Koppal District
koppala District
From top-left: Koppal Fort, view of Hampi from Anjaneya Hill, Ashoka Rock Edict, Itagi Mahadeva Temple, Navalinga Temple, Kuknur
Koppal district
Location in Karnataka =
Coordinates: 15°34′31″N 76°0′48″E / 15.57528°N 76.01333°E / 15.57528; 76.01333Coordinates: 15°34′31″N 76°0′48″E / 15.57528°N 76.01333°E / 15.57528; 76.01333
Country India
StateKarnataka
DivisionGulbarga
Established24 August 1997
HeadquartersKoppala
TalukKoppala, Gangavathi, Yelburga, Kushtagi, Kanakagiri, Kukanur, Karatagi
Government
 • Deputy Commissionerp sunilkumar
Area
 • Total7,190 km2 (2,780 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total1,389,920
 • Density190/km2 (500/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialKannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
5832
Telephone code08539
ISO 3166 codeIN-KA
Vehicle registration
Websitekoppal.nic.in

Koppal district, officially known as Koppala district is an administrative district in the state of Karnataka in India. In the past Koppal was referred to as 'Kopana Nagara'. Hampi, a World heritage center, covers some areas of Koppal District. It is situated approximately 38 km away. Anegundi, is also a famous travel destination.

History

Koppal, now a district headquarters, is ancient Kopana, a major Jain holy site. Palkigundu is described as the famous Indrakila parvata of mythology. There is an ancient Shiva temple called the Male Malleshwara. There are two Ashoka inscriptions at Palkigundu and Gavimatha. Koppal was the capital of a branch of Shilaharas under the Chalukyas of Kalyani. In Shivaji's times it was one of the eight prants or revenue divisions of Southern Maratha Country.[2] During India's First War of Independence, Mundargi Bheema Rao and Hammige Kenchanagouda died fighting the British here in June 1858. Kinhal 13 km away from Koppal is famous for its traditional colourful lacquerware.

Towns in Koppal District

Geography

The district occupies an area of 7,190 km² and has a population of 1,196,089, of which 16.58% was urban as of 2001.[3] Koppal district was carved out of Raichur district in 1997.

Taluks

Koppal district has the following seven talukas: Koppal, Gangavathi, Yelburga, Kushtagi, Kanakagiri, Kukanur and Karatagi.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census Koppal district has a population of 1,389,920,[1] roughly equal to the nation of Eswatini[4] or the US state of Hawaii.[5] This gives it a ranking of 350th in India (out of a total of 640).[1] The district has a population density of 250 inhabitants per square kilometre (650/sq mi) .[1] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 16.32%.[1] Koppal has a sex ratio of 983 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 67.28%.[1]

Religion in Koppal district (2011)[6]
Hinduism
87.63%
Islam
11.64%
Others
0.73%

Hindus make up 87.63% of the population while Muslims are 11.64%.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901284,184—    
1911305,145+0.71%
1921290,083−0.50%
1931317,262+0.90%
1941355,851+1.15%
1951421,043+1.70%
1961465,545+1.01%
1971611,928+2.77%
1981748,222+2.03%
1991958,078+2.50%
20011,196,089+2.24%
20111,389,920+1.51%
source:[7]

The main language is Kannada, spoken by 84.09% of the population. The second most-populous language is Urdu, spoken by 7.34%, mainly in urban areas. Telugu speakers are 4.17% while Lambadi and Hindi are spoken by 1.64% and 1.44% of the population respectively.[8]

Tourist attractions

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district, 1112 CE, an example of Karnata-Dravida articulation with a nagara superstructure
Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district, 1112 CE, an example of Karnata-Dravida articulation with a nagara superstructure

Most notable of the many buildings dating from this period[9] is the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Yelabarga taluk.

The Mahadeva Temple

Open mantapa (hall) at the Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, the Koppal district, 1112 CE
Open mantapa (hall) at the Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, the Koppal district, 1112 CE
Figure sculpture at Mahadeva Temple
Figure sculpture at Mahadeva Temple
Domical ceiling in Mahadeva Temple at Itagi, the Koppal district
Domical ceiling in Mahadeva Temple at Itagi, the Koppal district

The Mahadeva temple at Itagi dedicated to Shiva is among the larger temples built by the Western Chalukyas and perhaps the most famous. Inscriptions hail it as the 'Emperor among temples'.[10] Here, the main temple, the sanctum of which has a linga, is surrounded by thirteen minor shrines, each with its own linga. The temple has two other shrines, dedicated to Murthinarayana and Chandraleshwari, parents of Mahadeva, the Chalukya commander who consecrated the temple in 1112 CE.[11] Soapstone is found in abundance in the regions of Haveri, Savanur, Byadgi, Motebennur and Hangal. The great archaic sandstone building blocks used by the Badami Chalukyas were superseded with smaller blocks of soapstone and with smaller masonry.[12] The first temple to be built from this material was the Amrtesvara Temple in Annigeri in the Dharwad district in 1050 CE. This building was to be the prototype for later, more articulated structures such as the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi.[13] The 11th-century temple-building boom continued in the 12th century with the addition of new features. The Mahadeva Temple at Itagi and the Siddhesvara Temple in Haveri are standard constructions incorporating these developments. Based on the general plan of the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri, the Mahadeva Temple was built in 1112 CE and has the same architectural components as its predecessor. There are however differences in their articulation; the sala roof (roof under the finial of the superstructure) and the miniature towers on pilasters are chiseled instead of moulded.[14]

9th century old Kannada inscription at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka
9th century old Kannada inscription at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka

The difference between the two temples, built fifty years apart, is the more rigid modelling and decoration found in many components of the Mahadeva Temple. The voluptuous carvings of the 11th century were replaced with a more severe chiselling.[15]


In Karnataka their most famous temples are the Kashivishvanatha[16] temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage sites.[17] Other well known temples are the Parameshwara temple at Konnur, Brahmadeva temple at Savadi, the Settavva, Kontigudi II, Jadaragudi and Ambigeragudi temples at Aihole, Mallikarjuna temple at Ron, Andhakeshwara temple at Huli, Someshwara temple at Sogal, Jain temples at Lokapura, Navalinga Temple at Kuknur, Kumaraswamy temple at Sandur, at Shirival in Gulbarga and the Trikunteshwara temple at Gadag which was later expanded by Kalyani Chalukyas. Archeological study of these temples show some have the stellar (multigonal) plan later to be used profusely by the Hoysalas of Belur and Halebidu.[18] One of the richest traditions in Indian architecture took shape in the Deccan during this time and one writer calls it Karnata dravida style as opposed to traditional Dravida style.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  2. ^ Chitnis, Krishnaji Nageshrao (1994). Glimpses of Maratha socio-economic history. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 155. ISBN 81-7156-347-3. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved August 27, 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Swaziland 1,370,424
  5. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Hawaii 1,360,301
  6. ^ "C-1 Population By Religious Community". Census of India. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  7. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  8. ^ 2011 Census of India, Population By Mother Tongue
  9. ^ Western Chalukya architecture
  10. ^ Kamath (2001), pp 117–118
  11. ^ Rao, Kishan (2002-06-10). "Emperor of Temples' crying for attention". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 2007-11-28. Retrieved 2007-11-09.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  12. ^ Cousens (1926), p 18
  13. ^ Foekema (2003), p 49
  14. ^ Foekema (2003), p 57
  15. ^ Foekema (2003), p 56
  16. ^ Rashtrakutas
  17. ^ Vijapur, Raju S. "Reclaiming past glory". Deccan Herald. Spectrum. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
  18. ^ Sundara and Rajashekar, Arthikaje, Mangalore. "Society, Religion and Economic condition in the period of Rashtrakutas". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on November 4, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-20.
  19. ^ Sinha, Ajay J. (1999). "Reviewed work: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation, the Karṇāṭa Drāviḍa Tradition, 7th to 13th Centuries, Adam Hardy". Artibus Asiae. 58 (3/4): 358–362. doi:10.2307/3250027. JSTOR 3250027.