Languages of India

(total of official languages: 23, including 22 8th Schedule languages and additional official language, English)

Keyboard layout

Languages spoken in the Republic of India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians;[5][6] both families together are sometimes known as Indic languages.[7][8][9][a] Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino–Tibetan, Tai–Kadai, and a few other minor language families and isolates.[10]: 283  According to the People's Linguistic Survey of India, India has the second highest number of languages (780), after Papua New Guinea (840).[11] Ethnologue lists a lower number of 456.[12]

Article 343 of the Constitution of India stated that the official language of the Union is Hindi in Devanagari script, with official use of English to continue for 15 years from 1947. Later, a constitutional amendment, The Official Languages Act, 1963, allowed for the continuation of English alongside Hindi in the Indian government indefinitely until legislation decides to change it.[2] The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union are "the international form of Indian numerals",[13][14] which are referred to as Arabic numerals in most English-speaking countries.[1] Despite some misconceptions, Hindi is not the national language of India; the Constitution of India does not give any language the status of national language.[15][16]

The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists 22 languages,[17] which have been referred to as scheduled languages and given recognition, status and official encouragement. In addition, the Government of India has awarded the distinction of classical language to Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu. This status is given to languages that have a rich heritage and independent nature.

According to the Census of India of 2001, India has 122 major languages and 1599 other languages. However, figures from other sources vary, primarily due to differences in the definition of the terms "language" and "dialect". The 2001 Census recorded 30 languages which were spoken by more than a million native speakers and 122 which were spoken by more than 10,000 people.[18] Two contact languages have played an important role in the history of India: Persian[19] and English.[20] Persian was the court language during the Mughal period in India and reigned as an administrative language for several centuries until the era of British colonisation.[21] English continues to be an important language in India. It is used in higher education and in some areas of the Indian government.

Hindi, which has the largest number of first-language speakers in India today,[22] serves as the lingua franca across much of northern and central India. However, there have been concerns raised with Hindi being imposed in South India, most notably in the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.[23][24] Some in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Assam, Punjab and other non-Hindi regions have also started to voice concerns about imposition of Hindi.[25] Bengali is the second most spoken and understood language in the country with a significant number of speakers in eastern and northeastern regions. Marathi is the third most spoken and understood language in the country with a significant number of speakers in the southwest,[26] followed closely by Telugu, which is most commonly spoken in southeastern areas.[27]

Hindi is the fastest growing language of India, followed by Kashmiri in the second place, with Meitei (officially called Manipuri) as well as Gujarati, in the third place, and Bengali in the fourth place, according to the 2011 census of India.[28]

According to the Ethnologue, India has 148 Sino-Tibetan, 140 Indo-European, 84 Dravidian, 32 Austro-Asiatic, 14 Andamanese, 5 Kra-Dai languages.[29]


Main article: Linguistic history of India

Further information: Persian language in the Indian subcontinent

The Southern Indian languages are from the Dravidian family. The Dravidian languages are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.[30] Proto-Dravidian languages were spoken in India in the 4th millennium BCE and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd millennium BCE.[31] The Dravidian languages are classified in four groups: North, Central (Kolami–Parji), South-Central (Telugu–Kui), and South Dravidian (Tamil-Kannada).[32]

The Northern Indian languages from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family evolved from Old Indo-Aryan by way of the Middle Indo-Aryan Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa of the Middle Ages. The Indo-Aryan languages developed and emerged in three stages — Old Indo-Aryan (1500 BCE to 600 BCE), Middle Indo-Aryan stage (600 BCE and 1000 CE), and New Indo-Aryan (between 1000 CE and 1300 CE). The modern north Indian Indo-Aryan languages all evolved into distinct, recognisable languages in the New Indo-Aryan Age.[33]

In the Northeast India, among the Sino-Tibetan languages, Meitei language (officially known as Manipuri language) was the court language of the Manipur Kingdom (Meitei: Meeteileipak). It was honoured before and during the darbar sessions before Manipur was merged into the Dominion of the Indian Republic. Its history of existence spans from 1500 to 2000 years according to most eminent scholars including Padma Vibhushan awardee Suniti Kumar Chatterji.[34][35] Even according to the "Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947" of the once independent Manipur, Manipuri and English were made the court languages of the kingdom (before merging into Indian Republic).[36][37]

Persian, or Farsi, was brought into India by the Ghaznavids and other Turko-Afghan dynasties as the court language. Culturally Persianized, they, in combination with the later Mughal dynasty (of Turco-Mongol origin), influenced the art, history, and literature of the region for more than 500 years, resulting in the Persianisation of many Indian tongues, mainly lexically. In 1837, the British replaced Persian with English and Hindustani in Perso-Arabic script for administrative purposes and the Hindi movement of the 19th Century replaced Persianised vocabulary with Sanskrit derivations and replaced or supplemented the use of Perso-Arabic script for administrative purposes with Devanagari.[19][38]

Each of the northern Indian languages had different influences. For example, Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian, leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language. Bangla on the other hand has retained its Sanskritic roots while heavily expanding its vocabulary with words from Persian, English, French and other foreign languages.[39][40]


Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in India

The first official survey of language diversity in the Indian subcontinent was carried out by Sir George Abraham Grierson from 1898 to 1928. Titled the Linguistic Survey of India, it reported a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects.[41] However, the results were skewed due to ambiguities in distinguishing between "dialect" and "language",[41] use of untrained personnel and under-reporting of data from South India, as the former provinces of Burma and Madras, as well as the princely states of Cochin, Hyderabad, Mysore and Travancore were not included in the survey.[42]

Languages of India by language families (Ethnologue)[43]

  Sino-Tibetan (34.90%)
  Indo-European (33.01%)
  Dravidian (19.81%)
  Austroasiatic (7.54%)
  Andamanese (3.30%)
  Kra–Dai (1.17%)
  Isolates (0.23%)

Different sources give widely differing figures, primarily based on how the terms "language" and "dialect" are defined and grouped. Ethnologue, produced by the Christian evangelist organisation SIL International, lists 435 tongues for India (out of 6,912 worldwide), 424 of which are living, while 11 are extinct. The 424 living languages are further subclassified in Ethnologue as follows:[43][44]

The People's Linguistic Survey of India, a privately owned research institution in India, has recorded over 66 different scripts and more than 780 languages in India during its nationwide survey, which the organisation claims to be the biggest linguistic survey in India.[45]

The People of India (POI) project of Anthropological Survey of India reported 325 languages which are used for in-group communication by 5,633 Indian communities.[46]

Census of India figures

The Census of India records and publishes data with respect to the number of speakers for languages and dialects, but uses its own unique terminology, distinguishing between language and mother tongue. The mother tongues are grouped within each language. Many of the mother tongues so defined could be considered a language rather than a dialect by linguistic standards. This is especially so for many mother tongues with tens of millions of speakers that are officially grouped under the language Hindi.

1951 Census

Separate figures for Hindi, Urdu, and Punjabi were not issued, due to the fact the returns were intentionally recorded incorrectly in states such as East Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, PEPSU, and Bilaspur.[47]

1961 Census

The 1961 census recognised 1,652 mother tongues spoken by 438,936,918 people, counting all declarations made by any individual at the time when the census was conducted.[48] However, the declaring individuals often mixed names of languages with those of dialects, subdialects and dialect clusters or even castes, professions, religions, localities, regions, countries and nationalities.[48] The list therefore includes languages with barely a few individual speakers as well as 530 unclassified mother tongues and more than 100 idioms that are non-native to India, including linguistically unspecific demonyms such as "African", "Canadian" or "Belgian".[48]

1991 Census

The 1991 census recognises 1,576 classified mother tongues.[49] According to the 1991 census, 22 languages had more than a million native speakers, 50 had more than 100,000 and 114 had more than 10,000 native speakers. The remaining accounted for a total of 566,000 native speakers (out of a total of 838 million Indians in 1991).[49][50]

2001 Census

According to the census of 2001, there are 1635 rationalised mother tongues, 234 identifiable mother tongues and 22 major languages.[18] Of these, 29 languages have more than a million native speakers, 60 have more than 100,000 and 122 have more than 10,000 native speakers.[51] There are a few languages like Kodava that do not have a script but have a group of native speakers in Coorg (Kodagu).[52]

2011 Census

According to the most recent census of 2011, after thorough linguistic scrutiny, edit, and rationalization on 19,569 raw linguistic affiliations, the census recognizes 1369 rationalized mother tongues and 1474 names which were treated as ‘unclassified’ and relegated to ‘other’ mother tongue category.[53] Among, the 1369 rationalized mother tongues which are spoken by 10,000 or more speakers, are further grouped into appropriate set that resulted into total 121 languages. In these 121 languages, 22 are already part of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and the other 99 are termed as "Total of other languages" which is one short as of the other languages recognized in 2001 census.[54]


Main article: Multilingualism in India

2011 Census India

First, second, and third languages by number of speakers in India (2011 Census)
Language First language
Total speakers
Numbers[55] As % of total
Speakers (millions) (millions)[56] As % of total
Hindi 528,347,193 43.63 139 24 692 57.1
Bengali 97,237,669 8.30 9 1 107 8.9
Marathi 83,026,680 6.86 13 3 99 8.2
Telugu 81,127,740 6.70 12 1 95 7.8
Tamil 69,026,881 5.70 7 1 77 6.3
Gujarati 55,492,554 4.58 4 1 60 5.0
Urdu 50,772,631 4.19 11 1 63 5.2
Kannada 43,706,512 3.61 14 1 59 4.9
Odia 37,521,324 3.10 5 0.03 43 3.5
Malayalam 34,838,819 2.88 0.05 0.02 36 2.9
Punjabi 33,124,726 2.74 0.03 0.003 36 3.0
Assamese 15,311,351 1.26 7.48 0.74 24 2.0
Maithili 13,583,464 1.12 0.03 0.003 14 1.2
Meitei (Manipuri) 1,761,079 0.15 0.4 0.04 2.25 0.2
English 259,678 0.02 83 46 129 10.6
Sanskrit 24,821 0.00185 0.01 0.003 0.025 0.002

Language families

Ethnolinguistically, the languages of South Asia, echoing the complex history and geography of the region, form a complex patchwork of language families, language phyla and isolates.[10] Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. The most important language families in terms of speakers are:[58][5][6][10][59]

Language family Population (2018)
Indo-European language family 1,045,000,000 (78.05%)
Dravidian language family 265,000,000 (19.64%)
Austroasiatic language family Unknown
Sino-Tibetan language family Unknown
Tai–Kadai language family Unknown
Great Andamanese languages Unknown
Languages of India 1,340,000,000

Indo-Aryan language family

Main article: Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-Aryan language subgroups (Urdu is included under Hindi)
  Dardic (Pashai, Khowar, Shina, Kohistani, Kashmiri)
  North-western (Punjabi, Sindhi)
  Western (Marwari, Malvi, Harauti, Gujarati, Khandeshi, Bhili)
  Northern (Pahari, Nepali)
  Central (Hindi, Awadhi, Braj, Haryanvi, Chhattisgarhi, Bundeli, Bagheli)
  Eastern (Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili, Bengali, Assamese, Odia)
  Southern (Marathi, Konkani, Sinhala, Maldivan)

The largest of the language families represented in India, in terms of speakers, is the Indo-Aryan language family, a branch of the Indo-Iranian family, itself the easternmost, extant subfamily of the Indo-European language family. This language family predominates, accounting for some 1035 million speakers, or over 76.5 of the population, per a 2018 estimate. The most widely spoken languages of this group are Hindi,[n 1] Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Odia, Maithili, Punjabi, Marwari, Kashmiri, Assamese (Asamiya), Chhattisgarhi and Sindhi.[60][61] Aside from the Indo-Aryan languages, other Indo-European languages are also spoken in India, the most prominent of which is English, as a lingua franca.

Dravidian language family

Main article: Dravidian languages

The second largest language family is the Dravidian language family, accounting for some 277 million speakers, or approximately 20.5% per 2018 estimate. The Dravidian languages are spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in parts of northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.[6] Besides the mainstream population, Dravidian languages are also spoken by small scheduled tribe communities, such as the Oraon and Gond tribes.[62] Only two Dravidian languages are exclusively spoken outside India, Brahui in Balochistan, Pakistan and Dhangar, a dialect of Kurukh, in Nepal.[63]

Austroasiatic language family

Families with smaller numbers of speakers are Austroasiatic and numerous small Sino-Tibetan languages, with some 10 and 6 million speakers, respectively, together 3% of the population.[64]

The Austroasiatic language family (austro meaning South) is the autochthonous language in Southeast Asia, arrived by migration. Austroasiatic languages of mainland India are the Khasi and Munda languages, including Bhumij and Santali. The languages of the Nicobar islands also form part of this language family. With the exceptions of Khasi and Santali, all Austroasiatic languages on Indian territory are endangered.[10]: 456–457 

Tibeto-Burman language family

The Tibeto-Burman language family is well represented in India. However, their interrelationships are not discernible, and the family has been described as "a patch of leaves on the forest floor" rather than with the conventional metaphor of a "family tree".[10]: 283–5 

Padma Vibhushan awardee Indian Bengali scholar Suniti Kumar Chatterjee said, "Among the various Tibeto-Burman languages, the most important and in literature certainly of much greater importance than Newari, is the Meitei or Manipuri language".[65][66][67]

In India, Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken across the Himalayas in the regions of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam (hills and autonomous councils), Himachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and West Bengal.[68][69][70]

Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in India include two constitutionally recognised official languages, Meitei (officially known as Manipuri) and Bodo as well as the non-scheduled languages like Karbi, Lepcha, and many varieties of several related Tibetic, West Himalayish, Tani, Brahmaputran, Angami–Pochuri, Tangkhul, Zeme, Kukish sub linguistic branches, amongst many others.

Tai-Kadai language family

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The Ahom language, a Southwestern Tai language, had been once the dominant language of the Ahom Kingdom in modern-day Assam, but was later replaced by the Assamese language (known as Kamrupi in ancient era which is the pre-form of the Kamrupi dialect of today). Nowadays, small Tai communities and their languages remain in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh together with Sino-Tibetans, e.g. Tai Phake, Tai Aiton and Tai Khamti, which are similar to the Shan language of Shan State, Myanmar; the Dai language of Yunnan, China; the Lao language of Laos; the Thai language of Thailand; and the Zhuang language in Guangxi, China.

Andamanese language families

The languages of the Andaman Islands form another group:[71]

In addition, Sentinelese is thought likely to be related to the above languages.[71]

Language isolates

The only language found in the Indian mainland that is considered a language isolate is Nihali.[10]: 337  The status of Nihali is ambiguous, having been considered as a distinct Austroasiatic language, as a dialect of Korku and also as being a "thieves' argot" rather than a legitimate language.[72][73]

The other language isolates found in the rest of South Asia include Burushaski, a language spoken in Gilgit–Baltistan (administered by Pakistan), Kusunda (in western Nepal), and Vedda (in Sri Lanka).[10]: 283  The validity of the Great Andamanese language group as a language family has been questioned and it has been considered a language isolate by some authorities.[10]: 283 [74][75]

In addition, a Bantu language, Sidi, was spoken until the mid-20th century in Gujarat by the Siddi.[10]: 528 

Official languages

Main article: Languages with official status in India

States and union territories of India by the most commonly spoken (L1) first language[76]
Official languages of India by state and union territory. Hindustani refers to both Hindi and Urdu in this map.

Federal level

Language proficiency in India (2001, 2011)[77][78]
Language Year percent
Hindi 2001
53.61% +3.50%
English 2001
12.19% -1.57%

Prior to Independence, in British India, English was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes.[79]

In 1946, the issue of national language was a bitterly contested subject in the proceedings of the Constituent Assembly of India, specifically what should be the language in which the Constitution of India is written and the language spoken during the proceedings of Parliament and thus deserving of the epithet "national". The Constitution of India does not give any language the status of national language.[15][16]

Members belonging to the northern parts of India insisted that the Constitution be drafted in Hindi with the unofficial translation in English. This was not agreed to by the drafting committee on the grounds that English was much better to craft the nuanced prose on constitutional subjects. The efforts to make Hindi the pre-eminent language were bitterly resisted by the members from those parts of India where Hindi was not spoken natively.

Eventually, a compromise was reached not to include any mention of a national language. Instead, Hindi in Devanagari script was declared to be the official language of the union, but for "fifteen years from the commencement of the Constitution, the English Language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement."[79]

Article 343 (1) of the Constitution of India states "The Official Language of the Union government shall be Hindi in Devanagari script."[80]: 212 [81] Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i.e. on 26 January 1965.[80]: 212 [81]

Main article: Hindi

Main article: Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu

As the date for changeover approached, however, there was much alarm in the non-Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially in Kerala, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, West Bengal, Karnataka, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh. Accordingly, Jawaharlal Nehru ensured the enactment of the Official Languages Act, 1963,[82][83] which provided that English "may" still be used with Hindi for official purposes, even after 1965.[79] The wording of the text proved unfortunate in that while Nehru understood that "may" meant shall, politicians championing the cause of Hindi thought it implied exactly the opposite.[79]

In the event, as 1965 approached, India's new Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri prepared to make Hindi paramount with effect from 26 January 1965. This led to widespread agitation, riots, self-immolations, and suicides in Tamil Nadu. The split of Congress politicians from the South from their party stance, the resignation of two Union ministers from the South, and the increasing threat to the country's unity forced Shastri to concede.[79][24]

As a result, the proposal was dropped,[84][85] and the Act itself was amended in 1967 to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.[82]


The Hindi-belt, including Hindi-related languages such as Rajasthani and Bhojpuri

In the 2001 census, 422 million (422,048,642) people in India reported Hindi to be their native language.[86] This figure not only included Hindi speakers of Hindustani, but also people who identify as native speakers of related languages who consider their speech to be a dialect of Hindi, the Hindi belt. Hindi (or Hindustani) is the native language of most people living in Delhi and Western Uttar Pradesh.[87]

"Modern Standard Hindi", a standardised language is one of the official languages of the Union of India. In addition, it is one of only two languages used for business in Parliament. However, the Rajya Sabha now allows all 22 official languages on the Eighth Schedule to be spoken.[88]

Hindustani, evolved from khari boli (खड़ी बोली), a prominent tongue of Mughal times, which itself evolved from Apabhraṃśa, an intermediary transition stage from Prakrit, from which the major North Indian Indo-Aryan languages have evolved.[citation needed]

By virtue of its being a lingua franca, Hindi has also developed regional dialects such as Bambaiya Hindi in Mumbai. In addition, a trade language, Andaman Creole Hindi has also developed in the Andaman Islands.[89] In addition, by use in popular culture such as songs and films, Hindi also serves as a lingua franca across North-Central India.[citation needed]

Hindi is widely taught both as a primary language and language of instruction and as a second tongue in many states.


Main articles: English language and Indian English

British colonialism in India resulted in English becoming a language for governance, business, and education. English, along with Hindi, is one of the two languages permitted in the Constitution of India for business in Parliament. Despite the fact that Hindi has official Government patronage and serves as a lingua franca over large parts of India, there was considerable opposition to the use of Hindi in the southern states of India, and English has emerged as a de facto lingua franca over much of India.[79][24] Journalist Manu Joseph, in a 2011 article in The New York Times, wrote that due to the prominence and usage of the language and the desire for English-language education, "English is the de facto national language of India. It is a bitter truth."[90] English language proficiency is highest among urban residents, wealthier Indians, Indians with higher levels of educational attainment, Christians, men and younger Indians.[91] In 2017, more than 58 percent of rural teens could read basic English, and 53 percent of fourteen year-olds & sixty percent of 18-year-olds could read English sentences.[92]

Scheduled languages

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Main languages of India and their relative size according to how many speakers each has[93]

Until the Twenty-first Amendment of the Constitution of India in 1967, the country recognised 14 official regional languages. The Eighth Schedule and the Seventy-First Amendment provided for the inclusion of Sindhi, Konkani, Meitei and Nepali, thereby increasing the number of official regional languages of India to 18. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, as of 1 December 2007, lists 22 languages,[80]: 330  which are given in the table below together with the regions where they are used.[86]

Fastest growing languages of India — Hindi (first), Kashmiri (second), Gujarati & Meitei/Manipuri (third), Bengali (fourth) — based on 2011 census of India[94]
Language Family ISO 639 code
Assamese Indo-Aryan as
Bengali (Bangla) Indo-Aryan bn
Bodo Sino-Tibetan brx
Dogri Indo-Aryan doi
Gujarati Indo-Aryan gu
Hindi Indo-Aryan hi
Kannada Dravidian kn
Kashmiri Indo-Aryan ks
Konkani Indo-Aryan gom
Maithili Indo-Aryan mai
Malayalam Dravidian ml
Meitei (Manipuri) Sino-Tibetan mni
Marathi Indo-Aryan mr
Nepali Indo-Aryan ne
Odia Indo-Aryan or
Punjabi Indo-Aryan pa
Sanskrit Indo-Aryan sa
Santali Austroasiatic sat
Sindhi Indo-Aryan sd
Tamil Dravidian ta
Telugu Dravidian te
Urdu Indo-Aryan ur

The individual states, the borders of most of which are or were drawn on socio-linguistic lines, can legislate their own official languages, depending on their linguistic demographics. The official languages chosen reflect the predominant as well as politically significant languages spoken in that state. Certain states having a linguistically defined territory may have only the predominant language in that state as its official language, examples being Karnataka and Gujarat, which have Kannada and Gujarati as their sole official language respectively. Telangana, with a sizeable Urdu-speaking Muslim population, and Andhra Pradesh[95] has two languages, Telugu and Urdu, as its official languages.

Some states buck the trend by using minority languages as official languages. Jammu and Kashmir used to have Urdu, which is spoken by fewer than 1% of the population, as the sole official language until 2020. Meghalaya uses English spoken by 0.01% of the population. This phenomenon has turned majority languages into "minority languages" in a functional sense.[96]

In addition to official languages, a few states also designate official scripts.

State Official language(s) Additional official language(s) Mandated scripts
Andhra Pradesh Telugu[97] English,[98] Urdu[7]
Arunachal Pradesh English[99]
Assam[100] Assamese and Bodo Bengali in three districts of Barak Valley[101] Bodo is officially written in the Devanagari script.
Bihar Hindi[102] Urdu[102]
Chhattisgarh[103] Hindi[104] Chhattisgarhi Devanagari
Goa Konkani, English[105] Marathi[106]: 27 [107]
Gujarat Gujarati, Hindi[108]
Haryana[109] Hindi English,[106] Punjabi[110] Hindi should be written in Devanagari.

Punjabi should be written in Gurmukhi.

Himachal Pradesh[111] Hindi Sanskrit[112] Both Hindi and Sanskrit are written in Devanagari.
Jharkhand Hindi[99] Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu[113][114]
Karnataka Kannada
Kerala Malayalam English
Madhya Pradesh[115] Hindi
Maharashtra[116] Marathi Devanagari
Manipur[117] Manipuri English Meetei mayek
Meghalaya English[118] Khasi and Garo[119] (associate official in districts)
Mizoram Mizo, English[120]
Nagaland English
Odisha Odia[121] English
Punjab Punjabi[106] Gurmukhi
Rajasthan Hindi
Sikkim English, Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha[106][122] Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang[106]
Tamil Nadu Tamil English
Telangana Telugu Urdu[123][124]
Tripura Bengali, English, Kokborok[125][126][127]
Uttar Pradesh Hindi Urdu[128]
Uttarakhand Hindi Sanskrit
West Bengal Bengali, English[106][129] Nepali in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions;[106]
Urdu, Hindi, Odia, Santali, Punjabi, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi, Kudmali/Kurmali, Kurukh and Telugu in blocks, divisions or districts with population greater than 10 per cent[130][131][132][133]
Union territory Official language(s)[106] Additional official language(s)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands[134] Hindi, English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu[135][136] Gujarati
Delhi[137] Urdu, Punjabi
Chandigarh[138] English
Lakshadweep[139][140] Hindi,[139] Malayalam[140]
Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Urdu, English[141]
Puducherry Tamil, Telugu (in Yanam), Malayalam (in Mahe)[b][142][143] English, French[144]

In addition to states and union territories, India has autonomous administrative regions which may be permitted to select their own official language – a case in point being the Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam which has declared the Bodo language as official for the region, in addition to Assamese and English already in use.[145] and Bengali in the Barak Valley,[101] as its official languages.

Prominent languages of India


Main article: Hindi

At a tourist site in Bengaluru – Top to bottom, the languages are Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam. English and many other European languages are also provided here.

In British India, English was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes. When India became independent in 1947, the Indian legislators had the challenge of choosing a language for official communication as well as for communication between different linguistic regions across India. The choices available were:

The Indian constitution, in 1950, declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union.[80] Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i.e. on 26 January 1965.[80] The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non-Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially in South India whose native tongues are not related to Hindi. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act in 1963,[146][147][148][149][150][151] which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after 1965.


Main article: Bengali language

Native to the Bengal region, comprising the nation of Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Tripura and Barak Valley region[152][153] of Assam. Bengali (also spelt as Bangla: বাংলা) is the sixth most spoken language in the world.[152][153] After the partition of India (1947), refugees from East Pakistan were settled in Tripura, and Jharkhand and the union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. There is also a large number of Bengali-speaking people in Maharashtra and Gujarat where they work as artisans in jewellery industries. Bengali developed from Abahattha, a derivative of Apabhramsha, itself derived from Magadhi Prakrit. The modern Bengali vocabulary contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali, also borrowings from Sanskrit and other major borrowings from Persian, Arabic, Austroasiatic languages and other languages in contact with.

Like most Indian languages, Bengali has a number of dialects. It exhibits diglossia, with the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language.[154] Bengali language has developed a rich cultural base spanning art, music, literature, and religion. Bengali has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 10th to 12th century ('Chargapada' Buddhist songs). There have been many movements in defence of this language and in 1999 UNESCO declared 21 Feb as the International Mother Language Day in commemoration of the Bengali Language Movement in 1952.[155]


Main article: Assamese language

A Bhagavata manuscript written in Early Assamese, from Dakhinpat Satra.

Asamiya or Assamese language is most popular in the state of Assam.[156] It's an Eastern Indo-Aryan language with more than 23 million total speakers including more than 15 million native speakers and more than 7 million L2 speakers per the 2011 Census of India.[157] Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Assamese evolved at least before the 7th century CE[158] from the middle Indo-Aryan Magadhi Prakrit. Assamese is unusual among Eastern Indo-Aryan languages for the presence of the /x/ (which, phonetically, varies between velar ([x]) and a uvular ([χ]) pronunciations). The first characteristics of this language are seen in the Charyapadas composed in between the eighth and twelfth centuries. The first examples emerged in writings of court poets in the fourteenth century, the finest example of which is Madhav Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana composed during 14th century CE, which was the first translation of the Ramayana into an Indo-Aryan language.


Main article: Marathi language

Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language. It is the official language and co-official language in Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India respectively, and is one of the official languages of India. There were 83 million speakers of the language in 2011.[159] Marathi has the third-largest number of native speakers in India and ranks 10th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages; Oldest stone inscriptions from 8th century & literature dating from about 1100 AD (Mukundraj's Vivek Sindhu dates to the 12th century). The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi (Pramaan Bhasha) and the Varhadi dialect. There are other related languages such as Ahirani, Dangi, Vadvali, Samavedi. Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties. Marathi is one of several languages that descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. The further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi.

Marathi Language Day (मराठी दिन/मराठी दिवस (transl. Marathi Dina/Marathi Diwasa) is celebrated on 27 February every year across the Indian states of Maharashtra and Goa. This day is regulated by the State Government. It is celebrated on the birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar, popularly known as Kusumagraj .

Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for all official purposes.[160]

Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. The primary influence of Prakrit, Maharashtri, Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit is understandable. Marathi has also been influenced by the Austroasiatic, Dravidian and foreign languages such as Persian and Arabic. Marathi contains loanwords from Persian, Arabic, English and a little from French and Portuguese.


Main article: Meitei language

Meitei language (officially known as Manipuri language) is the most widely spoken Indian Sino-Tibetan language of Tibeto-Burman linguistic sub branch. It is the sole official language in Manipur and is one of the official languages of India. It is one of the two Sino-Tibetan languages with official status in India, beside Bodo. It has been recognized as one of the advanced modern languages of India by the National Sahitya Academy for its rich literature.[161] It uses both Meitei script as well as Bengali script for writing.[162][163]

Meitei language is currently proposed to be included in the elite category of "Classical Languages" of India.[164][165][166] Besides, it is also currently proposed to be an associate official language of Government of Assam. According to Leishemba Sanajaoba, the present titular king of Manipur and a Rajya Sabha member of Manipur state, by recognising Meitei as an associate official language of Assam, the identity, history, culture and tradition of Manipuris residing in Assam could be protected.[167][168][169]

Meitei Language Day (Manipuri Language Day) is celebrated on 20 August every year by the Manipuris across the Indian states of Manipur, Assam and Tripura. This day is regulated by the Government of Manipur. It is the commemoration of the day on which Meitei was included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India on the 20 August 1992.[170][171][172][173][174]


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Main article: Telugu language

Telugu is the most widely spoken Dravidian language in India and around the world. Telugu is an official language in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Yanam, making it one of the few languages (along with Hindi, Bengali, and Urdu) with official status in more than one state. It is also spoken by a significant number of people in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and by the Sri Lankan Gypsy people. It is one of six languages with classical status in India. Telugu ranks fourth by the number of native speakers in India (81 million in the 2011 Census),[159] fifteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language.


Main article: Tamil language

15th-century anthology of Tamil religious poetry dedicated to Ganesha

Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and many parts of Sri Lanka. It is also spoken by large minorities in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius and throughout the world. Tamil ranks fifth by the number of native speakers in India (61 million in the 2001 Census)[175] and ranks 20th in the list of most spoken languages.[citation needed] It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and was the first Indian language to be declared a classical language by the Government of India in 2004. Tamil is one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world.[176][177] It has been described as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognisably continuous with a classical past".[178] The two earliest manuscripts from India,[179][180] acknowledged and registered by UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, are in Tamil.[181] Tamil is an official language of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka and Singapore. It is also recognized as a minority language in Canada, Malaysia, Mauritius and South Africa.


Main article: Urdu

After independence, Modern Standard Urdu, the Persianised register of Hindustani became the national language of Pakistan. During British colonial times, knowledge of Hindustani or Urdu was a must for officials. Hindustani was made the second language of British Indian Empire after English and considered as the language of administration.[citation needed] The British introduced the use of Roman script for Hindustani as well as other languages. Urdu had 70 million speakers in India (per the Census of 2001), and, along with Hindi, is one of the 22 officially recognised regional languages of India and also an official language in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh[95], Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Telangana that have significant Muslim populations.


Main article: Gujarati language

Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the west Indian region of Gujarat. Gujarati is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati (c. 1100 – 1500 CE), the same source as that of Rajasthani. Gujarati is the chief and official language in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is also an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 4.5% of population of India (1.21 billion according to 2011 census) speaks Gujarati. This amounts to 54.6 million speakers in India.[182]


Main article: Kannada

Kannada is a Dravidian language which branched off from Kannada-Tamil sub group around 500 B.C.E according to the Dravidian scholar Zvelebil.[183] It is the official language of Karnataka. According to the Dravidian scholars Steever and Krishnamurthy, the study of Kannada language is usually divided into three linguistic phases: Old (450–1200 CE), Middle (1200–1700 CE) and Modern (1700–present).[184][185] The earliest written records are from the 5th century,[186] and the earliest available literature in rich manuscript (Kavirajamarga) is from c. 850.[187][188] Kannada language has the second oldest written tradition of all languages of India.[189][190] Current estimates of the total number of epigraph present in Karnataka range from 25,000 by the scholar Sheldon Pollock to over 30,000 by the Sahitya Akademi,[191] making Karnataka state "one of the most densely inscribed pieces of real estate in the world".[192] According to Garg and Shipely, more than a thousand notable writers have contributed to the wealth of the language.[193][194]


Main article: Malayalam

Malayalam (/mæləˈjɑːləm/;[195] [maləjaːɭəm]) has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people. Malayalam is also spoken in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; with some speakers in the Nilgiris, Kanyakumari and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu, and the Dakshina Kannada and the Kodagu district of Karnataka.[196][197][198] Malayalam originated from Middle Tamil (Sen-Tamil) in the 7th century.[199] As Malayalam began to freely borrow words as well as the rules of grammar from Sanskrit, the Grantha alphabet was adopted for writing and came to be known as Arya Eluttu.[200] This developed into the modern Malayalam script.[201]


Main article: Odia language

Odia (formerly spelled Oriya)[202] is the only modern language officially recognized as a classical language from the Indo-Aryan group. Odia is primarily spoken and has official language status in the Indian state of Odisha and has over 40 million speakers. It was declared as a classical language of India in 2014. Native speakers comprise 91.85% of the population in Odisha.[203][204] Odia originated from Odra Prakrit which developed from Magadhi Prakrit, a language spoken in eastern India over 2,500 years ago. The history of Odia language can be divided to Old Odia (3rd century BC −1200 century AD),[205] Early Middle Odia (1200–1400), Middle Odia (1400–1700), Late Middle Odia (1700–1870) and Modern Odia (1870 until present day). The National Manuscripts Mission of India have found around 213,000 unearthed and preserved manuscripts written in Odia.[206]


Main article: Santali language

Santali is a Munda languages, a branch of Austroasiatic languages spoken widely in Jharkhand and other states of eastern India by Santhal community of tribal and non-tribal.[207] It is written in Ol Chiki script invented by Raghunath Murmu at the end of 19th century.[208] Santali is spoken by 0.67% of India's population.[209][210] About 7 million people speak this language.[211] It is also spoken in Bangladesh and Nepal.[212][213] The language is major tribal language of Jharkhand and thus Santhal community is demanding to make it as the official language of Jharkhand.[214]


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Main article: Punjabi language

Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script in India, is one of the prominent languages of India with about 32 million speakers. In Pakistan it is spoken by over 80 million people and is written in the Shahmukhi alphabet. It is mainly spoken in Punjab but also in neighboring areas. It is an official language of Delhi and Punjab.


Main article: Maithili language

Maithili (/ˈmtɪli/;[215] Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language native to India and Nepal. In India, it is widely spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states.[216][217] Native speakers are also found in other states and union territories of India, most notably in Uttar Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[218] In the 2011 census of India, It was reported by 13,583,464 people as their mother tongue comprising about 1.12% of the total population of India.[219] In Nepal, it is spoken in the eastern Terai, and is the second most prevalent language of Nepal.[220] Tirhuta was formerly the primary script for written Maithili. Less commonly, it was also written in the local variant of Kaithi.[221] Today it is written in the Devanagari script.[222]

In 2003, Maithili was included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution as a recognised regional language of India, which allows it to be used in education, government, and other official contexts.[223]

Classical languages of India

Main article: Classical Languages of India

Further information: Meitei classical language movement

In 2004, the Government of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a "Classical Language" of India.[224]

Languages thus far declared to be Classical:

Over the next few years, several languages were granted the Classical status, and demands have been made for other languages, including Pali, Bengali,[231][232] Marathi,[233] Maithili[234] and Meitei (officially called Manipuri).[235][236][237]

Other regional languages and dialects

The 2001 census identified the following native languages having more than one million speakers. Most of them are dialects/variants grouped under Hindi.[86]

Languages No. of native speakers[86]
Bhojpuri 33,099,497
Rajasthani 18,355,613
Magadhi/Magahi 13,978,565
Chhattisgarhi 13,260,186
Haryanvi 7,997,192
Marwari 7,936,183
Malvi 5,565,167
Mewari 5,091,697
Khorth/Khotta 4,725,927
Bundeli 3,072,147
Bagheli 2,865,011
Pahari 2,832,825
Laman/Lambadi 2,707,562
Awadhi 2,529,308
Harauti 2,462,867
Garhwali 2,267,314
Nimadi 2,148,146
Sadan/Sadri 2,044,776
Kumauni 2,003,783
Dhundhari 1,871,130
Tulu 1,722,768
Surgujia 1,458,533
Bagri Rajasthani 1,434,123
Banjari 1,259,821
Nagpuria 1,242,586
Surajpuri 1,217,019
Kangri 1,122,843

Practical problems

"Scheduled" and "non-scheduled" official languages of Northeast Indian states; most of the languages in Northeast are unrecognized by the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India

India has several languages in use; choosing any single language as an official language presents problems to all those whose "mother tongue" is different. However, all the boards of education across India recognise the need for training people to one common language.[238] There are complaints that in North India, non-Hindi speakers have language trouble. Similarly, there are complaints that North Indians have to undergo difficulties on account of language when travelling to South India. It is common to hear of incidents that result due to friction between those who strongly believe in the chosen official language, and those who follow the thought that the chosen language(s) do not take into account everyone's preferences.[239] Local official language commissions have been established and various steps are being taken in a direction to reduce tensions and friction.[citation needed]

Language policy

Further information: Three language formula and National Education Policy 2020

The Union Government of India formulated the Three language formula.

In the Prime Minister's Office

See also: Prime Minister's Office (India) and Prime Minister of India

The official website of the Prime Minister's Office of India publishes its official information in 11 Indian official languages, namely Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Meitei (Manipuri), Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil and Telugu, out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, in addition to English and Hindi.[240]

In the Press Information Bureau

Main article: Press Information Bureau

The Press Information Bureau (PIB) selects 14 Indian official languages, which are Dogri, Punjabi, Bengali, Oriya, Gujarati, Marathi, Meitei (Manipuri), Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Konkani and Urdu, in addition to Hindi and English, out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic to render its information about all the Central Government press releases.[c][241][242]

In the Staff Selection Commission

Main article: Staff Selection Commission

The Staff Selection Commission (SSC) selected 13 Indian official languages, which are Urdu, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Konkani, Meitei (Manipuri), Marathi, Odia and Punjabi, in addition to Hindi and English, out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, to conduct the Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff examination for the first time in its history.[243][244]

In the Central Armed Police Forces

The Union Government of India selected Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Malayalam, Meitei (Manipuri), Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Odia, Urdu, Punjabi, and Konkani, 13 out of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, in addition to Hindi & English, to be used in the recruitment examination of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF). The decision was taken by the Home Minister after having an agreement between the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Staff Selection Commission.[245][246] The official decision will be converted into action from 1 January 2024; 4 months ago (2024-01-01).[247]

Language conflicts

Further information: Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu, Pure Tamil movement, Meitei linguistic purism movement, and Gokak agitation

There are conflicts over linguistic rights in India. The first major linguistic conflict, known as the Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu, took place in Tamil Nadu against the implementation of Hindi as the official language of India. Political analysts consider this as a major factor in bringing DMK to power and leading to the ousting and nearly total elimination of the Congress party in Tamil Nadu.[248] Strong cultural pride based on language is also found in other Indian states such as Assam, Odisha, Karnataka, West Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra. To express disapproval of the imposition of Hindi on its states' people as a result of the central government, the government of Maharashtra made the state language Marathi mandatory in educational institutions of CBSE and ICSE through Class/Grade 10.[249]

The Government of India attempts to assuage these conflicts with various campaigns, coordinated by the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore, a branch of the Department of Higher Education, Language Bureau, and the Ministry of Human Resource Development.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Linguistic movements

In the history of India, various linguistic movements were and are undertaken by different literary, political and social associations as well as organisations, advocating for the changes and the developments of several languages, dialects and vernaculars in diverse critical, discriminative and unfavorable circumstances and situations.


Further information: Bengali language

Meitei (Manipuri)

Further information: Meitei language


Further information: Rajasthani language


Further information: Tamil language

Developmental works

In the age of technological advancements, the Google Translate supports the following Indian languages: Bengali, Bhojpuri,[250] Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Maithili, Malayalam, Marathi, Meiteilon (Manipuri)[d] (in Meitei script[e]), Odia, Punjabi (in Gurmukhi script[f]), Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu.

Meitei (Manipuri)

Further information: Meitei language, Meitei script, and Directorate of Language Planning and Implementation

On the 4 September 2013, the Directorate of Language Planning and Implementation (DLPI) was established for the development and the promotion of Meitei language (officially called Manipuri language) and the Meitei script (Manipuri script) in Manipur.[251][252]

The Manipuri Sahitya Parishad is given annual financial support of 500,000 (equivalent to 750,000 or US$9,400 in 2023) by the Government of Manipur.[253][254][255]

Since 2020, the Government of Assam is giving annual financial support of 500,000 (equivalent to 590,000 or US$7,400 in 2023) to the Assam Manipuri Sahitya Parishad. Besides, the Assam government financed 6 crore (equivalent to 7.1 crore or US$880,000 in 2023) for the creation of a corpus for the development of the Meitei language (officially called Manipuri language).[256]

In September 2021, the Central Government of India released 180 million (US$2.3 million) as the first instalment for the development and the promotion of the Meitei language (officially called Manipuri language) and the Meitei script (Manipuri script) in Manipur.[257][258][259]

The Department of Language Planning and Implementation of the Government of Manipur offers a sum of 5,000 (equivalent to 8,500 or US$110 in 2023), to every individual who learns Meitei language (officially called Manipuri language), having certain terms and conditions.[260][261]


Further information: Sanskrit

The Central Government of India allocated ₹6438.4 million in the last three years for the development and the promotion of Sanskrit, ₹2311.5 million in 2019–20, around ₹2143.8 million in 2018–19, and ₹1983.1 million in 2017–18.[262][263]


Further information: Tamil language

The Central Government of India gave an allocation of Rs 105.9 million in 2017–18, Rs 46.5 million in 2018–19 and Rs 77 million in 2019–20 to the "Central Institute of Classical Tamil" for the development and the promotion of Tamil language.[262][264]

Telugu and Kannada

Further information: Telugu language and Kannada language

The Central Government of India gave an allocation of Rs 10 million in 2017–18, Rs 9.9 million in 2018–19 and Rs 10.7 million in 2019–20, each for the development and the promotion of Telugu language and Kannada language.[262][264]


Multi-pair translations
Language Language code Google Translate[265] Bhashini[266] Microsoft Translator[267] Yandex Translate[268] IBM Watson[269]
Bengali bn Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gujarati gu Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hindi hi Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Kannada kn Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maithili mai Yes Beta Yes No No
Malayalam ml Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Marathi mr Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Meitei (Manipuri) mni (in script specific case, mni-Mtei) Yes Beta No No No
Odia (Oriya) or Yes Yes Yes No No
Punjabi pa Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tamil ta Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Telugu te Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Writing systems

Main articles: Official scripts of the Indian Republic, Brahmic scripts, and Nastaliq

Most languages in India are written in scripts derived from Brahmi.[270] These include Devanagari, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Meitei Mayek, Odia, Eastern Nagari – Assamese/Bengali, Gurumukhi and other. Urdu is written in a script derived from Arabic. A few minor languages such as Santali use independent scripts (see Ol Chiki script).

Various Indian languages have their own scripts. Hindi, Marathi, Maithili[271] and Angika are languages written using the Devanagari script. Most major languages are written using a script specific to them, such as Assamese (Asamiya)[272][273] with Asamiya,[274] Bengali with Bengali, Punjabi with Gurmukhi, Meitei with Meitei Mayek, Odia with Odia script, Gujarati with Gujarati, etc. Urdu and Kashmiri, Saraiki and Sindhi are written in modified versions of the Perso-Arabic script. With this one exception, the scripts of Indian languages are native to India. Languages like Kodava that didn't have a script whereas Tulu which had a script adopted Kannada due to its readily available printing settings; these languages have taken up the scripts of the local official languages as their own and are written in the Kannada script.[275]

Seal, Signature and handwriting of Maratha Senadhurandar Mudhoji Bhonsle I of Chandrapur and Nagpur. This text is written in Modi script which was used as an alternative script for Marathi.

See also


  1. ^ In modern and colloquial context, the term "Indic" also refers more generally to the languages of the Indian subcontinent, thus also including non-Indo-Aryan languages. See e.g. Reynolds, Mike; Verma, Mahendra (2007). "Indic languages". In Britain, David (ed.). Language in the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 293–307. ISBN 978-0-521-79488-6. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  2. ^ See Official languages of Puducherry
  3. ^ The Meitei language (officially called Manipuri) versions of the press releases are presently available in Bengali script, but there is plan of changing the script into Meitei script (Manipuri script) in due course of time.
  4. ^ Google Translate mentions both "Meiteilon" as well as "Manipuri" (within the parentheses) at the same time for the Meitei language (officially known as Manipuri language).
  5. ^ Meitei language uses both Meitei script as well as Bengali script officially but Google Translate uses Meitei script only.
  6. ^ Punjabi language uses both Gurmukhi script as well as Shahmukhi script officially but Google Translate uses Gurmukhi script only.
  1. ^ Although linguistically Hindi and Urdu are the same language called Hindustani, the government classifies them as separate languages instead of different standard registers of same language.


  1. ^ a b c "Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Official Language Act | Government of India, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  3. ^ Salzmann, Zdenek; Stanlaw, James; Adachi, Nobuko (8 July 2014). Language, Culture, and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Westview Press. ISBN 9780813349558 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Official Language – The Union -Profile – Know India: National Portal of India". Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Indo-Aryan languages". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b c "Hindi languages". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b Kak, Subhash (January 1996). "Indic Language Families and Indo-European". Yavanika. The Indic family has the sub-families of North Indian and Dravidian
  8. ^ Reynolds, Mike; Verma, Mahendra (2007), Britain, David (ed.), "Indic languages", Language in the British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 293–307, ISBN 978-0-521-79488-6, retrieved 4 October 2021
  9. ^ Kak, Subhash. "On The Classification Of Indic Languages" (PDF). Louisiana State University.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Moseley, Christopher (10 March 2008). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79640-2.
  11. ^ Seetharaman, G. (13 August 2017). "Seven decades after Independence, many small languages in India face extinction threat". The Economic Times.
  12. ^ "What countries have the most languages?". Ethnologue. 22 May 2019.
  13. ^ Aadithiyan, Kavin (10 November 2016). "Notes and Numbers: How the New Currency May Resurrect an Old Language Debate". Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  14. ^ "Article 343 in The Constitution Of India 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  15. ^ a b Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  16. ^ a b Press Trust of India (25 January 2010). "Hindi, not a national language: Court". The Hindu. Ahmedabad. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  17. ^ Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constution [sic]. Archived 4 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ a b "Census Data 2001 : General Note". Census of India. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  19. ^ a b Abidi, S.A.H.; Gargesh, Ravinder (2008). "4. Persian in South Asia". In Kachru, Braj B. (ed.). Language in South Asia. Kachru, Yamuna & Sridhar, S.N. Cambridge University Press. pp. 103–120. ISBN 978-0-521-78141-1.
  20. ^ Bhatia, Tej K and William C. Ritchie. (2006) Bilingualism in South Asia. In: Handbook of Bilingualism, pp. 780-807. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
  21. ^ "Decline of Farsi language – The Times of India". The Times of India. 7 January 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  22. ^ "Hindi mother tongue of 44% in India, Bangla second most spoken – The Times of India". The Times of India. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  23. ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal; Gandhi, Mohandas (1937). The question of language: Issue 6 of Congress political and economic studies. K. M. Ashraf.
  24. ^ a b c Hardgrave, Robert L. (August 1965). The Riots in Tamilnad: Problems and Prospects of India's Language Crisis. Asian Survey. University of California Press.
  25. ^ "Maharashtra to join 'anti – Hindi' stir at Bengaluru".
  26. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  27. ^ "Telugu language | Origin, History, & Facts | Britannica". 20 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  28. ^ "What census data reveals about use of Indian languages". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
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