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Hassan district
Hassan
Location in Karnataka
Location in Karnataka
Coordinates: 13°N 76°E / 13°N 76°E / 13; 76
Country India
State Karnataka
Hassan1886
HeadquartersHassan
TalukasHassan, Holenarsipur, Arkalgud, Channarayanapatana, Sakleshpur, Belur, Alur, Arasikere
Government
 • Deputy Commissioner and District MagistrateSathyabhama C
(IAS)
Area
 • Total6,845 km2 (2,643 sq mi)
 • Rank11th
Elevation
(Avg. of 8 taluks)
933 m (3,061 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total1,776,421
 • Density260/km2 (670/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialKannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
573***
Telephone code08172
Vehicle registrationKA-13, KA-46
Websitewww.hassan.nic.in

Hassan is one of the 31 districts of Karnataka, India. The district headquarter is Hassan. It was part of Manjarabad Faujdari a.k.a Patnada Rayada between 1832-81 (Commissioner's Rule of Mysore). In 1882, it was reduced into a sub-division under erstwhile Kadur district. But in 1886, the Hassan district was restored to its current form.[1]

Hassan District contains 8 taluks with their respective headquarters in Hassan, Arsikere, Channarayapatna, Belur, Holenarasipura, Sakleshpur, Alur and Arkalgud.

Governance

Current Member of Parliament from Hassan is Prajwal Revanna who is also one of the youngest Lok Sabha members and is grandson of former Prime Minister of India H. D. Deve Gowda. The Current Member of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly is Swaroop Prakash.

History

Hassan district was the seat of the Hoysala Empire which at its peak ruled large parts of south India from Belur as its early capital and Halebidu as its later capital during the period 1000–1334 CE.[2]

The district is named Hassan after the Hindu Goddess "Haasanamba", the goddess and presiding deity of the town. The history of Hassan district is essentially the history of two of the well known dynasties that have ruled Karnataka, the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talkad (350–999 CE) and the Hoysala Empire (1000–1334 CE). In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Vijayanagar kings patronised Chennakesava of Belur as their family deity. It was also ruled by Adilshahis of Bijapur and Mughal Empire after decline of the Vijayanagar. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Hassan became a land of contention between the Keladi Nayakas of Shimoga and the Mysore Kingdom. It finally merged as an independent Mysore kingdom.

Modern

Profile of the Kedareshwara temple at Halebidu

During the 14th century, invasions by the Sultanate of Delhi weakened the Hoysala state, and the district became part of the Vijayanagara Empire.[3] In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Vijayanagar kings patronised Chennakesava of Belur as their family deity. It was also ruled by Adilshahis of Bijapur and Mughal Empire after decline of the Vijayanagar. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Hassan became a land of contention between the Keladi Nayakas of Shimoga and the Mysore Kingdom. In 1648 the Mysore rulers built Channarayapatna fort by treaty with the sultans of Bijapur. A peace treaty was concluded between the Mysore and Keladi rulers in 1694.[3] The district remained part of the Mysore Kingdom at the conclusion of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799.

Hassan District and its current boundaries date to the 1860s, when the Mysore Kingdom was organized into 8 districts, and the districts further divided into taluks.[4] The district had a population of 518,987 in the 1871 census. A famine from 1876 to 1878 reduced the population to 428,344 by 1881. The population was 511,975 in 1891, and 568,919 in 1901. The 1901 census recorded 541,531 Hindus, 16,668 Muslims, 5035 Animists, 3795 Christians, 1874 Jains, and 16 others. The district had 14 towns, and 2546 villages.[5]

Reserve forests were established in the 19th century, and covered an area of 185 square miles in the district. The forests, with their area in square miles, were: Kempuhole Ghat (16), Kaganeri Ghati (2), Kabbinale Ghat (23), Bisale Ghat (23), Vijayapur (5), Hirikalgudda (92), Doddabetta (3), Burdalbore (3), Hagare (3), Byaba (2), Sige-gudda (8), Baisur (1), Mallappan-betta (1), and Vantigudda (1). The state established five sandalwood forests, totaling three square miles: Kemmanbore (232 acres), Gubbi (428 acres), Gadagere (554 acres), Gubbi (1000 acres), and Nakalgud (185 acres).[6]

After India's independence in 1947, Mysore Kingdom became Mysore State, which was renamed Karnataka state in 1973.

Geography

Shettihalli Rosary Church also known as the Floating Church that submerged in water as a result of construction of the Hemavati Dam and Reservoir in 1960[7]
Hemavati Dam and Reservoir in Gorur

Lying between 12° 13´ and 13° 33´ North latitudes and 75° 33´ and 76°38´ East longitude, Hassan district has a total area of 6826.15 km2. The geography is mixed with the malnad or mountainous region to the west and south west called Bisle Ghat and the maidan or plains regions in the north, south and east. There are some areas of degraded forest ranges in central portion of the district.

The district is surrounded by Chikmagalur District to the north, Tumkur District to the east, Mandya District to the south east, Mysore to the south, Kodagu District to the south west and Dakshina Kannada district to the west.

Hassan and Belur stand around 950 metres (3,120 ft) and 970 metres (3,180 ft) above sea level, respectively.

Most of the district lies in the watershed of the Hemavathi River, a tributary of the Kaveri River. The general level of Hassan district slopes with the course of the Hemavati, from the peaks of the Western Ghats downwards to the southeast. The chief tributary of the Hemavathi is the Yagachi River, which flows southward from Belur taluk to join the Hemavathi near Gorur. In 1981 the Hemavathi Dam was completed near Gorur, downstream from the confluence with the Yagachi, creating a reservoir of 8000 hectares.[8] The Hemavathi passes through Holenarsipur taluk in a southerly direction and joins with the Kaveri near Hampapura in Mysore district, close to the border of Hassan district. The Kaveri flows through the southernmost part of the District.

Western portions of the district are drained by the headwaters of the Netravati River, which flows northwestward to empty into the Arabian Sea. Portions of Arsikere taluk in the northeast are drained by the Hagari River, a tributary of the Tungabhadra River. The basins of the Kaveri and Tungabhadra are separated by a range of low granitic hills extending through Belur, Hassan, and Arsikere taluks.

The Bisle Ghat, or Bisale Ghat, is a portion of the Western Ghats range in the western part of the district. Main peaks include Jenukallu betta, Sakleshpura (4,558 feet (1,389 m)), the highest peak in the district, Murkangudda (4,265 feet (1,300 m)), and Devarbetta (4,206 feet (1,282 m)). Pushpagiri (1,712 meters), lies immediately southwest in Kodagu and district. Bisle, Kagneri, Kanchankumari reserve forests cover portions the Bisle Ghat, and adjoin Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary in Kodagu.

Rainfall

Hassan district is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats, thus receives less rainfall than coastal Karnataka. The district comes under three river basins: Netravathi, Kaveri and Vedavathi (Krishna River). In 2022, the district received an average annual rainfall of 1,701 millimetres (67.0 in), of which, Hethur hobli in Sakleshpura taluk received the maximum downpour of 4,305 millimetres (169.5 in) and Arsikere hobli received 986 millimetres (38.8 in), the lowest in the district.[9]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901568,919—    
1911578,097+0.16%
1921581,750+0.06%
1931596,937+0.26%
1941627,718+0.50%
1951715,135+1.31%
1961895,847+2.28%
19711,102,370+2.10%
19811,357,014+2.10%
19911,569,684+1.47%
20011,721,669+0.93%
20111,776,421+0.31%
source:[10]
Religions in Hassan district (2011)[11]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
91.80%
Islam
6.76%
Christianity
0.88%
Other or not stated
0.56%

According to the 2011 census Hassan district has a population of 1,776,421,[12] roughly equal to the nation of The Gambia[13] or the US state of Nebraska.[14] This gives it a ranking of 270th in India (out of a total of 640).[12] The district has a population density of 261 inhabitants per square kilometre (680/sq mi) .[12] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 3.17%.[12] Hassan has a sex ratio of 1005 females for every 1000 males,[12] and a literacy rate of 75.89%. 21.21% of the population lives in urban areas. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 19.42% and 1.82% of the population respectively.[12]

Languages of Hassan district (2011)[15]

  Kannada (87.04%)
  Urdu (6.16%)
  Telugu (1.96%)
  Tulu (1.22%)
  Tamil (0.91%)
  Others (2.71%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 87.04% of the population spoke Kannada, 6.16% Urdu, 1.96% Telugu, 1.22% Tulu and 0.91% Tamil as their first language.[15]

Government and politics

Administrative divisions

Hassan District is administratively divided into eight talukas (Panchayat blocks): Alur, Arkalgud, Arsikere, Belur, Channarayapatna, Hassan, Holenarasipura (H.N. Pura) and Sakleshpur,[16] and 258 panchayat villages.[17]

Villages

Map gallery

Tourism

List of famous temples in Hassan

Transport

Air

There is no operational airport in the city. The nearest airport is Mysore airport and the nearest international airport is Kempegowda International Airport. Hassan Airport is an airport under construction 10 kilometer east of the city, near the Boovanahalli village. The project was first rejected by the State government in 2012. It was again revived in 2021 with a budget of Rs 175 crore and will be taken up by the UDAN scheme.[19] Government of India has granted the approval for setting up of 15 Greenfield airports in the country on May 12, 2015. Among 15 Airports Hassan Also approved for Greenfield Airport.[20]

Road

The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates buses connecting Hassan district with other parts of Karnataka as well as neighbouring states. Two divisions of KSRTC, Hassan and Chikmagalur, maintain a total of 9 bus depots (6 by Hassan division, rest 3 by Chikmagalur division) in the district, with two being in Hassan city. Major National Highways that pass through the district are NH-75 (Bangalore - Mangalore), NH-73 (Mangalore - Tumkur), (and its subsidiary NH-373 Bilikere - Belur) and NH-69 (Honnavara - Chittor).

Rail

Hassan comes under the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Hassan Junction railway station connects it to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways

Education

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Hassan Census 1981;page 11" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  2. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hassan" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 51.
  3. ^ a b Meyer, Sir William Stevenson. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-1931. v. 13, p. 64.
  4. ^ Meyer, Sir William Stevenson, et al. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-1931. v. 18, p. 228.
  5. ^ Meyer, Sir William Stevenson. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-1931. v. 13, pp 64-65.
  6. ^ Rice, B. Lewis. Mysore: A Gazetter Compiled by the Government. Revised Edition 1897; reprinted 2001 by Asian Educational Services, New Delhi. p. 327
  7. ^ 10 lesser known sites in India that you should add to your bucket list India Today
  8. ^ Sugunan, V. V. (1995). Reservoir Fisheries of India Issue 345 of FAO fisheries technical paper, Food and Agriculture Organization. ISSN 0429-9345. p. 155
  9. ^ "Annual State Report 2022" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  10. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  11. ^ "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Karnataka". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Handbook: Hassan" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Gambia, The 1,797,860 July 2011 est
  14. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Nebraska 1,826,341
  15. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Karnataka". www.censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  16. ^ "Official Website of Hassan District". Hassan District Administration.
  17. ^ "Reports of National Panchayat Directory: Block Panchayats of Hassan, Karnataka". Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. 2011. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  18. ^ "Census Data Handbook Hassan 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  19. ^ "Govt to draw Hassan airport blueprint afresh". Deccan Herald. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  20. ^ ANI (12 May 2015). "GoI grants approval for setting up of 15 Greenfield airports 'in principle'". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2 September 2018.

References