Clockwise from top: View of Panchachuli peaks from Munsiyari, Jim Corbett National Park, Ranikhet, Kali river at Jauljibi, View of Purnagiri hills from Tanakpur, Johar Valley, Naini Lake, Jageshwar
The Home of Gods[1]
Location in India
Location in India
Country India
Largest cityHaldwani
 • TypeDivision
 • CommissionerDeepak Rawat IAS[3]
 • Legislature
 • Total21,035 km2 (8,122 sq mi)
 • Total4,228,998[4]
 • Density201.04/km2 (520.7/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Kumaonis, Kumaiye
Ethnicity and Language
 • LanguagesNative: Kumaoni, Tharu(Buksari), RungLo
Official: Hindi
 • Ethnic groupsKumaonis, Shaukas, Rungs, Bhotiyas, Tharus(Bhoksa)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationUK
Highest peak of Kumaon DivisionHardeol 7,151 m (23,461 ft)
Lowest elevation of Kumaon DivisionSharda Sagar Reservoir (190 m)[5]
Largest lakeBhimtal

Kumaon (/ˈkɛmɔːʊ/; Kumaoni: Kumāū; pronounced [kuːmɔːʊ]; historically romanised as Kemāon[6][7]) is a revenue and administrative division in the Indian State of Uttarakhand. It spans over the eastern half of the state and is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and on the west by Garhwal. Kumaon comprises six districts of the state: Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh and Udham Singh Nagar.

Historically known as Manaskhand and then Kurmanchal, the Kumaon region has been ruled by several Hindu dynasties over the course of history; most notably the Katyuris and the Chands. The Kumaon division was established in 1816, when the British reclaimed this region from the Gorkhas, who had annexed the erstwhile Kingdom of Kumaon in 1790. It was formed into a division of what was then called Ceded and Conquered Provinces, later known as United Provinces. In independent India the state was called Uttar Pradesh. In 2000, the new state of Uttarakhand was carved out of Uttar Pradesh, including Kumaon.

The people of Kumaon are known as Kumaonis and speak the Kumaoni language. Kumaon is home to a famous Indian Army regiment, the Kumaon Regiment. The hill town Nainital is its administrative centre and this is where the Uttarakhand high court is located.[8] Other notable hill towns of Kumaon are Almora, Ranikhet, Pithoragarh, Champawat and Bageshwar. However, all the major cities of the region like Haldwani, Rudrapur, Kashipur,Ramnagar and Tanakpur are concentrated in the southern plain areas of Bhabar and Terai.


Kumaon is believed to have been derived from Kurmanchal, meaning the land of Kurma (the tortoise avatar of Vishnu, the preserver deity in Hinduism).[9][10]

According to another theory, the word Kumaon can be traced back to the 5th century BC. The Kassite Assyrians left their homeland Kummah, on the banks of river Euphrates, and settled in the northern part of India.

During this time of the British control of the region, between 1815 and 1857, it was also known as Kemaon.[6][7][11]


Kosi River valley near Almora

The Kumaon[12] region consists of a large Himalayan tract, together with two submontane strips called the Terai and the Bhabar. The submontane strips were up to 1850 an almost impenetrable forest, given up to wild animals; but after 1850 the numerous clearings attracted a large population from the hills, who cultivated the rich soil during the hot and cold seasons, returning to the hills in the rains. The rest of Kumaon is a maze of mountains, part of the Himalaya range, some of which are among the loftiest known. In a tract not more than 225 km in length and 65 km in breadth there are over thirty peaks rising to elevations exceeding 5500 m.[13]

The Pindari glacier, located in the Bageshwar district, is the source of the Pindar river - one of the six major headstreams of the Ganges

Rivers such as Gori, Dhauli, and Kali rise chiefly in the southern slope of the Tibetan watershed north of the loftiest peaks, amongst which they make their way down valleys of rapid declivity and extraordinary depth. The principal is the Sharda (Kali Ganga), the Pindari and Kailganga, whose waters join the Alaknanda.[13] The river Sharda (Kali Ganga) forms the international boundary between India and Nepal. The pilgrim route currently used to visit Kailash-Mansarovar goes along this river and crosses into Tibet at Lipu Lekh pass.

The chief trees are the chir pine, Himalayan cypress, pindrow fir, alder, sal and saindan. Limestone, sandstone, slate, gneiss and granite constitute the principal geological formations. Mines of iron, copper, gypsum, lead and asbestos exist, but they are not thoroughly worked. Except in the submontane strips and deep valleys, the climate is mild. The rainfall of the outer Himalayan range, which is first struck by the monsoon, is double that of the central hills, in the average proportion of 2000 mm to 1000 mm. No winter passes without snow on the higher ridges, and in some years, it is universal throughout the mountain tract. Frosts, especially in the valleys, are often severe.[13]


Prehistoric dwellings and Stone Age implements have been discovered in Almora and Nainital districts. Initially settled by Kol tribals, the region witnessed successive waves of Kiratas, Khasas and Indo-Scythians. Kunindas were the first rulers of the region. They were followed by the Katyuri kings of Khasha origin[14] who controlled the region from 700 to 1200 AD.[9]

Around 1100–1200 AD, after Katyuri kingdom disintegration, Kurmanchal was divided into eight different principalities: Baijnath-Katyur, Dwarhat, Doti, Baramandal, Askot, Sira, Sora, Sui. Around 1581 AD, under Rudra Chand, the whole region was brought together again as Kumaon.

Kumaon Kingdom

Main article: Kumaon Kingdom

Katyuri Raj

Temples at Kartikeyapura (now Baijnath), the capital of the Katyuri kings

Main article: Katyuri kings

The Katyuri dynasty was a ruling Hindu dynasty of Khasha origin[14] and was founded by Vashudev Katyuri. they established their kingdom and called it Kurmanchal kingdom, they dominated lands of varying extent from the 'Katyur' (modern day Baijnath) valley in Kumaon, between 7th and 11th centuries AD, and established their capital at Baijnath in Bageshwar district, which was then known as Kartikeyapura and lies in the centre of 'Katyur' valley. Brahmadev mandi in Kanchanpur District of far western Nepal was established by Katyuri king Brahma Deo, At their peak, the kurmanchal kingdom of Katyuri kings was extended from Sikkim in the east to Kabul, Afghanistan in the west, before fragmenting into numerous principalities by the 12th century.

It is believed that from king Dham Deo and Bir Deo the downfall of this powerful dynasty began. Birdeo used to collect heavy taxes and forced his people to work as his slaves, King Birdeo teased his subjects by his tyranny to the extent that he forcibly married his own maternal aunt Tila. It is said that the Kumaoni folk song Mami tile dharo bola became popular from that very day. after death of Birdeo the kingdom was divided between his eight sons and they were able to form their different small kingdoms in the region for a short period of time until Chands emerged in the region defeating most of katyuri principalities and united Kurmanchal again as Kumaon.[15][full citation needed]

The Rajwar dynasty of Askot in Pithoragarh, was set up in 1279 AD, by a branch of the Katyuri kings, headed by Abhay Pal Deo, who was the grandson of Katyuri king Brahma Deo. The dynasty ruled the region until it became part of the British Raj through the treaty of Sighauli in 1816.

Chand Raj

Fort in Champawat, the first capital of Chand Kings, 1815

Main article: Chand kings

The Chand dynasty was established by Som Chand in the 10th century,[16] by displacing the Katyuri Kings, who had been ruling the area from the 7th century AD. He continued to call his state Kurmanchal and established its capital in Champawat in Kali Kumaon called so, due to its vicinity to river Kali. Many temples built in this former capital city, during the 11th and 12th century exist today, this includes the Baleshwar and Nagnath temples.

Baj Bahadur of Kumaon ca. 1750.

One of the most powerful rulers of Chand dynasty was Baz Bahadur (1638–78) AD, who met Shahjahan in Delhi, and in 1655 joined forces with him to attack Garhwal, which was then under the King Pirthi Sah. Baz Bahadur subsequently captured the Terai region including Dehradun, which was thus separated from the Garhwal kingdom. Baz Bahadur extended his territory east to Karnali river, later Baz Bahadur invaded Tibet and captured several forts including a Hindu pilgrim Kailash Manasarovar.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] he also built the Golu Devata Temple, at Ghorakhal, near Bhimtal,[16] after Lord Golu, a general in his army, who died valiantly in battle.[24] He also built the famous Bhimeshwara Mahadev Temple at Bhimtal.[25]

Towards the end of the 17th century, Chand kings again attacked the Garhwal kingdom, and in 1688, Udyot Chand erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwar, and Parbateshwar. To mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti, the Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice, to become the present Nanda Devi temple.[26] Later, Jagat Chand (1708–20), defeated the Raja of Garhwal and pushed him away from Srinagar (in Uttarakhand, not to be confused with the capital of present-day Indian Kashmir), and his kingdom was given to a Brahmin.[27]

Nepalese invasion and its defeat

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Soldiers of 3rd Gurkha Rifles in Almora, 1895

In the latter half of the 18th century, the power of Kumaon was on decline, as the king Mahendra Chand was unable to properly administer the country. After the fall of Doti, the Gorkhas decided to invade over Kumaon. The Gorkha forces, under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa crossed the kali river, and reached Almora via Sor and Gangoli. Mahendra Chand fled to the plains, and Kumaon was easily annexed to the Gorkha Kingdom.

The Gorkha rule over Kumaon lasted for 24 years. The architectural advancements during the period was a road connecting kali river to Srinagar via Almora. Almora was the largest town of Kumaon during the gorkha period, and is estimated to have about 1000 houses.

After the Gorkhas started meddling in the territories of Oudh, the Nawab of Oudh, who was then a suzerain of the British Empire, asked for their help, thus paving way for the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814. The British forces under Colonel Nicholas, consisting of about forty five hundred men and six pounder guns, entered Kumaon through Kashipur and conquered Almora on 26 April 1815. On the same day, Chandra Bahadur Shah, one of the principle Gurkha chiefs, sent a flag of truce, requesting to end hostilities in the region. A negotiation was brought up the following day, under which the Gurkhas agreed to leave the Country, and all its fortified places. The war ended with Nepal signing the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816, under which, Kumaon officially became a British territory.

British Raj

Old Govt House at Nainital, the summer capital of United Provinces during British Raj

Later, the region was annexed by the British. In 1815 the Kumaon region was joined with the eastern half of the Garhwal region as a chief-commissionership on the non-regulation system, also known as the Kumaon Province.[2] It was governed for seventy years by three administrators, Mr. Traill, Mr. J. H. Batten and Sir Henry Ramsay.

There was widespread opposition against British rule in various parts of Kumaon. The Kumaoni people especially Champawat District rose in rebellion against the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 under the leadership of the members like Kalu Singh Mahara.[28] In 1891 the division was composed of the three districts of Kumaon, Garhwal and the Tarai; but the two districts of Kumaon and the Tarai were subsequently redistributed and renamed after their headquarters, Nainital and Almora.

The area received international attention after the publication of Man-Eaters of Kumaon, by Jim Corbett, the noted hunter and conservationist, describing the author's trials seeking out and killing man-eating tigers. Animals like the Champawat Tiger and the Chowgarh Tigers plagued the area for many years, with the former estimated to have killed over four hundred humans by herself, in Nepal and then Kumaon, in the years 1920–28.

Mahatma Gandhi's advent sounded a death knell for the British in Kumaon. People now aware of the excesses of British Raj became defiant of it and played an active part in the Indian Struggle for Independence. While staying in Kumaon for 12 days, recovering from the rigors of imprisonment, Gandhi wrote Anashakti Yoga, his commentary on the Gita.[29]

In these hills, nature's hospitality eclipses all men can do. The enchanting beauty of Himalayas, their bracing climate and the soothing green that envelopes you leaves nothing more to be desired. I wonder whether the scenery of these hills and the climate are surpassed, if equalled, by any of the beauty spots anywhere of the world. After having been nearly three weeks in Almora hills, I am more than ever amazed why our people need go to Europe in search of health.

— Mahatma Gandhi, Almora Impressions, Young India (11 July 1929)[30]

Gandhi was revered in these parts and on his call the struggle of Salam Saliya Satyagraha led by Ram Singh Dhoni was started which shook the very roots of British rule in Kumaon.[31] Many people died in the Saalam Satyagraha due to police brutality. Gandhi named it the Bardoli of Kumaon an allusion to the Bardoli Satyagrah. Many Kumaonis also joined the Indian National Army led by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

Independent India

After India became independent in 1947, United Provinces were converted into the newly formed Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The princely state of Tehri Garhwal joined the Indian Union in 1949, and became a district under the Kumaon division. Three new districts viz. Pithoragarh from Almora, Chamoli from Garhwal and Uttarkashi from Tehri Garhwal were created in 1960. A new revenue division, named Uttarakhand division was carved out from these 3 districts of Kumaon division.

The year 1969 saw major administrative reforms in these hilly regions of Uttar Pradesh, and a new Garhwal division, with its headquarter in Pauri, was formed with the districts of Tehri Garhwal and Garhwal from Kumaon division, and Uttarkashi and Chamoli from Uttarakhand division. The Uttarakhand division too was disestablished the same year, and the remaining district of Pithoragarh was brought back to Kumaon division, hence giving it its present size.

Three new districts were created in the 90's, taking the total number of districts in the division to 6. Udham singh nagar from Nainital in 1995, and Bageshwar from Almora and Champawat from Pithoragarh in 1997. Two new districts, Ranikhet from Almora and Didihat from Pithoragarh were announced in 2011 by the then Chief minister of Uttarakhand, Ramesh Pokhriyal, but the districts never came into existence because no official notification was ever released.


Traditional attire

A boatman on Naini Lake wearing traditional Kumaoni cap

Pichaura (पिछोङा) is a traditional attire worn by married Kumaoni women generally for religious occasions, marriage, and other rituals. Traditionally handmade using vegetable dyes, Pichhauras are available in red and saffron. Local designs made in Almora, Haldwani and other parts of Kumaon use silk fabric and accessories made of pearl. It is also contemporarily made using machines. In recent years its popularity has seen a rise, especially in Kumaoni diaspora in other states and countries.[32]

Kumaoni men do wear a Kumaoni cap, which is of black colour. However, during festivals, especially during Kumauni Holi the cap becomes white in colour.[citation needed]

Folk Art

Aipan is the most famous folk art of Kumaon. In recent times its popularity has grown. Aipan is not only an important folk art of Kumaoni community but other ethnic groups of Kumaon, like Shaukas and Rungs, as well. Hence it also acts as a cultural link between different ethnic communities of Kumaon, therefore has significant importance.

Folk dances

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the Kumaon. Some well-known dances include Hurkiya Baul,[33] Jhora-Chanchri and Chholiya.[34] Music is an integral part of the Kumaoni culture. Popular types of folk songs include Mangal and Nyoli.[35] These folk songs are played on instruments including dhol, damau, turri, ransingha, dholki, daur, thali, bhankora, mandan and mashakbaja. A famous Kumaoni folk is Bedu Pako. Music is also used as a medium through which the gods are invoked. Jagar is a form of spirit worship in which the singer, or Jagariya, sings a ballad of the gods, with allusions to great epics, like Mahabharat and Ramayana, that describe the adventures and exploits of the god being invoked.

Chanchari of Danpur (Bageshwar)
Hiljatra in Pithoragarh
Chholiyar performing Choliya dance

Kumaoni Ram Leela is the oldest in the world. It is 150-year-old, due to which UNESCO has declared it world's longest-running opera. In addition, the Kumaoni Ram Leela is now a part of the World Cultural Heritage List. With the passage of time, people have experimented with the show, yet the oral traditional has stayed as it always was. This is to say that the Ram Leela in Kumaon is not a staged performance; rather, it is a musical fest, which is made special by the beats of instruments like harmonium, dholak and table. In Kumaon's Ram Leela, the focus is more on singing than acting.[36]

Kumaoni holi is the historical and cultural celebration of the Hindu festival of Holi. It is one of the most important festivals for the Kumauni people as it signifies not only the victory of good over evil but also end of the winter season and the start of the new sowing season which holds great importance for this agricultural community of the North Indian Himalayas. It is an amalgamation of the cultural traditions of North India and the local traditions of Kumaon. The uniqueness of the Kumaoni Holi lies in its being a musical affair, whatever its form, be it the Baithki Holi, the Khari Holi and the Mahila Holi all of which start from Basant Panchmi. This results in the festivities of Holi lasting for almost two months in Kumaon.[37] The Baithki Holi and Khari Holi are unique in that the songs on which they are based have a combination of melody, fun, and spiritualism. These songs are essentially based on classical ragas. Baithki Holi is also known as Nirvan Ki Holi or Holi of Salvation.

Cultural Hubs

Bal Mithai, originated in Almora, and now has become a symbol of Kumaoni cuisine
Naini dwellers in the morning

GI Tag

Kumaon's culture has also got recognition. Many of its cultural heritage like Aipan Art, has got GI Tag.[45]

Religious significance

In Kumaon, every peak, lake or mountain range is somehow or the other connected with some myth or the name of a God or Goddess, ranging from those associated with the Shaiva, Shakta and Vaishnava traditions, to local Gods like Bambai Nath Swami, Haim, Saim, Golu, Nanda, Sunanda, Chhurmal, Kail Bisht, Bholanath, Gangnath, Airi and Chaumu. Referring to the rich religious myths and lores associated with Kumaon, E. T. Atkinson has said, "To the beliefs of the great majority of Hindus, the Kumaon is what Palestine is to the Christians".[46]


Paddy cultivation in Pithoragarh district

Kumaon is home to the financial capital of the state, I.e., Haldwani. Kumaon has the state's most commercial, economic and industrial activities specially in Bhabar and Terai regions. Along with Industries there is a huge tourism sector. Agriculture also plays a huge role in Kumaoni economy. It employs a large percentage of Kumaoni population.

Economic Hubs

Tourism Sector

Being a Himalayan state, Kumaon do have a huge Tourism industry. The major tourism hubs include-


Basmati rice, Red rice, wheat, Ragi(Madua in Kumaoni), soybeans, groundnuts, coarse cereals, pulses, and oil seeds are the most widely grown crops. Fruits like apples, oranges, pears, peaches, lychees, and plums are widely grown and are important to the large food processing industry. Ramgarh, in Nainital District, specially, is famous for its fruits. It is often referred to as the 'Fruit Bowl of Kumaon'.[49]

Tea is also cultivated in Berinag, Bhowali, Champawat and Lohaghat. Berinag tea being specially famous for its taste. Champawat's tea is sold by the name "Kumaon Black Tea".

Munisyari is very famous for its 'White Rajma' which has also got GI Tag. Additionally Kumaon is also famous for Chyura oil(Kumaoni: Chyūrek tēl). Chuyra Oil has also got GI Certification. Apart from these two Copper work 'tamra' which are speciality of Almora have also got GI Tag.[45]

Administrative Subdivisions

Code District Headquarters[50] Population (As of 2011)[51] Area (km2)[52] Density (/km2) Map
AL Almora Almora 621,972 3,083 201
BA Bageshwar Bageshwar 259,840 2,302 113
CP Champawat Champawat 259,315 1,781 146
NA Nainital Nainital 955,128 3,860 247
PI Pithoragarh Pithoragarh 485,993 7,100 68
US Udham Singh Nagar Rudrapur 1,648,367 2,908 567
Total 4,230,615 21,034 201


Largest cities or towns in Kumaon division
Rank District Municipal pop. Rank District Municipal pop.
1 Haldwani Nainital 232,060 11 Bajpur Udham Singh Nagar 25,524 Pithoragarh
2 Rudrapur Udham Singh Nagar 154,485 12 Mukhani Nainital 22,475
3 Kashipur Udham Singh Nagar 121,610 13 Nagla Udham Singh Nagar 22,258
4 Pithoragarh Pithoragarh 56,044 14 Umru Khurd Udham Singh Nagar 20,593
5 Ramnagar Nainital 54,787 15 Gadarpur Udham Singh Nagar 19,301
6 Jaspur Udham Singh Nagar 50,523 16 Ranikhet Almora 18,886
7 Kichha Udham Singh Nagar 41,965 17 Tanakpur Champawat 17,626
8 Nainital Nainital 49,272 18 Khatima Udham Singh Nagar 15,093
9 Almora Almora 48,456 19 Mahua Kheraganj Udham Singh Nagar 12,584
10 Sitarganj Udham Singh Nagar 29,965 20 Dineshpur Udham Singh Nagar 11,343


Languages of Kumaon(2011)(Many Kumaoni speakers have listed Hindi as their Mother tongue)[4]

  Kumaoni (46.8%)
  Hindi (36.1%)
  Punjabi (4.4%)
  Urdu (4.1%)
  Bengali (3.2%)
  Tharu (1.1%)
  Others (4.3%)

The main language used in administration and education is Hindi, which according to the 2011 census is the first language of well over a million of the region's inhabitants (mostly concentrated in the south). The major native language, however, is Kumaoni, spoken by about 2 million people. In the southern districts there are also sizeable numbers of speakers of Punjabi, Urdu and Bengali,[4] while the two related languages of Buksa and Rana Tharu are found in the southernmost Udham Singh Nagar district. The higher mountains in the north of Kumaon are home to the Sino-Tibetan Byangsi, Chaudangsi, Darmiya, Raji, Rawat and Rangas (the last now extinct).[55]

The community radio station Kumaon Vani has been broadcasting over the region since 2010.[56]

Kumaon division: mother-tongue of population, according to the 2011 Indian Census.[4]
Mother tongue code Mother tongue District Kumaon division
Pithoragarh Bageshwar Almora Champawat Nainital Udham Singh Nagar People Percentage
002007 Bengali 414 67 555 519 4,174 129,537 135,266 3.2%
006102 Bhojpuri 1,654 200 885 462 6,688 60,141 70,030 1.7%
006195 Garhwali 1,634 1,867 17,939 561 15,348 5,840 43,189 1.0%
006240 Hindi 35,590 10,680 33,198 50,254 369,373 1,028,354 1,527,449 36.1%
006340 Kumauni 423,862 243,965 561,642 203,022 462,493 86,078 1,981,062 46.8%
006439 Pahari 653 7 200 193 683 2,067 3,803 0.1%
010014 Tharu 10 74 0 83 364 47,501 48,032 1.1%
014011 Nepali 7,259 2,158 2,604 1,266 5,984 1,622 20,893 0.5%
016038 Punjabi 383 101 536 378 19,644 166,327 187,369 4.4%
022015 Urdu 1,224 222 1,408 1,474 63,170 105,148 172,646 4.1%
046003 Halam 5,623 157 18 15 94 38 5,945 0.1%
053005 Gujari 8 0 1 0 1,416 859 2,284 0.1%
Others 5,125 400 3,520 1,421 5,174 15,390 31,030 0.7%
Total 483,439 259,898 622,506 259,648 954,605 1,648,902 4,228,998 100.0%

See also

Further reading


  1. ^ "Kumaon - Home of the Gods from Nest & Wings - Kumaon Complete Travel Guide".
  2. ^ a b Robert Montgomery Martin, History of the Possessions of the Honourable East India Company, Volume 1, pg. 107
  3. ^ ""Divisional Commissioner details: Office of Commissioner Kumaon"".
  4. ^ a b c d C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Uttarakhand (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  5. ^ "Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Sharda Sagar Reservoir in Tarai Region" (PDF). Open Academics Journal Index. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  6. ^ a b James Prinsep (Editor)Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 6, Part 2 (1837), p. 653, at Google Books
  7. ^ a b John McClelland Some inquiries in the province of Kemaon: relative to geology, and other branches of Natural Science (1835) at Google Books
  8. ^ Iwanek, Krzysztof (17 March 2020). "Gairsain's Uphill Task: Uttarakhand's Plan for Two Capitals". The Diplomat. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  9. ^ a b Gokhale, Namita (2015). Mountains Echoes: Reminiscences of Kumaoni Women. Roli Books Private Limited. ISBN 978-93-5194-180-4. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  10. ^ Gajrani, S. (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India. Gyan Publishing House. p. 236. ISBN 978-81-8205-064-8. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  11. ^ John Forbes Royle Illustrations of the botany and other branches of the natural history of the Himalayan Mountains and of the flora of Cashmere (1839), p. 108, at Google Books
  12. ^ "Garhwal Vacation Tips - Vacation Tour Garhwal Kumaon -Family Tour India". Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  13. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kumaon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 945.
  14. ^ a b Handa, O. C. (Omacanda) (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 9788173871344.
  15. ^ Atkinson, Edwin T. (1990) [1882]. Himalayan Gazetteer. Cosmo. OCLC 183008777.
  16. ^ a b History of Nainital District. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. p. 324.
  17. ^ Hāṇḍā, Omacanda (2002). History of Uttaranchal. Indus Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7387-134-4.
  18. ^ Sen, Siba Pada (1971). The Sino-Indian Border Question: A Historical Review. Institute of Historical Studies.
  19. ^ Sharma, Man Mohan (2005). Yātrā: Pilgrimages in the Himalayas. Trishul Publications. ISBN 978-81-85384-92-4.
  20. ^ Vaishṇav, Yamunādatta (1983). Himalayan Districts of Uttar Pradesh: Land and People. Sri Almora Book Depot.
  21. ^ Bhalla, Vikram (5 September 2018). "Fact Check: Did Aurangzeb defeat China and snatch Kailash Mansarovar from them as a gift to Hindus?". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  22. ^ India), Institute of Historical Studies (Calcutta (1971). Collection of Papers Presented at Annual Conference of the Institute.
  23. ^ Sharma, Man Mohan (1986). The Mystery of Rupkund. Vanity Books.
  24. ^ "Chitai Temple". Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  25. ^ "Bhimtal". Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  26. ^ "Almora Temples Uttaranchal - Uttarakhand Worldwide - Kumaon and Garhwal - Almora Temples". www.uttaranchal.org.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  27. ^ History of Garhwal District. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. p. 165. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  28. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Dehradun Edition". Tribuneindia.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  29. ^ "In Gandhi's footsteps". www.telegraphindia.com. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  30. ^ Gandhi, M. K. (11 July 1929). "Almora Impressions". Young India: 2. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
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29°36′N 79°42′E / 29.6°N 79.7°E / 29.6; 79.7