Vishnū Vāman Shirwādkar
विष्णू वामन शिरवाडकर
Portrait of Kusumagraj
Born(1912-02-27)27 February 1912
Died10 March 1999(1999-03-10) (aged 87)
Nationality British India (1912-1947)
 India (1947-1999)
Occupation(s)Poet, playwright, novelist, short story writer, humanist
Notable workVishakha
AwardsSahitya Akademi Award (1974)
Jnanpith Award (1987)
Padma Bhushan (1991)

Vishnū Vāman Shirwādkar (27 February 1912 – 10 March 1999), popularly known by his pen name, Kusumāgraj, was an Marathi poet, playwright, novelist and short story writer, who wrote of freedom, justice and emancipation of the deprived,[1]

In a career spanning five decades starting in India's pre-independence era, he wrote 16 volumes of poems, three novels, eight volumes of short stories, seven volumes of essays, 18 plays and six one-act plays.[2] His works like the Vishakha (1942), a collection of lyrics, inspired a generation into the Indian freedom movement, and is today considered one of the masterpieces of Indian literature.[3]

He was the recipient of the 1974 Sahitya Akademi Award in Marathi for Natsamrat, Padma Bhushan (1991)[4] and the Jnanapith Award in 1987;[5]

He also served as the President of the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan held at Margao in 1964.[6]

Early life and education

Kusumagraj was born into a Deshastha Brahmin family [7] on 27 February 1912 in Nashik as Gajanan Ranganath Shirwadkar. He even published some of his poetry under this name in 1930s. Upon being adopted somewhat late in life in 1930s, his name was changed to Vishnu Waman Shirwadkar. He later adopted the sobriquet 'Kusumagraj'. He pursued his primary education in Pimpalgaon and high school education in the New English School of Nashik, which is now called J.S. Rungtha High School of Nashik. He passed matriculation from Mumbai University.[8] In 1944, he married Manorama (née : Gangubai Sonawani) ; she died in 1972).[9] He was associated with Rajaram College, Kolhapur. Noted critic Keshav Rangnath Shirwadkar (1926-2018) was his younger brother. [10]


While Shirwadkar was at the H. P. T. Arts College in Nashik,[11] his poems were published in the Ratnakar (रत्नाकर) magazine.[12] In 1932, at the age of 20, Shirwadkar participated in a satyagraha to support the demand for allowing the entry of the untouchables in the Kalaram Temple at Nashik.[9]

In 1933, Shirwadkar established the Dhruv Mandal (ध्रुव मंडळ ) and started writing in a newspaper called Nava Manu (नवा मनू). In the same year, his first collection of poems, Jeevanlahari (जीवन लहरी), was published.[9] In 1934, Shirwadkar obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Marathi and English languages, from the H. P. T. College in Nashik.[11]

Shirwadkar joined Godavari Cinetone Ltd. in 1936 and wrote the screenplay for the movie Sati Sulochana (सती सुलोचना). He also acted in the movie as Lord Lakshmana.[13] However, the film failed to be a success.[14]

He later worked as a journalist. He wrote in periodicals such as Saptahik Prabha (साप्ताहिक प्रभा), Dainik Prabhat (दैनिक प्रभात), Saarathi (सारथी), Dhanurdari (धनुर्धारी), and Navayug (नवयुग). 1942 was a turning point in the career of Kusumagraj, as the father-figure of Marathi literature, Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar, published Kusumgraj's compilation of poetry, Vishakha (विशाखा) at his own expense, and in his preface describing Kusumagraj as a poet of humanity, wrote, "His words manifest the social discontent but retain the optimistic conviction that the old world was giving way to a new one."[15] Its publication coincided with the Quit India Movement, and carried the message of freedom and stood against slavery, and soon its words became popular with young men and women; in time it was to become his lasting legacy to Indian literature.[16]

After 1943, he started adapting the plays by literary giants like Oscar Wilde, Moliere, Maurice Maeterlinck and Shakespeare, especially his tragedies, and which played an important role in boosting Marathi theatre of the period. This continued into the 1970s when his masterpiece Natsamrat , styled after Shakespeare's play King Lear , was first staged in 1970, with Sriram Lagoo as the lead.[15] In 1946, he wrote his first novel Vaishnav (वैष्णव) and his first play Doorche Dive (दूरचे दिवे).[9] From 1946 to 1948, he also edited a weekly called Swadesh (स्वदेश).[9]

While temperamentally he ranged from reclusive to exclusive, he had a keen social sense and championed the cause of the downtrodden without involving himself in ground level activities. In 1950, he founded the Lokahitawādi Mandal (लोकहितवादी; organisation for social good) in Nashik which is still in existence. He also edited certain academic textbooks for school students.[9]

However, Kusumagraj's main claim to fame was as a poet and writer. In 1954, he adapted Shakespeare's Macbeth as Rajmukut (राजमुकुट), 'The Royal Crown' to Marathi. It starred Nanasaheb Phatak and Durga Khote (Lady Macbeth). He also adapted Othello in 1960.[17] He also worked as a lyricist in Marathi cinema.

His work reflected the changing social milieu, from being the reflection of national uprising during Indian freedom struggle and in the post-independence era it got steeped into rising social-consciousness amongst Marathi writers, which marked the advent of modern Dalit literature.[15]

Shirwadkar was also an active participant in the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement.[9]

Awards and recognition

To honour his work in Marathi Literature, every year the birthday of Kusumagraj, 27 February, is celebrated as "Marathi Bhasha Din" (मराठी भाषा दिन) (transl. Marathi Language Day).[9]


He died on 10 March 1999 in Nashik,[2] where his home also served as the office of the Kusumāgraj Pratishthān.[18]


Collections of poems

Edited collections of poems

Collections of stories


One-act plays


Works in translation

Visualisation of works of Kusumagraj

The translation of Meghadūta by Kusumagraj was visualised by watercolour artist Nana Joshi. These visualisations were published in the Menaka Diwali issue in 1979.[19] Natsamrat, a play written by V.V. Shirwadkar for which he won several accolades, was also adapted on screen by director Mahesh Manjrekar with veteran actor Nana Patekar as Natsamrat (2016), after successful runs of the play's theatre adaptations.[20]

See also


  1. ^ Modern Indian literature, an anthology, (Volume 2). Sahitya Akademi. 1992. p. 846. ISBN 81-7201-324-8.
  2. ^ a b "Kusumagraj is dead". Indian Express. 11 March 1999.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ K. M. George, ed. (1997). Masterpieces of Indian literature, (Volume 1). National Book Trust. p. 927. ISBN 81-237-1978-7.
  4. ^ "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  5. ^ "Bharatiya Jnanpith". Jnanpith.net. 31 August 1940. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Rediff on the NeT: Marathi poet-playwright Kusumagraj, 87, passes away". Archived from the original on 27 February 2018.
  7. ^ The Illustrated Weekly of India, Volume 95. Bennett, Coleman & Company, Limited, at the Times of India Press. 1974. p. 31. Marathi literature is strewn with Deshastha writers. Some of the luminaries are B. S. Murdhekar, the neo classical poet and critic; the popular dramatists Acharya P. K. Atre, V.V.Shirwadkar; the poet and story writer G.D.Madgulkar popularly known as the "Modern Walmiki" of Maharashtra, Sahitya Akademi Award winners G. T. Deshpande, Laxmanshastri Joshi, S. N. Banhatti, V. K. Gokak and Mugali all belong to this community.
  8. ^ "Welcome to kusumagraj Pratishthan — Web Site of Kusumagraj / Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar". Kusumagraj.org. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Welcome to kusumagraj Pratishthan — Web Site of Kusumagraj / Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar". Kusumagraj.org. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  10. ^ "के.रं.शिरवाडकर निधन (कुसुमाग्रजांचे बंधू)".
  11. ^ a b "12020675-HPT College to Host 'Smaranrang' | News". Cafenasik.com. 18 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Dadasaheb Phalke — Nashik.com — A complete guide of Nashik city". Nashik.com. 3 May 1913. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  15. ^ a b c Gohkale, Madhav (13 March 1999). "A master craftsman". Indian Express.[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (1995). History of Indian Literature: .1911–1956, struggle for freedom : triumph and tragedy (Volume 1). Sahitya Akademi. p. 90. ISBN 81-7201-798-7.
  17. ^ "Shakespeare in India (6) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions". Internetshakespeare.uvic.ca. 7 June 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  18. ^ "Act of will – Kusumagraj signs off with a flourish". Indian Express. 13 March 1999.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ Joshi, Nana. "A Visual Interpretation of Kalidas' Meghadūta". Joshi Artist. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  20. ^ "Epic Marathi dramas that are being recreated on silver screens". Starkut.com. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2016.