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Bengali alphabet
বাংলা লিপি
Script type
Time period
11th century to the present[1]
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
RegionBengal
LanguagesBengali, Sanskrit, Khasi,[2] Kudmali
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Assamese and Tirhuta
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Beng, 325 Edit this on Wikidata, ​Bengali (Bangla)
Unicode
Unicode alias
Bengali
U+0980–U+09FF
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
This article contains Bengali text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

The Bangla alphabet or Bengali alphabet (Bengali: বাংলা বর্ণমালা, Bangla bôrṇômala) is the alphabet used to write the Bengali language based on the Bengali-Assamese script, and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal. It is one of the most widely adopted writing systems in the world (used by over 265 million people).[4]

From a classificatory point of view, the Bengali writing system is an abugida, i.e. its vowel graphemes are mainly realised not as independent letters, but as diacritics modifying the vowel inherent in the base letter they are added to. Bengali writing system is written from left to right and use a single letter case, which make it a monocameral script, as opposed to bicameral ones like Latin alphabet. It is recognisable, as are other Brahmic scripts, by a distinctive horizontal line known as matra (মাত্রা) running along the tops of the letters that links them together. The Bengali writing system is however less blocky and presents a more sinuous shape than the Devanagari script.[5]

Characters

The Bengali script can be divided into vowels and vowel diacritics/marks, consonants and consonant conjuncts, diacritical and other symbols, digits, and punctuation marks. Vowels & Consonant are used as alphabet and also diacritical marks.

Vowels

The Bengali script has a total of 9 vowel graphemes, each of which is called a স্বরবর্ণ swôrôbôrnô "vowel letter". The swôrôbôrnôs represent six of the seven main vowel sounds of Bengali, along with two vowel diphthongs. All of them are used in both Bengali and Assamese languages.

The table below shows the vowels present in the modern (since the late nineteenth century) inventory of the Bengali alphabet:

Bengali vowels
(স্বরবর্ণ sbôrôbôrnô)
হ্রস্ব (short) দীর্ঘ (long)
স্বর
(vowel phoneme)
কার
(vowel mark)
স্বর
(vowel phoneme)
কার
(vowel mark)
কন্ঠ্য
(Guttural)
ô
/ɔ~o/[a]
- a
/a/[b]
তালব্য
(Palatal)
i
/i/
ি ī/ee
/i/
ওষ্ঠ্য
(Labial)
u
/u/
ū/oo
/u/
মূর্ধন্য
(Retroflex)
ṛ/ri
/ri/
ṝ/rri
দন্ত্য
(Dental)
ḷ/li
/li/
ḹ/lli
যুক্তস্বর (complex vowels)
কন্ঠ্যতালব্য
(Palatoguttural)
e
/e~ɛ/[c]
oi
/oi/
কন্ঠৌষ্ঠ্য
(Labioguttural)
o
/o~ʊ/[d]
ou
/ou/
The consonant ক (kô) along with the diacritic form of the vowels আ, ই, ঈ, উ, ঊ, ঋ, এ, ঐ, ও and ঔ.
The consonant () along with the diacritic form of the vowels আ, ই, ঈ, উ, ঊ, ঋ, এ, ঐ, ও and ঔ.

Notes

  1. ^ The natural pronunciation of the grapheme অ, whether in its independent (visible) form or in its "inherent" (invisible) form in a consonant grapheme, is /ɔ/. But its pronunciation changes to /o/ in the following contexts:
    • অ is in the first syllable and there is a ই /i/ or উ /u/ in the next syllable, as in অতি ôti "much" /ɔt̪i/, বলছি bôlchhi "(I am) speaking" /ˈboltʃʰi/
    • if the অ is the inherent vowel in a word-initial consonant cluster ending in rôfôla "rô ending" /r/, as in প্রথম prôthôm "first" /prɔt̪ʰɔm/
    • if the next consonant cluster contains a jôfôla "jô ending", as in অন্য ônyô "other" /onːo/, জন্য jônyô "for" /dʒɔnːɔ/
  2. ^ /a/, represented by the letter আ, is phonetically realised as a near-open central vowel [ɐ] by most speakers.[6]
  3. ^ Even though the open-mid front unrounded vowel /ɛ/ is one of the seven main vowel sounds in the standard Bengali language, no distinct vowel symbol has been allotted for it in the script, though is used.
  4. ^ /ʊ/ is the original pronunciation of the vowel , though a secondary pronunciation /o/ entered the Bengali phonology by Sanskrit influence. In modern Bengali, both the ancient and adopted pronunciation of can be heard in spoken. Example: The word নোংরা (meaning "foul") is pronounced as /nʊŋra/ and /noŋra/ (Romanized as both nungra and nongra), both.

Consonants

Consonant letters are called ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ bænjônbôrnô "consonant letter" in Bengali. The names of the letters are typically just the consonant sound plus the inherent vowel ô. Since the inherent vowel is assumed and not written, most letters' names look identical to the letter itself (the name of the letter is itself ghô, not gh).

Bengali consonants
(ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ bænjônbôrnô)
স্পর্শ
(Stop)
অনুনাসিক
(Nasal)
অন্তঃস্থ
(Approximant)
ঊষ্ম
(Fricative)
বর্গীয় বর্ণ (Generic sounds)
Voicing অঘোষ (Voiceless) ঘোষ (Voiced) অঘোষ (Voiceless) ঘোষ (Voiced)
Aspiration অল্পপ্রাণ (Unaspirated) মহাপ্রাণ (Aspirated) অল্পপ্রাণ (Unaspirated) মহাপ্রাণ (Aspirated) অল্পপ্রাণ (Unaspirated) মহাপ্রাণ (Aspirated)
কন্ঠ্য
(Guttural)[a]

/kɔ/
khô
/ɔ/

/gɔ/
ghô
/ɡʱɔ/
ngô
/ŋɔ/

/ɦɔ~hɔ/[b]
তালব্য
(Palatal)[c]
chô/sô
/ɔ~tsɔ~sɔ/
chhô/ssô
/tʃʰɔ~tsʰɔ/
ǰô
/ɔ~dzɔ~zɔ/
ǰhô
/dʒʱɔ~dzʱɔ/
ñô
/nɔ~ɔ/[d]

/ɔ~dzɔ~zɔ/[e]
shô
/ʃɔ~ɕɔ~sɔ/[f]
মূর্ধন্য
(Retroflex)[g]
ṭô
/ʈɔ/
ṭhô
/ʈʰɔ/
ḍô
/ɖɔ/
ḍhô
/ɖʱɔ/
ṇô
/nɔ~ɳɔ/[h]

/rɔ/[i]
ṣô
/ɕɔ~ʃɔ/[f]
দন্ত্য
(Dental)

/ɔ/
thô
/t̪ʰɔ/

/ɔ/
dhô
/d̪ʱɔ/

/nɔ/

/lɔ/
sô/shô
/sɔ~ɕɔ~ʃɔ[f]
ওষ্ঠ্য
(Labial)

/pɔ/
phô/fô
/ɔ~ɸɔ~fɔ/[j]

/bɔ/
bhô/vô
/ɔ~βɔ~vɔ/[k]

/mɔ/

/wɔ/
Post-reform letters ড় ṛô
/ɽɔ/
ঢ় ṛhô
/ɽʱɔ~ɽ/
য়
/ɔ~jɔ/

Notes

  1. ^ Though in modern Bengali the letters ক, খ, গ, ঘ, ঙ are actually velar consonants and the letter হ is actually a glottal consonant, texts still use the Sanskrit name "কন্ঠ্য" ("guttural").
  2. ^ When used at the beginning or end of a word, হ is pronounced voiceless /hɔ/ but when used in the middle, it is sounded voiced as /ɦɔ/.
  3. ^ Palatal letters phonetically represent palato-alveolar sounds but in Eastern dialects they mostly are depalatalised or depalatalised and deaffricated.
  4. ^ Original sound for ঞ was /ɲɔ/ but in modern Bengali, it represents /ɔ/ and in consonant conjuncts is pronounced /nɔ/ same as ন.
  5. ^ In Sanskrit, য represented voiced palatal approximant /j/. In Bengali, it developed two allophones: voiced palato-alveolar affricate /ɔ/ same as জ when used at the beginning of a word and the palatal approximant in other cases. When reforming the script, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar introduced য়, representing /ɔ/, to indicate the palatal approximant in the pronunciation of য in the middle or end of a word. In modern Bengali, য represents /ɔ/ and the open-mid front unrounded vowel /ɛ/ as the diacritic jôfôla. It falls into voiced alveolar sibilant affricate /dzɔ/ in Eastern dialects and is also used to represent voiced alveolar sibilant /zɔ/ for Perso-Arabic loanwords.
  6. ^ a b c In Bengali, there are three letters for sibilants: শ, ষ, স. Originally all three had distinctive sounds. In modern Bengali, the most common sibilant varies between /ʃ~ɕ/ – originally represented by শ, but today, স and ষ in words are often pronounced as /ɕ~ʃ/. The other sibilant in Bengali is /s/, originally represented by স, but today, শ and ষ, in words, can sometimes be pronounced as /s/. Another, now extinct, sibilant was /ʂ/, originally represented by ষ. ষ is mostly pronounced as /ɕ~ʃ/, but in conjunction with apical alveolar consonants, the /ʂ/ sound can sometimes be found.
  7. ^ In modern text often the name দন্ত্যমূলীয় ("alveolar") or পশ্চাদ্দন্তমূলীয় ("postalveolar") is used to describe more precisely letters previously described as retroflex.
  8. ^ The original sound for ণ was /ɳɔ/ but in modern Bengali it is almost always pronounced /nɔ/, the same as ন. An exception is in conjuncts with other retroflex letters, where the original sound for ণ can occasionally be found.
  9. ^ The /r/ phoneme is pronounced either as a voiced alveolar trill [r], voiced alveolar flap [ɾ] or voiced alveolar approximant [ɹ]. Most speakers pronounce /r/ as a flap [ɾ], although the trill [r] may occur word-initially; with the flap [ɾ] occurring medially and finally. /r/ is usually realised as an approximant [ɹ] in some Eastern dialects.[8][9]
  10. ^ Although ফ represents the aspirated form of the voiceless bilabial stop /ɔ/ it is pronounced either voiceless labial fricative /ɸɔ/ (in Eastern dialects) or voiceless labiodental fricative /fɔ/ in ordinary speech.
  11. ^ Although ভ represents the aspirated form of the voiced bilabial stop /ɔ/ it is pronounced either voiced labial fricative /βɔ/ (in Eastern dialects) or voiced labiodental fricative /vɔ/ in ordinary speech.

Consonant conjuncts

Main article: Bengali consonant clusters

The consonant ligature ndrô (ন্দ্র) : ন (nô) in green, দ (dô) in blue and র (rô) in maroon.
The consonant ligature ndrô (ন্দ্র) : ন () in green, দ () in blue and র () in maroon.

Clusters of up to four consonants can be orthographically represented as a typographic ligature called a consonant conjunct (Bengali: যুক্তাক্ষর/যুক্তবর্ণ juktakkhôr/juktôbôrnô or more specifically যুক্তব্যঞ্জন). Typically, the first consonant in the conjunct is shown above and/or to the left of the following consonants. Many consonants appear in an abbreviated or compressed form when serving as part of a conjunct. Others simply take exceptional forms in conjuncts, bearing little or no resemblance to the base character.

Often, consonant conjuncts are not actually pronounced as would be implied by the pronunciation of the individual components. For example, adding underneath shô in Bengali creates the conjunct শ্ল, which is not pronounced shlô but slô in Bengali. Many conjuncts represent Sanskrit sounds that were lost centuries before modern Bengali was ever spoken as in জ্ঞ. It is a combination of ǰô and ñô but it is not pronounced "ǰñô" or "jnô". Instead, it is pronounced ggô in modern Bengali. Thus, as conjuncts often represent (combinations of) sounds that cannot be easily understood from the components, the following descriptions are concerned only with the construction of the conjunct, and not the resulting pronunciation.

(Some graphemes may appear in a form other than the mentioned form due to the font used)

Fused forms

Some consonants fuse in such a way that one stroke of the first consonant also serves as a stroke of the next.

Approximated forms

Some consonants are written closer to one another simply to indicate that they are in a conjunct together.

Compressed forms

Some consonants are compressed (and often simplified) when appearing as the first member of a conjunct.

Abbreviated forms

Some consonants are abbreviated when appearing in conjuncts and lose part of their basic shape.

Variant forms

Some consonants have forms that are used regularly but only within conjuncts.

Exceptions

Certain compounds

When serving as a vowel mark, উ u, ঊ u, and ঋ ri take on many exceptional forms.

Diacritics and other symbols

These are mainly the Brahmi-Sanskrit diacritics, phones and punctuation marks present in languages with Sanskrit influence or Brahmi-derived scripts.

সংশোধক বর্ণ sôngshodhôk bôrnô
Symbol/
Graphemes
Name Function Romanization IPA
transcription
[nc 1] খণ্ড ত
khôndô tô
Special character. Final unaspirated dental [t̪] t /t̪/
[nc 2] অনুস্বার
ônushshar
Diacritic. Final velar nasal [ŋ] ng /ŋ/
[nc 2] বিসর্গ
bishôrgô
Diacritic.
1. Doubles the next consonant sound without the vowel (spelling feature) in দুঃখ dukkhô, the k of khô was repeated before the whole khô
2. "h" sound at end, examples: এঃ eh!, উঃ uh!
3. Silent in spellings like অন্তঃনগর ôntônôgôr meaning "Inter-city"
4. Also used as abbreviation, as in কিঃমিঃ (similar to "km" in English), for the word কিলোমিটার "kilometer", or ডাঃ (similar to "Dr" in English) for ডাক্তার dāktār "doctor"
h /ḥ/
‍ঁ চন্দ্রবিন্দু
chôndrôbindu
Diacritic. Vowel nasalization ñ /ñ/
‍্ হসন্ত
hôshôntô
Diacritic. Suppresses the inherent vowel [ɔ] (ô)
‍ঽ অবগ্রহ
ôbôgrôhô
Special character or sign. Used for prolonging vowel sounds
Example1: শোনঽঽঽ shônôôôô meaning "listennnn..." (listen), this is where the default inherited vowel sound ô in is prolonged.
Example2: কিঽঽঽ? kiiii? meaning "Whatttt...?" (What?), this is where the vowel sound i which is attached with the consonant is prolonged.
-
‍্য যফলা
jôfôla
Diacritic. Used with two types of pronunciation in modern Bengali depending on the location of the consonant it is used with within a syllable
Example 1 - When the consonant it is used with is syllable-initial, it acts as the vowel /ɛ/: ত্যাগ is pronounced /t̪ɛg/
Example 2 - When the consonant it is used with is syllable-final, it doubles the consonant: মুখ্য is pronounced /mukʰːɔ/
Notably used in transliterating English words with /ɛ/ sounding vowels, e.g. ব্ল্যাক "black" and sometimes as a diacritic to indicate non-Bengali vowels of various kinds in transliterated foreign words, e.g. the schwa indicated by a jôfôla, the French u, and the German umlaut ü as উ্য uyô, the German umlaut ö as ও্য oyô or এ্য eyô
ê / yô /ɛ/ or /ː/
‍‍্র রফলা
rôfôla
Diacritic. [r] pronounced following a consonant phoneme. r /r/
‍‍র্ক রেফ
ref/reph
Diacritic. [r] pronounced preceding a consonant phoneme. r /r/
‍্ব বফলা
bôfôla
Diacritic. Used in spellings only if they were adopted from Sanskrit and has two different pronunciations depending on the location of the consonant it is used with
Example 1 - When the consonant it is used with is syllable-initial, it remains silent: স্বাধীন is pronounced as /ʃad̪ʱin/ rather than /ʃbad̪ʱin/
Example 2 - When the consonant it is used with is syllable-final, it doubles the consonant: বিদ্বান is pronounced /bid̪ːan/ and বিশ্ব is pronounced /biʃːɔ/
However, certain Sanskrit sandhis (phonetic fusions) such as 'ঋগ্বেদ', 'দিগ্বিজয়', 'উদ্বেগ', 'উদ্বৃত্ত' are pronounced /rigbed̪/, /d̪igbidʒɔe̯/, /ud̪beg/, /ud̪brittɔ/ respectively while usage with the consonant defies phonological rules: 'আহ্বান' and 'জিহ্বা' are properly pronounced /aobɦan/ and /dʒiobɦa/ rather than /aɦban/ and /dʒiɦba/, respectively.
Also used in transliterating Islam-related Arabic words
Note: Not all instances of bô used as the last member of a conjunct are bôfôla, for example, in the words অম্বর ômbôr, লম্বা lômba, তিব্বত tibbôt, বাল্ব balb, etc.
- /ː/
‍৺ ঈশ্বার
ishshar
Sign. Represents the name of a deity or also written before the name of a deceased person
আঞ্জী/সিদ্ধিরস্তু
anji /siddhirôstu
Sign. Used at the beginning of texts as an invocation

Notes

  1. ^ ৎ (khôndô tô "part-") is always used syllable-finally and always pronounced as /t̪/. It is predominantly found in loan words from Sanskrit such as ভবিষ্যৎ bhôbishyôt "future", সত্যজিৎ sôtyôjit (a proper name), etc. It is also found in some onomatopoeic words (such as থপাৎ thôpat "sound of something heavy that fell", মড়াৎ môrat "sound of something breaking", etc.), as the first member of some consonant conjuncts (such as ৎস tsô, ৎপ tpô, ৎক tkô, etc.), and in some foreign loanwords (e.g. নাৎসি natsi "Nazi", জুজুৎসু jujutsu "Jujutsu", ৎসুনামি tsunami "Tsunami", etc.) which contain the same conjuncts. It is an overproduction inconsistency, as the sound /t̪/ is realised by both ত and ৎ. This creates confusion among inexperienced writers of Bengali. There is no simple way of telling which symbol should be used. Usually, the contexts where ৎ is used need to be memorised, as they are less frequent. In the native Bengali words, syllable-final ত /t̪ɔ/ is pronounced /t̪/, as in নাতনি /nat̪ni/ "grand-daughter", করাত /kɔrat̪/ "saw", etc.
  2. ^ a b -h and -ng are also often used as abbreviation marks in Bengali, with -ng used when the next sound following the abbreviation would be a nasal sound, and -h otherwise. For example, ডঃ dôh stands for ডক্টর dôktôr "doctor" and নং nông stands for নম্বর nômbôr "number". Some abbreviations have no marking at all, as in ঢাবি dhabi for ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় Dhaka Bishbôbidyalôy "University of Dhaka". The full stop can also be used when writing out English letters as initials, such as ই.ইউ. i.iu "EU".

Digits and numerals

Main article: Bengali numerals

The Bengali script has ten numerical digits (graphemes or symbols indicating the numbers from 0 to 9). Bengali numerals have no horizontal headstroke or মাত্রা "matra".

Bengali numerals
Hindu-Arabic numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Bengali numerals

Numbers larger than 9 are written in Bengali using a positional base 10 numeral system (the decimal system). A period or dot is used to denote the decimal separator, which separates the integral and the fractional parts of a decimal number. When writing large numbers with many digits, commas are used as delimiters to group digits, indicating the thousand (হাজার hazar), the hundred thousand or lakh (লাখ lakh or লক্ষ lôkkhô), and the ten million or hundred lakh or crore (কোটি koti) units. In other words, leftwards from the decimal separator, the first grouping consists of three digits, and the subsequent groupings always consist of two digits.

For example, the English number 17,557,345 will be written in traditional Bengali as ১,৭৫,৫৭,৩৪৫.

Punctuation marks

Bengali punctuation marks, apart from the downstroke দাড়ি dari (।), the Bengali equivalent of a full stop, have been adopted from western scripts and their usage is similar: Commas, semicolons, colons, quotation marks, etc. are the same as in English. Capital letters are absent in the Bengali script so proper names are unmarked.
An apostrophe, known in Bengali as ঊর্ধ্বকমা urdhbôkôma "upper comma", is sometimes used to distinguish between homographs, as in পাটা pata "plank" and পাʼটা pa'ta "the leg". Sometimes, a hyphen is used for the same purpose (as in পা-টা, an alternative of পাʼটা).

Characteristics of the Bengali text

An example of handwritten Bengali script. Part of a poem written by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore in 1926 in Hungary.
An example of handwritten Bengali script. Part of a poem written by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore in 1926 in Hungary.

Bengali text is written and read horizontally, from left to right. The consonant graphemes and the full form of vowel graphemes fit into an imaginary rectangle of uniform size (uniform width and height). The size of a consonant conjunct, regardless of its complexity, is deliberately maintained the same as that of a single consonant grapheme, so that diacritic vowel forms can be attached to it without any distortion. In a typical Bengali text, orthographic words, words as they are written, can be seen as being separated from each other by an even spacing. Graphemes within a word are also evenly spaced, but that spacing is much narrower than the spacing between words.

Unlike in western scripts (Latin, Cyrillic, etc.) for which the letter-forms stand on an invisible baseline, the Bengali letter-forms instead hang from a visible horizontal left-to-right headstroke called মাত্রা matra. The presence and absence of this matra can be important. For example, the letter ত and the numeral ৩ "3" are distinguishable only by the presence or absence of the matra, as is the case between the consonant cluster ত্র trô and the independent vowel এ e. The letter-forms also employ the concepts of letter-width and letter-height (the vertical space between the visible matra and an invisible baseline).

Grapheme Percentage
11.32
8.96
7.01
6.63
4.44
4.15
4.14
3.83
2.78

According to Bengali linguist Munier Chowdhury, there are about nine graphemes that are the most frequent in Bengali texts, shown with its percentage of appearance in the adjacent table.[10]

Comparison of Bengali script with ancestral and related scripts

Vowels

a ā i ī u ū e ai o au
Bengali
Odia
Devanagari
Siddham

Consonants

k kh g gh c ch j jh ñ ṭh ḍh t th d dh n p ph b bh m ẏ,y r l,ḷ w ś s h kṣ
Bengali য,য় ওয় ক্ষ জ্ঞ
Odia ଯ,ୟ ଲ,ଳ କ୍ଷ ଜ୍ଞ
Devanagari ल,ळ क्ष ज्ञ
Siddham

Vowel diacritics

ka ki ku kṛ kṝ kḷ kḹ ke kai ko kau
Bengali কা কি কী কু কূ কৃ কৄ কৢ কৣ কে কৈ কো কৌ
Odia କା କି କୀ କୁ କୂ କୃ କୄ କୢ କୣ କେ କୈ କୋ କୌ
Devanagari का कि की कु कू कृ कॄ कॢ कॣ के कै को कौ

Standardization

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In the script, clusters of consonants are represented by different and sometimes quite irregular forms; thus, learning to read is complicated by the sheer size of the full set of letters and letter combinations, numbering about 350. While efforts at standardising the alphabet for the Bengali language continue in such notable centres as the Bangla Academy at Dhaka (Bangladesh) and the Pôshchimbônggô Bangla Akademi at Kolkata (West Bengal, India), it is still not quite uniform yet, as many people continue to use various archaic forms of letters, resulting in concurrent forms for the same sounds.

Romanization

Main article: Romanization of Bengali

Romanization of Bengali is the representation of the Bengali language in the Latin script. There are various ways of Romanization systems of Bengali, created in recent years but failed to represent the true Bengali phonetic sound. While different standards for romanisation have been proposed for Bengali, they have not been adopted with the degree of uniformity seen in languages such as Japanese or Sanskrit.[nb 2] The Bengali alphabet has often been included with the group of Brahmic scripts for romanisation in which the true phonetic value of Bengali is never represented. Some of them are the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration or "IAST system"[11] "Indian languages Transliteration" or ITRANS (uses upper case alphabets suited for ASCII keyboards),[12] and the extension of IAST intended for non-Sanskrit languages of the Indian region called the National Library at Kolkata romanisation.[13]

Sample texts

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The first line is the Bengali alphabet; the second a phonetic Romanization, the third IPA.

সমস্ত

Šomosto

ʃɔmɔst̪o

All

মানুষ

manush

manuʃ

human

স্বাধীনভাবে

šadhinbhabe

ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe

free-manner-in

সমান

šoman

ʃɔman

equal

মর্যাদা

morjada

mɔrdʒad̪a

dignity

এবং

ebong

ebɔŋ

and

অধিকার

odhikar

ɔd̪ʱikar

right

নিয়ে

niye

nie̯e

taken

জন্মগ্রহণ

jonmogrohon

dʒɔnmɔɡrɔhɔn

birth-take

করে।

kore.

kɔre.

do.

তাঁদের

Tãder

t̪ãd̪er

Their

বিবেক

bibek

bibek

reason

এবং

ebong

ebɔŋ

and

বুদ্ধি

buddhi

bud̪ːʱi

intelligence

আছে;

achhe;

atʃʰe;

exist;

সুতরাং

šutôrang

ʃut̪ɔraŋ

therefore

সকলেরই

šokoleri

ʃɔkɔleri

everyone-indeed

একে

æke

ɛke

one

অপরের

oporer

ɔpɔrer

another's

প্রতি

proti

prɔt̪i

towards

ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ

bhratrittošulobh

bʱrat̪rit̪ːoʃulɔbʱ

brotherhood-ly

মনোভাব

monobhab

mɔnobʱab

attitude

নিয়ে

niye

nie̯e

taken

আচরণ

achoron

atʃɔrɔn

conduct

করা

kora

kɔra

do

উচিত।

uchit.

utʃit̪

should.

সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত।

Šomosto manush šadhinbhabe šoman morjada ebong odhikar niye jonmogrohon kore. Tãder bibek ebong buddhi achhe; šutôrang šokoleri æke oporer proti bhratrittošulobh monobhab niye achoron kora uchit.

ʃɔmɔst̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe ʃɔman mɔrdʒad̪a ebɔŋ ɔd̪ʱikar nie̯e dʒɔnmɔɡrɔhɔn kɔre. t̪ãd̪er bibek ebɔŋ bud̪ːʱi atʃʰe; ʃut̪ɔraŋ ʃɔkɔleri ɛke ɔpɔrer prɔt̪i bʱrat̪rit̪ːoʃulɔbʱ mɔnobʱab nie̯e atʃɔrɔn kɔra utʃit̪

All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Unicode

Main article: Bengali (Unicode block)

Bengali script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Bengali is U+0980–U+09FF:

Bengali[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+098x
U+099x
U+09Ax
U+09Bx ি
U+09Cx
U+09Dx
U+09Ex
U+09Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Different Bengali linguists give different numbers of Bengali diphthongs in their works depending on methodology, e.g. 25 (Chatterji 1939: 40), 31 (Hai 1964), 45 (Ashraf and Ashraf 1966: 49), 28 (Kostic and Das 1972:6–7) and 17 (Sarkar 1987).
  2. ^ In Japanese, there is some debate as to whether to accent certain distinctions, such as Tōhoku vs Tohoku. Sanskrit is well-standardized because the speaking community is relatively small, and sound change is not a large concern.

References

  1. ^ "Ancient Scripts". Archived from the original on 16 November 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
  2. ^ "ScriptSource - Khasi". scriptsource.org. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  3. ^ Daniels, Peter T. (2008). "Writing systems of major and minor languages". In Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (eds.). Languages in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 285–308. ISBN 978-0-521-78141-1.
  4. ^ "Bengali alphabet". Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2005.
  5. ^ George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945
  6. ^ Khan, Sameer ud Dowla (2010). "Bengali (Bangladeshi Standard)" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 40 (2): 222. doi:10.1017/S0025100310000071.
  7. ^ Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000). The history of the Bengali language (Repr. [d. Ausg.] Calcutta, 1920. ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 57. ISBN 8120614526. yet it is to be noted as a fact, that the cerebral letters are not so much cerebral as they are dental in our speech. If we carefully notice our pronunciation of the letters of the 'ট' class we will see that we articulate 'ট' and 'ড,' for example, almost like English T and D without turning up the tip of the tongue much away from the region of the teeth.
  8. ^ Ferguson, Charles A.; Chowdhury, Munier (1960). "The Phonemes of Bengali". Language. Charles A. Ferguson and Munier Chowdhury. 36 (1): 22–59. doi:10.2307/410622. JSTOR 410622. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  9. ^ Khan (2010), pp. 223–224.
  10. ^ See Chowdhury 1963
  11. ^ "Learning International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration". Sanskrit 3 – Learning transliteration. Gabriel Pradiipaka & Andrés Muni. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  12. ^ "ITRANS – Indian Language Transliteration Package". Avinash Chopde. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  13. ^ "Annex-F: Roman Script Transliteration" (PDF). Indian Standard: Indian Script Code for Information Interchange — ISCII. Bureau of Indian Standards. 1 April 1999. p. 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

Bibliography