Jayakanthan in 2012
Jayakanthan in 2012
Born(1934-04-24)24 April 1934
Cuddalore, South Arcot District, Madras Presidency, British India
Died8 April 2015(2015-04-08) (aged 80)
Chennai, India
OccupationNovelist, short story writer, screenplay writer, film director
Notable awardsPadma Bhusan, Jnanpith, Sahitya Akademi Award, Order of Friendship

D. Jayakanthan (24 April 1934 – 8 April 2015), popularly known as JK,[1] was an Indian writer, journalist, orator, filmmaker, critic and activist. Born in Cuddalore, he dropped out of school at the age of 9 and went to Madras, where he joined the Communist Party of India. In a career spanning six decades, he authored around 40 novels, 200 short stories, apart from two autobiographies. Outside literature, he made two films. In addition, four of his other novels were adapted into films by others.

Jayakanthan's literary honours include Jnanpith and Sahitya Akademi awards. He was also a recipient of Padma Bhushan (2009), India's third-highest civilian honour,[2] the Soviet Land Nehru Award (1978), and the Russian government's Order of Friendship (2011).


Jayakanthan was born in 1934 into a family of agriculturists in Manjakuppam, a suburb of Cuddalore, a part of the South Arcot District of the erstwhile Madras Presidency. Brought up by his mother and maternal uncles, he got interested in politics at a young age as his uncles were actively involved in it. As a child, he was highly inspired by the works of Subramania Bharati.[3] Jayakanthan dropped himself out of school after completing fifth grade, as he thought studies would hinder his political activism.[4]

In 1946, he left for Madras (now Chennai) in search of livelihood, where he performed odd jobs, before ending up as a compositor in the printing press of Communist Party of India (CPI).[5] His association with the CPI, instilled the ideas of the movement,[6] where he got to accompany leaders such as P. Jeevanandham, Baladandayutham and S. Ramakrishnan. The leaders of the party encouraged him to write.[7] After graduating to an active member of the party, he got to learn about topics pertaining to world literature, culture, politics, economics and journalism. It was during this time, Jayakanthan started writing for pro-communist magazines. Over the next few years, he established himself as one of the top-most writers in the party. His early works were first published in the party newspaper Janasakthi, and soon other magazines like Sarasvathi, Thamarai, Santhi, Manithan, Sakthi and Samaran published his works. His early works focussed on the plight of slum-dwellers who were settled in and around the party office.[4]

Jayakanthan wrote his first short story for a Tamil magazine titled Sowbakiyavathi,[5] which got it published in 1953. Following early success, Jayakanthan started writing for mainstream magazines such as Ananda Vikatan, Kumudam and Dinamani Kadir, who published a number of short-stories particularly in the 1960s.[1][7] In 1964, Jayakanthan entered films by co-producing and directing a venture titled Unnaipol Oruvan, based on his novel.[7] The film focussed on the plight of slum-dwellers. Although a commercial failure, it won the President's Certificate of Merit for the Third Best Feature Film in 1965.[8] The following year he made another film based on his namesake novel Yaarukkaga Azhudhaan which had Nagesh playing the lead role.[9] His novel Sila Nerangalil Sila Manithargal (1970) won him the Sahitya Akademi Award (for Tamil) in 1972. Later this was adapted into a film of the same name by A. Bhimsingh, which won a National Film Award. Promoted by the film's success, Bhimsingh made one more film tilted Oru Nadigai Naadagam Paarkiral, based on his namesake novel.[10]

In 2008, Ravisubramaniyan made a documentary film on Jayakanthan, the second of its kind, and was produced by Ilaiyaraaja.[11] In 2011, Sila Nerangalil Sila Manithargal was adapted into a Malayalam television series Chila Nerangalil Chila Manushyar.[12] In February 2014, Jayakanthan was admitted into a private hospital in Chennai following illness. Following a brief illness, he was discharged after a year, and died on 8 April 2015.[5]

In 2017 his award-winning novel Oru Manithan Oru Veedu Oru Ulagam is being made as a feature film by award-winning filmmaker Kumar G. Venkatesh.

A musical tribute to Jayakanthan was released by Bava Chelladurai, Bharathi Baskar and Jeyamohan on 24th April 2023 as part of Jayakanthan's birthday celebration. Composer Rajan Somasundaram selected three of Jayakanthan's poems and created the musical tribute sung by Sathyaprakash. [13]

Personal life, influences and political views

Jayakanthan was married to his cousin. The couple had two daughters and a son.[5] Born in a family that had a lot of political activists, Jayakanthan became interested in politics at a young age. He became a strong supporter of the CPI ever since joining the party in the 1950s.[14] He was coaxed to join politics by K. Baladhandayutham of the CPI. While he stood up against the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and its leaders for a majority of his lifetime, he supported the CPI leaders for "Nehruvian socialism" and had a great admiration Indira Gandhi. He quit the CPI, and later joined the Tamil Desiyak Katchi, founded by E. V. K. Sampath, before joining the Indian National Congress. He remarked the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam as a "fascist" organisation.[5]

Literary style and themes

A majority of Jayakanthan's works revolve around the lives of underclass people like rickshaw-pullers, prostitutes and rag-pickers. In an interview, he said that during his initial days in Chennai he spent his life amidst such people. This prompted him to develop a liking towards them.[15]


Prolific Tamil writer Jeyamohan has written numerous articles about the fictional world in Jayakanthan's works, and also had extensively discussed it in his book Mannum Marabum along with several other authors.[16] Major Tamil critic M. Vedhasagayakumar has made a comparative study on the works of Jayakanthan and Pudhumaipithan. Jayanthasri Balakrishnan did her doctoral research study in Tamil on complete novellas of Jayakanthan.[17] Jayakanthanin ilakkiyathadam, Jayakanthan oru paarvai are the books written on the works of Jayakanthan by Pa. Krishnasamy and K.S. Subramanian respectively.

A full-length documentary made by filmmaker Ravi Subramaniam and other essays by several Tamil writers written after the death of the writer are also considered notableworks on him.

Works of Jayakanthan


Novels and novelettes

Film adaptations

Short stories

Jayakanthan's portfolio includes 200 short stories.[18][19]


Awards and honours

See also


  1. ^ a b S., Dorairaj (2012). "Social realist". Frontline. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  2. ^ "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  3. ^ Raman, N Kalyana (10 April 2015). "Jayakanthan 1934-2015 - in the commoner's era". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e S, Viswanthan. "A writer in his world". Frontline. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Jnanapith winner Jayakanthan dead". The Hindu. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  6. ^ S, Viswanthan. "Celluloid tribute". Frontline. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Legendary Tamil writer Jayakanthan 'JK' passes away". Rediff.com. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  8. ^ Times of India (Firm) (1965). The Times of India Directory and Year Book Including Who's who. Bennett, Coleman. p. 279.
  9. ^ a b Bhaskaran, S. Theodre. "Tragic comedian". Frontline. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Jnanapith awardee Tamil writer Jayakanthan died". jagranjosh.com. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  11. ^ "It was Ilaiyaraaja's decision". Frontline. July 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  12. ^ "Chila Nerangalil Chila Manushyar comes alive on Amrita TV". Afaqs. 14 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  13. ^ "Bava Chelladurai and Bharathi Baskar launch Musical Tribute to Jayakanthan". Launch Event. April 2023. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  14. ^ S, Viswanthan (6 February 2015). "A writer in his world". Frontline. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  15. ^ B, Kolappan (9 April 2015). "Firebrand writer who dared to question social mores". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  16. ^ http://jeyamohan.in/?s=%E0%AE%9C%E0%AF%86%E0%AE%AF%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%BE%E0%AE%A8%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%A4%E0%AE%A9%E0%AF%8D+#.WLht_W997IU Jeyamohan Essays, Answers
  17. ^ http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/106462 Jayanthasri Balakrishnan study
  18. ^ "Short Story Collections of Jeyakantan". tamilnation.co. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  19. ^ "Short Story Collections of D. Jayakanthan" (PDF). projectmadurai.org. Retrieved 22 April 2015.