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Tamerlane The Conqueror, the founder of the Timurid Empire.

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from 1 January 1301 (MCCCI), to 31 December 1400 (MCD). It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives from political and natural disasters in both Europe and the Mongol Empire.[citation needed] West Africa experienced economic growth and prosperity.

In Europe, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives – wiping out one third of the European population[1] – while the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France as well as the foundation of the Italian Renaissance and Ottoman Empire.

In Asia, Tamerlane (Timur), established the Timurid Empire, history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror.[citation needed] Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time. Synchronously, the Timurid Renaissance emerged. In the Arab world, historian and political scientist Ibn Khaldun and explorer Ibn Battuta made significant contributions. In India, the Bengal Sultanate got divided from the Delhi Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world. The sultanate was described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with.[2] The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

In Africa, the wealthy Mali Empire, a huge producer of gold, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of medieval times, and perhaps the wealthiest ever.[3][4]

Events

1301–1309

Mansa Musa I of Mali, described as the wealthiest individual in history [3][4]
Mansa Musa I of Mali, described as the wealthiest individual in history [3][4]

1310s

1320s

Europe in 1328
Europe in 1328

1330s

The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate.

1340s

Burying coffins of Black Death victims in Tournai.
Burying coffins of Black Death victims in Tournai.

1350s

1360s

This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

1370s

1380s

The Portuguese interregnum, Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese and Castilians in 1385.
The Portuguese interregnum, Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese and Castilians in 1385.

1390–1400

Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.

Undated

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

See also: Timeline of historic inventions § 14th century

References

  1. ^ Black Death, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  3. ^ a b Thad Morgan, "This 14th-Century African Emperor Remains the Richest Person in History" Archived 2019-05-01 at the Wayback Machine, History.com, March 19, 2018
  4. ^ a b Davidson, Jacob (July 30, 2015). "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Money.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  6. ^ "Asian maritime & trade chronology to 1700 CE". Maritime Asia.
  7. ^ Howard, Jenny (2020-07-06). "Plague was one of history's deadliest diseases—then we found a cure". National Geographic. Retrieved 2022-08-27.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  9. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
  10. ^ Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  11. ^ Chirikure, S.; et al. (2017). "What was the population of Great Zimbabwe (CE1000 – 1800)". PLOS ONE. 12 (6): e0178335. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1278335C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178335. PMC 5470674. PMID 28614397.
  12. ^ Kuklick, Henrika (1991). "Contested monuments: the politics of archaeology in southern Africa". In George W. Stocking (ed.). Colonial situations: essays on the contextualization of ethnographic knowledge. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 135–170. ISBN 978-0-299-13124-1.
  13. ^ Pound lock