twin heroes who are worshipped as martial Gods.[7]

Etymology and History

The word is derived from būta (Tulu for ‘spirit’, ‘deity’; in turn derived from Sanskrit भूत for ‘free elements’, 'which is purified', 'fit', 'proper', ‘true’, 'past', 'creatures'; Anglicized: ‘bhūta’, ‘bhoota’, ‘bootha’) and kōla (Tulu for ‘play, performance, festival’, or 'shape/form').

A bhūta kōlā or nēmā is typically an annual ritual performance where local spirits or deities (bhūtas, daivas) are being channelised by ritual specialists from certain scheduled castes such as the Nalike, Pambada, or Parawa communities. The bhūta cult is prevalent among the Tuluvas of Tulu Nadu region.[8][9][10][11][12] The word kōla is conventionally reserved for the worship of a single spirit whereas a nēma involves the channelising of several spirits in hierarchical order.[13] In kōlas and nēmas family and village disputes are referred to the spirit for mediation and adjudication.[14] In feudal times, the justice aspect of the ritual included matters of political justice, such as the legitimation of political authority, as well as aspects of distributive justice. The produce of land directly owned by the būta (commons) as well as certain contributions from the leading manors was redistributed among the villagers.[15]

The history of Bhuta Kola is unknown but some scholars suppose that this tradition was probably originated during 700 BCE by the migration of early tulu tribes introducing the worship of Bermer (Brahma), Panjurli (the boar spirit) and other spirits although Bhuta Kola is a modified form of prehistoric religious rituals. The earliest inscription of Bhuta Kola was from 14th century from Barkuru which mentions about an individual bhuta named kundodara demands a sacrifice from a king who wants to deport his ship in sea.

Types of Bhūta Worship

The Bhūta worship of South Canara is of four kinds, kōla, bandi, nēma, and agelu-tambila.

Kōla: Demi god dancing, is offered to the Bhūtas in the sthana of the village believed that which they are supposed to reside.
Bandi: Bandi is the same as kōla, with the addition of dragging about a chariot, on which the one who is representing the Bhūta is seated; most often, he is from the nalke, pambada or ajala communities.
Nēma: Nēma is a private ceremony in honour of the Bhūtas, held in the house of anyone who is so inclined. It is performed once in every year, two, ten, fifteen, or twenty years by well-to-do families.
Agelu-tambila: is a kind of worship offered only to the family people, wherein rice, dishes, meat, alcohol are served on plantain leaves and offered to spirits, deities, departed forefathers annually or once wishes are completed.[16]


The ritual performance at a būta kōla or daiva nēma involves music, dance, recital, and elaborate costumes. Recitals in Old Tulu recount the origins of the deity and tell the story of how it came to the present location. These epics are known as pāḍdanas.[17]

Types of daivas

Thurston counts among the best known deities "Brahmeru, Kodamanitaya, Kukkintaya, Jumadi, Sarala Jumadi, Pancha Jumadi, Lekkesiri, Panjurli (a divine boar[18]), Kuppe Panjurli, Rakta Panjurli, Jarandaya, Urundarayya, Hosadēvata (or Hosa Bhūta or Posa appe), Dēvanajiri, Kalkuḍa, Tukkateri, Guliga, Babbariya (or Bobbarāyā), Neecha, Duggalaya, Mahisandaya, Varte, Koragajja, Chāmundi, Baiderukulu, Ukkatiri, Kallurti, Shiraadi, Ullalthi, Okkuballala, Korddabbu, Ullaya, Korathi, Siri, Mantradevathe,Sathya Devathe, Rakteshwari, Istadevathe and Odityay.[19] The Bhūtas are supposed to belong to different castes. For example Okkuballala and Dēvanajiri are Jains, Kodamanitaya and Kukkinataya are Bunts, Kalkuḍa is a smith, Bobbariya is a Māppilla, and Nicha a Koraga." Some of them are ancestral spirits such as Bobbariya, Kalkuḍa, Kallurti, Siri, Kumār Koti and Chennayya. Some are deified wild animals such as the boar - Paňjurli (the female counterpart is Varte Paňjurli) or the tiger - Pilichamuṇḍi.

Some būtas are Androgynous such as some instances of Jumadi who is represented as female below the neck (breasts), but with a male head sporting a mustache.[8][15] There are anthropomorphic būtas, zoomorphic ones, and mixed forms (such as the Malarāya of Kodlamogaru, Kasargod, who has the head of a wild boar and the body of a woman).

Depending on the significance of the people who worship them, būtas or daivas can be family deities (kuṭuṃbada būta), local or village deities (jāgeda būta, ūrada būta), or deities associated with administrative units such as manorial estates (guțțus), groups of estates (māgane), districts (sīme) or even small kingdoms (royal būtas or rājandaivās).[10]


According to the ethnographer Peter Claus, the Tulu pāḍdanas reveal a cosmology which is distinctly Dravidian and thus different from the Puranic Hindu cosmology.[17][20] Importantly, priesthood is not the preserve of a caste learned in scriptures but is shared between the ruling aristocracy on one hand and ritual specialists from the lower strata of society on the other hand. The world is divided in two three realms: firstly, the realm of cultivated lands (grāmya), secondly the realm of wastelands and forests (jāṅgala/āraṇya), and thirdly the realm of spirits (būta-loka). Grāmya and jāṅgala/āraṇya form part of the tangible world, whereas būta-loka is their intangible counterpart. As grāmya is constantly threatened by encroachment, disease, hunger and death form jāṅgala and āraṇya, so is the tangible world under constant threat from the intangible world of the spirits. The world of the forest is the "world of the wild, unordered, uncontrolled, hungry beings of destruction".[20]

The world of the forest and the world of the spirits are therefore seen as mirror images of each other. The wild animals threatening the human cultivator and his fields such as the tiger, the snake, the wild-boar, and the bison, find their mirror images in their corresponding būtas Pilli, Naga, Paňjurli and Maisandaya.

The relationship between these three worlds is one of balance and moral order. If this order is upset by the humans, it is believed that the spirits become vicious. If the order is maintained, the spirits are believed to be supportive and benevolent. Thus, the spirits of Tulu culture are neither "good" nor "bad" as such; they are "neither cruel nor capricious. They methodically and persistently remind a lax humanity of the need for morality and the value of solidarity".[21] Nobody is believed to be above the moral and cosmological norms of this threefold universe, not even the spirits or the gods. Thus the būtas are not whimsical or arbitrary in their judgement. The būtas are their patron's protectors with regard to a system of moral norms, not despite them.[21]

Feudal relations of tribute and fealty mark the relations among the humans in the tangible world, among spirits in the intangible world and between humans and spirits across tangible and intangible worlds. While the world of humans is ruled by a mortal king, the world of the spirits is ruled by Bermeru, the lord of the forest and of the būtas. And just as the landed aristocracy depended on protection and support from their king, the world of humans depends on protection and support from the spirits. Thus once in a year at the time of kōla or nēma, the lord of the human world (patriarch, landlord, king) has to be reconfirmed in his authority by reporting to the spirit to which he is accountable. While the temporal lord's authority is dependent on the spirit; the authority of the spirit is guaranteed by the active participation of the villagers in the ritual. Thereby a certain degree of political legitimacy is upheld by the active participation of the villagers. Their withdrawal from the ritual can seriously affect the authority of the landlord.[22]

As Claus observes, the principal mediators in this network of feudal transactions are communities who once upon a time may have led a liminal life between grāmya and jāṅgala/āraṇya.[23] Tribal communities living in and off the forest and trading in forest products were predestined to serve as spirit impersonators as their life world, the forest, is only the tangible side of the world of the spirits. In pursuit of their livelihood they regularly transgress structural boundaries between village and forest. They live on the margins of the village, in the wasteland between forest and field, thus they are themselves, in a sense, liminal. That such liminal people should be mediums for the spirits seems entirely apt. Today communities like Nalike, Parava or Pambada who impersonate different kinds of būtas and daivas can no longer be characterised as tribal. They are mostly landless agricultural labourers in the wet season and spirit impersonators in the dry season.


The temple of the deity Jumadi in Mangalore, India

Today feudal relations no longer obtain and thus former ruling families no longer hold any political or judicial office. But still the village demands that they sponsor their annual kōla or nēma to honour the village deity. The people believe that the neglect of the spirits will make their life miserable.[21] Even though they may have changed, būta kōla and daiva nēma still serve secular as well as religious purposes. In fact the two cannot be separated in a world where the tangible is suffused with the intangible. As the cosmology underlying the pāḍdanas suggests, the very order of the human world and the order of the spirit world are interdependent.

Būtas and daivas are not worshipped on a daily basis like mainstream Hindu gods. Their worship is restricted to annual ritual festivals, though daily pūjās may be conducted for the ritual objects, ornaments, and other paraphernalia of the būta.[24][25] Unlike with the better-known Hindu gods of the purāṇic variety, būta worship is congregational.

Secular function

The secular function of the kōla or nēma has been described as a "sacred court of justice" where traditional (feudal) moral ideals are brought to bear on difficult real-life situations.[21] Būta kōlas and daiva nēmas are assemblies of the entire village. Thus they become an occasion to resolve conflicts in the village.[22] The royal daiva (rājan-daiva) rules over a former small kingdom or large feudal estate. He or she is mostly the family deity of rich land-owning patrons of the Baṇṭ caste whose position and power they reflect, confirm and renew.[8][9] The relationship between the būtas, manor heads, and the villagers forms a transactional network which reaffirms the caste hierarchy and power relations in a village.[15] The duty assigned to every category is differential but based on mutuality. The manor head by staging the nēma seeks to symbolically proclaim himself to be the natural leader of the community.

The villagers offer sēva during the nēma in the form of service and prostrations and in doing so also offer their support to the nēma and their recognition of the leader's status. In return, the villagers expect justice and resolution of disputes by the daiva during the nēma. In the nēma, the leading manors offer a part of their farm products to the daiva, which are then redistributed to the villagers. The nēma thereby underlines the mutuality on which feudal relations used to be based and, in a limited way, takes care of the problem of social (distributive) justice. The būtas receive these offerings and in return give oracles and blessings to ensure the future prosperity of the village (humans, animals, fields). Finally, a part of these offerings will be distributed as prasāda among the heads of the guṭṭus and other villagers according to their ranks.[15] The system of entitlements is constituted in, or embodied by, the mutual gifting activity between the būtas, as the ultimate owner of the land, and people in rituals, creating a transactional network among them.[15]

Ritual script

The script of the ritual changes from one nēmā to another, thus the following description is somewhat ideal-typical. The ritual begins with the paraphernalia of the būta being brought to the shrine which serves as a venue for the festival. They are placed on an altar or on a swinging cot, which is the insignium of a royal būta (rajan-daiva). The Nalike, Parava or Pambada medium prepares for the impersonation of the spirit with a recital of from the pāḍdana of the būta or daiva. After this, the medium starts putting on make-up and dressing up in his costume which may include an elaborate ani (a giant halo stringed to the back of the dancer). Finally, the medium is given the ornaments from the hoard of the shrine. As he enters the arena, the attendant of the spirit (pātri) gives him his sword, his bell and other paraphernalia and the patron (jajmān) gives him one or several burning torches. As the medium begins to dance, the spirit enters his body. Two people hold the torches along with the medium at all times. Thus, the entrance of spirit into this world is restrained. The medium's dance gains more force as the possession continues. He brings the torches dangerously close to his body. The jajmān now stands in a ritualistic circle on the ground with his assistants and offerings are made to the būta. These offerings often include the sacrifice of a chicken whose blood is sprinkled on the ground to enhance the fertility of the land.[24] These sacrificial acts are followed by offerings of puffed rice, beaten rice, coconut pieces, bananas, ghee, betel leaf, and areca nut.[26] In the subsequent court of justice the spirit is approached by the villagers for blessings or asked to help resolve conflicts.[21][22] The judicial program typically starts once the initial rituals are finished. Complaints and judgements are made orally. The būta issues the judgement after hearing the sides of the plaintiff as well as the defendant, if both are present. The būta's justice must be referrable to general principles. "He may take a stand, he cannot take sides".[23] While the būta may take the opinions of the village headman and other eminent persons into consideration, the ultimate judgement rests with the būta. Sometimes judgements are also issued by the tossing of betel leaves and the counting of flower petals (usually areca flower). Particularly difficult cases may also be adjourned to the next year by the būta. Some common disputes that come up are related to land issues, family feuds, questions of honour, robbery, debt, mortgage, breach of contract etc. In cases of theft where the offender is unknown, the būta may ask for a certain offering before finding the thief. At times the victim offers the entire value of the stolen goods to the būta. If the thief is found and penalised, the person is made to pay to the plaintiff a sum that is more than the value of the goods stolen. If the būta feels that the thief shows repentance, the gravity of the penalty could be reduced.[27]


Main article: Divination

Buta Kola dancer from the Parava caste. c. 1909

The art of being a channel/medium is learned. Young boys belonging to the Pambada, Parava, Nalike castes attend rituals where their kin is performing; and they help out with shredding the coconut leaves for the garment of the channel/medium, holding the mirror while the channel/medium is putting on the make up etc. They learn the art of the performance by observing the performance of their kin and trying to mimic it.[28] Along with being able to mimic the way their kin performed, what is essential to be a successful channel/medium is also the aptitude of being possessed by the deity. There are certain rules the channel/medium needs to follow to prepare his body for the possession. This may include being a vegetarian and not drinking alcohol.[28] The channel/medium feels the sudden spirit possession only for a few seconds but after that he is filled with the deity's energy that lets him behave as the deity for the entire ritual.[28]

There are two types of mediators between the spirits and the humans. The first type of mediator is known as the pātri. These are members of middle castes such as Billava (toddy tappers, formerly also bow-men).[24] The second type of mediator ("channels/mediums") typically belong to scheduled castes such as Pambada, Parava or Nalike.[24] While the pātri has only a sword and a bell as ritual tools, the channel/medium uses makeup, ornaments, masks etc.[24] Both mediums are believed to channelise the deity from an altered state of consciousness. But while the channel/medium may speak as the būta (in the first person) and about the būta (in the third person, i.e. when he recounts his/her pāḍdana), the pātri only speaks as the būta in the first person.


Pāḍdanas are songs that form a major part of Tuluva oral literature.[20] Much of the body of this literature has been built on the legends of the būtas and daivas.[20] Pāḍdanas have numerous variations for the same narrative. As in other epic traditions, there is no single author. Pāḍdanas are orally transmitted and recited.[14] The language of the pāḍdanas is old Tulu.[9][13][24] Some famous examples are the Siri-Kumar Pāḍdanas and the Koti and Chennayya Pāḍdanas. The pāḍdanas sung by women while planting paddy are referred to as "field songs".[13][20][29]

The pāḍdanas recite the origins of the spirits and deities. This is one way for the rituals to reconstruct the past and render a legitimization to it.[24] The singers act as the indigenous narrators of the history of the native land. The pāḍdanas also stand in opposition to the puranic, male based principles as they highlight the feminine principles of mother earth. The pāḍdanas also reflect multi-socio-cultural background shifts (for example, the move from Matrilineal system to Patrilineal system). The older sense of cosmology is retained through the pāḍdanas.[24]

In popular culture


See also


  1. ^ /buːt̪ʌ/ is the local pronunciation while the standardised Sanskrit+Tulu pronunciation is /bʱuːt̪ʌ koːlɑː/


  1. ^ "Bhootha Aradhane". Government of Karnataka.
  2. ^ Ananda, Manisha (2022-11-14). "Koragajja Story: Do you know anything about the God of Tulunad, Swami Koragajja..?". Vijay Karnataka. Retrieved 2022-12-29.
  3. ^ S. Jayashanker (2001). Temples of Kasaragod District. Controller of Publications. p. 30.
  4. ^ a b Sadhwani, Bhavya (2022-12-14). "Now That Kantara Has Released On OTT, Here Are Answers To All The Questions You Might Have". India Times. Retrieved 2022-12-29.
  5. ^ U. Padmanabha Upadhyaya (1984). Bhuta Worship. Regional Resources Centre for Folk Performing Arts, M.G.M. College. p. 60.
  6. ^ Heidrun Brückner (2009). On an Auspicious Day, at Dawn -: Studies in Tulu Culture and Oral Literature. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 60. ISBN 9783447059169.
  7. ^ K. S. Singh (2003). Karnataka, Part 1. Anthropological Survey of India. p. 111. ISBN 9788185938981.
  8. ^ a b c Brückner, Heidrun (1987). "Bhuta Worship in Coastal Karnataka: An Oral Tulu Myth and Festival Ritual of Jumadi". Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik. 13/14: 17–37.
  9. ^ a b c Brückner, Heidrun (1992). "Dhumavati-Bhuta" An Oral Tulu-Text Collected in the 19th Century. Edition, Translation, and Analysis". Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik. 13/14: 13–63.
  10. ^ a b Brückner, Heidrun (1995). Fürstliche Fest: Text und Rituale der Tuḷu-Volksreligion an der Westküste Südindiens. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. pp. 199–201.
  11. ^ Brückner, Heidrun (2009a). On an Auspicious Day, at Dawn ... Studies in Tulu Culture and Oral Literature. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  12. ^ Brückner, Heidrun (2009b). "Der Gesang von der Büffelgottheit" in Wenn Masken Tanzen – Rituelles Theater und Bronzekunst aus Südindien edited by Johannes Beltz. Zürich: Rietberg Museum. pp. 57–64.
  13. ^ a b c Claus, Peter (1989). Behind the Text. Performance and Ideology in a Tulu Oral Tradition. In Oral Epics in India edited by Stuart H. Blackburn, Peter J. Claus, Joyce B. Flueckiger and Susan S. Wadley. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 64.
  14. ^ a b Claus, Peter (1989). Behind the Text. Performance and Ideology in a Tulu Oral Tradition. In Oral Epics in India edited by Stuart H. Blackburn, Peter J. Claus, Joyce B. Flueckiger and Susan S. Wadley. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 67.
  15. ^ a b c d e Ishii, Miho (2015). "Wild Sacredness and the Poiesis of Transactional Networks: Relational Divinity and Spirit Possession in the Būta Ritual of South India". Asian Ethnology. 74 (1): 101–102. doi:10.18874/ae.74.1.05.
  16. ^ Thurston, Edgar (1909-10-09). "Nalke". Castes and Tribes of Southern India. Government Press – via Wikisource.
  17. ^ a b Claus, Peter J. (1978). "Heroes and Heroines in the Conceptual Framework of Tulu Culture". Journal of Indian Folkloristics. 1 (2): 28–42.
  18. ^ Pinto, M. (2017). Fisticuff of the Souls: The Deliverance. Partridge Publishing India. ISBN 978-1-5437-0045-9. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
  19. ^ Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Vol. V. Madras: Government Press. p. 148.
  20. ^ a b c d e Claus, Peter J. (1978). "Oral Traditions, Royal Cults and Material for the Reconsideration of the Caste System in South India". Journal of Indian Folkloristics. 1 (1): 1–39.
  21. ^ a b c d e Claus, Peter J. (1973). "Possession, Protection and Punishment as Attributes of the Deities in a South Indian Village". Man in India. 53 (3): 231–242.
  22. ^ a b c Carrin, Marine; Tambs-Lyche, Harald (2003). "'You don't joke with these fellows.' Power and Ritual in South Canara, India". Social Anthropology. 11 (1): 23–42. doi:10.1017/S0964028203000028.
  23. ^ a b Claus, Peter J. (1979). "Spirit Possession and Spirit Mediumship from the Perspective of Tulu Oral Traditions". Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. 3 (1): 29–52. doi:10.1007/BF00114691. PMID 498800. S2CID 13641314.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Suzuki, Masataka (2008). "Bhūta and Daiva: Changing Cosmology of Rituals and Narratives in Karnataka". Senri Ethnological Studies. 71: 51–85.
  25. ^ Claus, Peter James (1991a). "Kin Songs." In Gender, Genre, and Power in South Asian Expressive Traditions edited by Arjun Appadurai, Frank K. Korom and Margaret A. Mills. Delhi: Motilal. pp. 136–177.
  26. ^ Brückner, Heidrun (2012). "Gods Going Wild? Enacting Loss of Control in Tulu Possession Rituals: A Photographic Case Study" in Emotions in Rituals and Performances edited by Axel Michaels and Christoph Wulf. New Delhi: Routledge. pp. 214–233.
  27. ^ Someshwar, Amrta (1986). "Judicial Aspects of Bhuta Cult." In Coastal Karnataka. Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India edited by U. P. Upadhyaya. Udupi: M. G. M. College Regional Research Centre. pp. 301–318.
  28. ^ a b c Ishii, Miho (2013). "Playing with Perspectives: Spirit Possession, Mimesis, and Permeability in the Buuta Ritual in South India". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 19 (4): 795–812. doi:10.1111/1467-9655.12065.
  29. ^ Claus, Peter J. (1986). "Translating Performance." In Coastal Karnataka. Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India edited by U. P. Upadhyaya. Udupi: M. G. M. College Regional Research Centre. pp. 147–154.
  30. ^ Facebook post[user-generated source]
  31. ^ "what is bhoota kola the Tulu tradition". Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  32. ^ "Kantara, a film with impact: Karnataka Government announces monthly allowance for Daiva Narthakas". MSN. 2022-10-20. Retrieved 2022-10-20.