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Rakshasa
Demon Yakshagana.jpg
Rakshasa as depicted in Yakshagana, an art form of Uttara Kannada. Artist: Krishna Hasyagar, Karki
GroupingDemigod
Other name(s)
  • Nri-chakshas
  • Nishacharas
  • Kravyads
  • Rakshasi
  • Manushya-rakshasi
  • Asura
CountryIndia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia

Rakshasas (Sanskrit: राक्षस, IAST: rākṣasa: Pali: rakkhaso) lit. 'preservers'[1] are a race of usually malevolent demigods prominently featured in Hindu Religion. According to the Brahmanda Purana, the rakshasas were created by Brahma when he assumed a body of tamas (darkness), the beings springing forth and promising to protect the waters of creation.[2] They are often depicted to be man-eaters (nri-chakshas, kravyads), acting as embodiments of the powers of evil in the Vedic scriptures.[3] They are offered a distinction from yakshas, their cousins who are depicted to be forces of destruction. The term is also used to describe asuras, a class of power-seeking beings that oppose the benevolent devas. They are often depicted as antagonists in Hindu scriptures, as well as in Buddhism and Jainism. The female form of rakshasa is rakshasi.[4]

Hinduism

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In Vedas

The Hymn 87 of the tenth mandala of the Rigveda mentions about Rakshasas. They are classified amongst the Yatudhanas, mythological beings that consume raw flesh.[5]

In Puranas

Brahmā, in a form composed of the quality of foulness, was produced hunger, of whom anger was born: and the god put forth in darkness beings emaciate with hunger, of hideous aspects, and with long beards. Those beings hastened to the deity. Such of them as exclaimed, Oh preserve us! were thence called Rākṣasas.[6]Those created beings, overwhelmed by hunger, attempted to seize the waters. Those among them who said—“we shall protect these waters”, are remembered as Rākṣasas.[7]

Description

Rakshasas were most often depicted as shape-shifting, fierce-looking, enormous monstrous-looking creatures, with two fangs protruding from the top of the mouth and having sharp, claw-like fingernails. They were shown as being mean, growling beasts, and as insatiable man-eaters that could smell the scent of human flesh. Some of the more ferocious ones were shown with flaming red eyes and hair, drinking blood with their cupped hands or from human skulls (similar to representations of vampires in later Western mythology). Generally they could fly, vanish, and had maya (magical powers of illusion), which enabled them to change size at will and assume the form of any creature. The female equivalent of rakshasa is rakshasi.[8]

In Hindu epics

In the world of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, Rakshasas were a populous race. There were both good and evil rakshasas, and as warriors they fought alongside the armies of both good and evil. They were powerful warriors, expert magicians and illusionists. As shape-changers, they could assume different physical forms. As illusionists, they were capable of creating appearances which were real to those who believed in them or who failed to dispel them. Some of the rakshasas were said to be man-eaters, and made their gleeful appearance when the slaughter on a battlefield was at its worst. Occasionally they served as rank-and-file soldiers in the service of one or another warlord.

Aside from their treatment of unnamed rank-and-file Rakshasas, the epics tell the stories of certain of these beings who rose to prominence, sometimes as heroes but more often as villains.

Thapar suggests that the Rakshasas could represent exaggerated, supernatural depictions of demonized forest-dwellers who were outside the caste society.[9]

In the Ramayana

The Battle of Lanka pitted an army of Rakshasas under Ravana against an army of Vanaras, under Rama and Sugriva.

Ravana the king of Lanka with ten heads, was the commander of Rakshasas.
Ravana the king of Lanka with ten heads, was the commander of Rakshasas.
Kumbhakarna
Kumbhakarna

Other Rakshasas that are featured in the Ramayana include Indrajit, Shurpanakha, Kaikashi, Sumali, Kabandha, Tataka (sometimes called Taraka/Tadaka), Maricha, Subahu, Khara, Akshayakumara, Atikaya, Prahasta, Jambumali etc.

In the Mahabharata

Bhima (right) with Rakshasi wife Hidimbi and their son Ghatotkacha.
Bhima (right) with Rakshasi wife Hidimbi and their son Ghatotkacha.

The Pandava hero Bhima was the nemesis of forest-dwelling Rakshasas who dined on human travellers and terrorized human settlements.

In the Mahabharata, Ghatotkacha was summoned by Bhima to fight on the Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War. Invoking his magical powers, he wrought great havoc in the Kaurava army. In particular, after the death of Jayadratha, when the battle continued on past sunset, his powers were at their most effective (at night). After performing many heroic deeds on the battlefield and fighting numerous duels with other great warriors (including the Rakshasa Alamvusha, the elephant-riding King Bhagadatta, and Aswatthaman, the son of Drona), Ghatotkacha encountered the human hero Karna. At this point in the battle, the Kaurava leader Duryodhana had appealed to his best fighter, Karna, to kill Ghatotkacha, as the entire Kaurava army was near annihilation due to his ceaseless strikes from the air. Karna possessed a divine weapon, Shakti, granted by the god Indra. It could be used only once and Karna had been saving it to use on his arch-enemy Arjuna, the best Pandava fighter. Unable to refuse Duryodhana, Karna used the Shakti against Ghatotkacha, killing him. This is considered to be the turning point of the war. After his death, the Pandava counselor Krishna smiled, as he considered the Pandava prince Arjuna to be saved from certain death, as Karna had used the Shakta divine weapon. A temple in Manali, Himachal Pradesh, honors Ghatotkacha; it is located near the Hidimba Devi Temple.

Rakshasa heroes fought on both sides in the Kurukshetra war.

Buddhism

Many Rakshasas appear in various Buddhist Scriptures. In Chinese tradition rakshasa are known as luocha (羅刹/罗刹).[10] In Japan, they are known as rasetsu (羅刹).

Chapter 26 of the Lotus Sutra includes a dialogue between the Buddha and a group of rakshasa daughters, who swear to uphold and protect the Lotus Sutra. They also teach magical dhāraṇīs to protect followers who also uphold the sutra.[11]

Five rakshasha are part of Mahakala's retinue. They are Kala and Kali, husband and wife, and their offspring Putra, Bhatri and Bharya.[12]

The Lankavatara Sutra mentions the island of Sri Lanka as land of Rakshasas. Their king is the Rakshasa called Ravana, who invites Buddha to Sri Lanka for delivering the sermon in the land. There are other Rakhasas from the land, such as Wibisana, who is believed to be the brother of Ravana in Sri Lankan Buddhist mythology.[13]

In The Lotus-Born: The Life Story of Padmasambhava, recorded by Yeshe Tsogyal, Padmasambhava receives the nickname of "Rakshasa" during one of his wrathful conquests to subdue Buddhist heretics.

Jainism

Main article: Rama in Jainism

Jain accounts vary from the Hindu accounts of Rakshasa. According to Jain literature, Rakshasa was a kingdom of civilized and vegetarian people belonging to the race of Vidyadhara, who were devotees of Tirthankara.[14]

Artistic and folkloric depictions

A bas-relief at Preah Khan in Cambodia depicts the Battle of Lanka between Rakshasas and monkeys.
A bas-relief at Preah Khan in Cambodia depicts the Battle of Lanka between Rakshasas and monkeys.

The artists of Angkor in Cambodia frequently depicted Ravana in stone sculpture and bas-relief. The "Nāga bridge" at the entrance to the 12th-century city of Angkor Thom is lined with large stone statues of Devas and Asuras engaged in churning the Ocean of Milk. The ten-headed Ravana is shown anchoring the line of Asuras.[15]

A bas-relief at the 12th-century temple of Angkor Wat depicts the figures churning the ocean. It includes Ravana anchoring the line of Asuras that are pulling on the serpent's head. Scholars have speculated that one of the figures in the line of Devas is Ravana's brother Vibhishana. They pull on a serpent's tail to churn the Ocean of Milk.[16] Another bas-relief at Angkor Wat shows a 20-armed Ravana shaking Mount Kailasa.[17]

The artists of Angkor also depicted the Battle of Lanka between the Rakshasas under the command of Ravana and the Vanaras or monkeys under the command of Rama and Sugriva. The 12th-century Angkor Wat contains a dramatic bas-relief of the Battle of Lanka between Ravana's Rakshasas and Rama's monkeys. Ravana is depicted with ten heads and twenty arms, mounted on a chariot drawn by creatures that appear to be a mixture of horse, lion, and bird. Vibhishana is shown standing behind and aligned with Rama and his brother Lakshmana. Kumbhakarna, mounted on a similar chariot, is shown fighting Sugriva.[18]

This battle is also depicted in a less refined bas-relief at the 12th-century temple of Preah Khan.

In fiction

Rakshasa have long been a race of villains in the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. They appear as animal-headed humanoids (generally with tiger or monkey heads) with their hands inverted (palms of its hands are where the backs of the hands would be on a human). They are masters of necromancy, enchantment and illusion (which they mostly use to disguise themselves) and are very hard to kill. They ravenously prey upon humans as food and dress themselves in fine clothing.[19] This version of the rakshasa was heavily inspired by an episode of Kolchak: The Night Stalker. [20]

In languages

In Indonesian and Malaysian variants of Malay which has significant Sanskrit influence, raksasa now means "giant", "gigantic", "huge and strong";[21] the Malaysian variant recognises the word as an outright official equivalent to "monster"[22] whereas the Indonesian variant uses it more in colloquial usage.[21]

In Bengali, rakh-khosh (রাক্ষস) is used as term for a person who eats incessantly and without need to stop. This derivation also occurs in Malaysian and Indonesian Malay as rakus, and in Khasi as rakot, which means "greedy".[citation needed]

See also

Citations

  1. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (18 April 2019). "God Brahmā's mental creation [Chapter 8]". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  2. ^ Shastri, J. L.; Tagare, Dr G. V. (1 January 2000). The Brahmanda Purana Part 1: Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Volume 22. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-3889-5.
  3. ^ Skyes, Edgerton; Kendall, Alan; Sykes, Egerton (4 February 2014). Who's Who in Non-Classical Mythology. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-136-41437-4.
  4. ^ Knappert, Jan (1991). Indian Mythology: An Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend. Aquarian Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-85538-040-0.
  5. ^ Wikisource:The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 87
  6. ^ "The Vishnu Purana, Book 1:Chapter 8". Wisdom Library. 30 August 2014.
  7. ^ "The Brahmanda Purana, Section 2: Chapter 8". Wisdom Library. 18 April 2019.
  8. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the Ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 72.
  9. ^ Thapar, Romila (2002). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 0-520-23899-0.
  10. ^ The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary. 2002. ISBN 7-5600-3195-1.
  11. ^ Lotus Sutra, chapter 26, Burton Watson translation Archived 25 March 2003 at archive.today
  12. ^ John C. Huntington, Dina Bangdel (2003). The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art. Serindia Publications. p. 335. ISBN 9781932476019.
  13. ^ "The Lankavatara Sutra. A Mahayana Text". lirs.ru. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  14. ^ "Jainism Resource Center - Articles". sites.fas.harvard.edu. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  15. ^ Rovedo, p.108.
  16. ^ Rovedo, pp.108-110; Freeman and Jacques, p.62.
  17. ^ Freeman and Jacques, p.57.
  18. ^ Rovedo, pp.116-117.
  19. ^ Monster Manuel Core Rulebook III V3.5 Cook, Tweet, Williams
  20. ^ "TSR - Q&A with Gary Gygax".
  21. ^ a b Atmosumarto, Sutanto (2004). A learner's comprehensive dictionary of Indonesian. Atma Stanton. p. 445. ISBN 9780954682804.
  22. ^ "'monster' - Kamus Bahasa Inggeris [English Dictionary]". Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu. Retrieved 20 June 2020.

General references

Further reading