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Top to Bottom; Left to Right: Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Orchha Fort complex, Jhansi Fort, Neelkanth Temple at Kalinjar, Varaha statue at Eran and Raneh Falls
Location of Bundelkhand in India
Location of Bundelkhand in India
Coordinates: 25°26′N 78°34′E / 25.44°N 78.57°E / 25.44; 78.57
Country India
 • Total70,747 km2 (27,316 sq mi)
250−300 m (−730 ft)
 • Total18,335,044
 • Density260/km2 (670/sq mi)
 • Major languagesBundeli,
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
 • Summer (DST)+05:30
Historical capitalsBanda,
Orchha (1501),
Panna (1732),
Bijawar (1765),
Ajaigarh (1765),
Separated statesBanda,
Barua sagar,

Bundelkhand (/ˈbʌndɪlˌkhʌnd/, Hindi: [bʊn.d̪eːl.kʰəɳɖ]) is a geographical and cultural region and a proposed state and also a mountain range in central & North India. The hilly region is now divided between the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, with the larger portion lying in the latter state.

Jhansi is the largest city in Bundelkhand. Another major city of Bundelkhand is Sagar being second largest city of Bundelkhand and headquarter of Sagar Division.


Bundelkhand means "Bundela domain".[1] The region was earlier known as Jejabhukti or Jejakabhukti ("Jeja's province"). According to the inscriptions of the Chandela dynasty, this name derived from Jeja, the nickname of their ruler Jayashakti. However, it is possible that the name derives from an even earlier name of the region: "Jajhauti" or "Jijhoti". After the Bundelas replaced the Chandelas around 14th century, the region came to be known as Bundelkhand after them.[2]


The Chandelas were a powerful dynasty in Central India, ruling from the 9th to the 12th century. They are best known for constructing the temples of Khajuraho, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[3] The Chandelas ruled over a vast territory, and their influence gradually diminished until their eventual fall in 1182 CE.

After the decline of the Chandelas, the Khangar community, an ancient Kshatriya clan, established their rule over parts of present-day Bundelkhand from the late 12th century until the mid-14th century.[4] The Khangar dynasty had its seat of power at Garh Kundar, a fort built by Khet Singh Khangar.[4] Their rule over Jujhauti, a region in Bundelkhand, began after the fall of the Chandels in 1182 CE.[4]

By the 14th century, the Bundela dynasty emerged and supplanted the Khangar rulers. Before the advent of British colonial rule in India, the region of Bundelkhand also included several princely states, such as Orchha, Datia, and Samthar.[5] Also, kingdoms such as Damoh, Ramgarh were ruled by Lodhi Rajputs.[6][7]

Proposed Bundelkhand state

Bundelkhand comprises parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. While Bahujan Samaj Party government under Mayawati had proposed in 2011 creation of Bundelkhand from seven districts of Uttar Pradesh, organizations such as Bundelkhand Akikrit Party and Bundelkhand Mukti Morcha (BMM) want it to include six districts from Madhya Pradesh as well.[8][9] Uma Bharati of Bharatiya Janata Party has promised separate state of Bundelkhand within three years if her party voted to power, during campaign for Loksabha Election, 2014 at Jhansi.[10] Similar promise was made by Congress leader Pradeep Jain Aditya during Loksabha Election, 2014.[11]

Since the early 1960s there has been a movement for establishing a Bundelkhand state or promoting development of the region. Bundelkhand is geographically the central part of India covering some part of Madhya Pradesh and some part of Uttar Pradesh. (At Sagar is the exact centre of the original undivided India: the granite bench mark by British surveyors indicating this is placed in the compound of a church in Sagar Cantonment.) In spite of being rich in minerals, the people of Bundelkhand are very poor and the region is underdeveloped and underrepresented in state and central politics. There are several local parties and organisations, some promoting further development of the region and some seeking statehood.[12][13] The agrarian crisis and farmers' suicides are also cited as reasons for separate statehood.[14]

In November 2011 Uttar Pradesh Council of Ministers proposed to split the state into four parts, with one part being Bundelkhand.[15]


Religion in Bundelkhand (2011)[16]

  Hindu (93.17%)
  Muslim (5.58%)
  Others (1.25%)

Notable people

In art and literature

An engraving of a picture by Henry Melville entitled Scene near Chillah Tarah Ghaut, Bundelkhund was published in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835 alongside a poetical illustration by Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Scene in Bundelkhund, which alludes to the desperate conditions in the district due to the famine then prevailing.[20]

The "nearly independent territory of Bundelcund" is featured in Jules Verne's 1872 novel Around the World in Eighty Days, as the scene where Phileas Fogg and Jean Passepartout rescue the Princess Aouda.


See also


  1. ^ Jain, Ravindra K. (2002). Between History and Legend: Status and Power in Bundelkhand. Orient Blackswan. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-250-2194-0.
  2. ^ Mitra, Sisirkumar (1977). The Early Rulers of Khajurāho. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–4. ISBN 9788120819979.
  3. ^ Michell, George (1990). The Penguin Guide to the Monuments of India, Volume 1: Buddhist, Jain, Hindu. Penguin Books. p. 327. ISBN 978-0-14-008144-2.
  4. ^ a b c Mittal, J. P. (2003). History of Ancient India: A New Version. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 272. ISBN 978-8126906154.
  5. ^ Hunter, William Wilson (1885). "Bundelkhand". The Imperial Gazeteer of India. Vol. III (2nd ed.). London: Trübner & Co. p. 150.
  6. ^ "Bundela Uprising of 1842".
  7. ^ "Rani Avantibai of Ramgarh".
  8. ^ "Mayawati's proposal to divide Uttar Pradesh into four States goes far beyond disturbing the State's politics ahead of the elections". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Mayawati-kind-of-Bundelkhand not acceptable: Bundela". Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  10. ^ "Uma Bharti promises separate Bundelkhand to voters in Jhansi". The Indian Express. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  11. ^ "LS polls: Pradeep Jain Aditya, Uma Bharti promise separate Bundelkhand state". Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Demand for separate Bundelkhand reignited ahead of assembly polls separate". 5 April 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  13. ^ Atiq Khan (10 December 2009). "Nod for Telangana fuels the demand for Bundelkhand". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Farmers' Suicides and Statehood Demand in Bundelkhand | Economic and Political Weekly". 9 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Mayawati wants to divide UP into 4 states, other parties cornered; NDTV". 16 November 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  16. ^ "Census of India". Archived from the original on 10 May 2006.
  17. ^ "University of Saugar alumniin celebration mode". The Hindu. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  18. ^ Narayan, Badri (7 November 2006). Women Heroes and Dalit Assertion in North India: Culture, Identity and Politics. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9788132102809.
  19. ^ "Bajirao Mastani and the history of Bundelkhand". The Times of India Blog. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  20. ^ Landon, Letitia Elizabeth (1834). "picture and poetical illustration". Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835. Fisher, Son & Co.