Central Armed Police Forces
AbbreviationCAPF
Agency overview
Annual budget97,003.37 crore (US$12 billion) (2024–25)[1]
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agencyIndia
Operations jurisdictionIndia
Governing bodyMinistry of Home Affairs
General nature
Operational structure
Minister responsible
Parent agencyMinistry of Home Affairs
Child agencies
Website
www.mha.gov.in/about-us/central-armed-police-forces

In India, the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) is the collective name of central police organisations under the Ministry of Home Affairs of India.[2] These are technically paramilitary forces formerly known as the Central Para-Military Forces. Since 2011, India adopted the term "central armed police forces" to drop the word "paramilitary". These forces are responsible for internal security and guarding the borders.[3] These forces are indeed headed by a Director General (DG), who is usually an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer, except for Assam Rifles, which is headed by an Lt. General-ranked officer from the Indian Army.[4]

CAPF is further classified into three groups [5]

History

CAPF were formerly known as Central Para-Military Forces (CPMF), also various referred by Central Police Organisations (CPOs), Para-Military Forces (PMF) and Central Police Forces (CPF) interchangeably. In 2011, the Government of India released a circular adopting a uniform nomenclature to change the name of the forces to Central Armed Police Forces under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Initially, only five forces—BSF, CRPF, CISF, ITBP and SSB were covered under the new nomenclature, since AR was under the operational control of the Indian Army and NSG personnel were completely deputed from the Indian Army and other CAPFs. The name change was made for political reasons, to improve the international impression of the force, since in some countries the paramilitary refers to militant groups.[3][6]

Currently, all the seven forces are listed under the CAPF definition by the Ministry.[7]

Role

Central Armed Police Forces are organised with the primary role of border guarding for AR, BSF, ITBP, SSB; Security of sensitive establishments by CISF, Assisting Police to tackle Law & Order, Counter-Terrorist Operations, Counter Naxal Operations by CRPF, NSG. Apart from the primary role, all CAPFs are involved in assisting Police in Law & Order situations and also Army in Counter-Terrorist Operations. BSF & CRPF have assisted the army during external aggression in the past. CAPFs work along with both Indian Army & Police in different roles assigned to them.

Central Armed Police Forces personnel also serve in various important organisations such as Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Special Protection Group (SPG), National Investigation Agency (NIA), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) State Armed Police Force (Jharkhand Jaguars, Bihar Military Police, UP/MP STF, DRG, IRB, Chattishgarh Armed Police etc.) on deputation and have attachment/training in various levels/formations/courses along with the Indian Army. Their role and performance, therefore, assumes a great significance due to the special features of an emergency force which is pressed in aid to the civil power to perform multiple roles in extremely difficult situations.

Organisations

Assam Rifles (AR)

The Assam Rifles is a central police and paramilitary organisation responsible for border security, counter-insurgency, and law and order in Northeast India. Its primary role is to guard the 1,643 kilometre long Indo-Myanmar border. The AR comes under the administration of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), while its operational control is maintained by the Indian Army.[8] It is the oldest paramilitary force in India.

Border Security Force (BSF)

A member of India's Border Security Force in ceremonial attire

The primary role of the Border Security Force is to guard the Indo-Pakistan and Indo-Bangladesh borders, it is deployed both on the international border and the LOC. The BSF also has active roles during times of war. It has 292,000 personnel in 192 battalions.[9] The 1, 2 and 7 battalion of NDRF are requisitioned from BSF. It is also known for being the largest dedicated border guarding force in the world.

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

One of the largest industrial security forces in the world, the Central Industrial Security Force provides security to various Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) and other critical infrastructure installations, major airports across the country and provides security during elections and other internal security duties and VVIP protection. It has a total strength of about 144,418 personnel in 132 battalions[10] including 9 reserve battalions.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

The Central Reserve Police Force is the largest of the Central Armed Police Forces units with 313,678 personnel in 247 battalions.[10] The Central Reserve Police includes:

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

The Indo-Tibetan Border Police is deployed for guarding duties on the Indo-China border from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Diphu Pass in Arunachal Pradesh covering a total distance of 3,488 km.[12] It has 89,432 personnel in 56 fighting battalions, 2 DM and 4 specialised battalions.[13][10]

National Security Guard (NSG)

The National Security Guard (NSG), commonly known as Black Cats, is a counter-terrorism unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs. It was founded on 16 October 1984 under the National Security Guard Act, 1986. All personnel are deputed from other CAPFs and the Indian Army.

Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

The objective of the Sashastra Seema Bal (English: Armed Border Force) is to guard the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders. It has 76,337 personnel and 73 battalions, as well as some reserved battalions.[14][10][15]

Personnel

On 5 February 2019, the Supreme Court of India ruled that five CAPFs would be granted Non-Functional Financial Upgradation (NFFU),[16] and the status of Organised Group ‘A’ Services (OGAS), ending a nearly decade-long battle for the central armed police. In the judgment by Rohinton Fali Nariman and M. R. Shah, the court said that officers from BSF, CRPF, SSB, ITBP, and CISF should be granted the NFFU and will be considered as Organised Group A Central Services.[17][18]

In July 2019, the Union Cabinet granted[19][20] Organised Group 'A' Service (OGAS) status to Group 'A' executive cadre officers of five Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF). It also extended the benefit of Non-Functional Financial Up-gradation(NFFU) and Non-Functional Selection Grade (NFSG) to the executive cadre officers at an enhanced rate of 30%.

Rank structure

Officers
Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Assam Rifles[21][22]
Director-General[note 1]
-
Special Director-General[note 2]
-
Additional Director-General[note 3]
-
Inspector General[note 4]
-
Deputy Inspector-General[note 5]
-
Commandant[note 6]
-
Second-In-Command[note 7]
-
Deputy Commandant[note 8]
-
Assistant Commandant[note 9]
-


Border Security Force
Director-General
-
Special Director-General
-
Additional Director-General
-
Inspector General
-
Deputy Inspector-General
-
Commandant
-
Second-In-Command
-
Deputy Commandant
-
Assistant Commandant
-


Central Industrial Security Force[23][24]
Director-General
-
Special Director-General
-
Additional Director-General
-
Inspector General
-
Deputy Inspector-General
-
Senior Commandant
-
Commandant
-
Deputy Commandant
-
Assistant Commandant
-


Central Reserve Police Force[25][26]
Director-General
-
Special Director-General
-
Additional Director-General
-
Inspector General
-
Deputy Inspector-General
-
Commandant
-
Second-In-Command
-
Deputy Commandant
-
Assistant Commandant
-


National Security Guard[27]
Director general
-
Additional director general
-
Inspector general
-
Deputy inspector general
-
Group Commander
-
Second In Command
-
Deputy Commander
-
Team Commander
-


Sashastra Seema Bal[28]
Director-General
-
Additional Director-General
-
Inspector General
-
Deputy Inspector-General
-
Commandant
-
Second-In-Command
-
Deputy Commandant
-
Assistant Commandant
-
Police equivalent
Director General Director General Additional
Director General
Inspector General Deputy Inspector General Senior Superintendent Superintendent Additional Superintendent Deputy Superintendent ACP/ASP
Enlisted ranks
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Assam Rifles[29]
No insignia
Subedar Major
सूबेदार मेजर
Subedar
सूबेदार
Naib Subedar
नायब सूबेदार
Warrant officer
-
Havildar[note 10]
हवलदार
Rifleman[note 11]
-


Border Security Force
No insignia
Subedar Major
-
Inspector
-
Sub-inspector
-
Assistant Sub-inspector
-
Head Constable
-
Constable
-


Central Industrial Security Force[23][24]
No insignia
Subedar Major
सूबेदार मेजर
Inspector
-
Sub inspector
-
Assistant Sub inspector
-
Head Constable
-
Naik
नायक
Constable
-


Central Reserve Police Force[25][26]
No insignia
Subedar Major
-
Inspector
-
Sub-inspector
-
Assistant Sub-inspector
-
Head Constable
-
Constable
-


National Security Guard[27]
No insignia
Subedar Major
सूबेदार मेजर
Assistant Commander-1
-
Assistant Commander-2
-
Assistant Commander-3
-
Ranger Grade I
-
Ranger Grade II
-
Combatised tradesmen
-


Sashastra Seema Bal[28]
No insignia
Subedar Major
सूबेदार मेजर
Inspector
-
Sub inspector
-
Assistant Sub inspector
-
Head Constable
-
Naik
नायक
Lance Naik
लांस नायक
Constable
-

Recruitment

Recruitment of candidates to the CAPFs may be conducted by the Union Public Service Commission, the Staff Selection Commission, or the respective service HQs depending on the post to be filled.

The Ministry of Home Affairs and the Staff Selection Commission of the Union Government of India allowed the recruitment examination of the CAPF be conducted in Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Malayalam, Meitei (Manipuri), Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Odia, Urdu, Punjabi, and Konkani, 13 of the 22 official languages of the Indian Republic, in addition to Hindi & English.[30][31]

Officers

Officers in CAPFs are recruited through the Central Armed Police Forces (Assistant Commandants) Examination conducted by UPSC. They are appointed as Assistant Commandants and are Gazetted Officers generally referred to as DAGOs (Directly Appointed Gazetted Officers) in CRPF, AC (Direct Entry) in BSF. DEGOs (Departmental Entry Gazetted Officers) are those officers who have been promoted through departmental exams conducted internally for Subordinate Officers. They are known as encounter specialists among police forces of India.

Enlisted ranks

Sub Inspectors are recruited through competitive examination conducted by Staff Selection Commission and they are referred to as DASOs (Directly Appointed Subordinate Officers). DESOs (Departmental Entry Subordinate Officers) are those officers who have been promoted through departmental exams conducted internally for Constables, Head Constables, and Assistant Sub Inspectors.

Constables are recruited through a competitive examination conducted by Staff Selection Commission. Apart from the above modes, CAPFs conduct recruitment for specialized posts such as Engineers, Doctors, etc. among DAGOs and Wireless operators, Technicians, Nursing Staff, etc. among subordinate officers and constables directly under their own authority (MHA).

Women in CAPF

Women were not recruited for the Central Armed Police Forces until 1992. Earlier, the role of women was limited to supervisory roles.[32] The Parliamentary Committees of India for women's empowerment recommended expanding women's roles in CAPF. The Ministry of Home Affairs declared reservation for women in constabulary, and later declared that they can also be inducted as officers in combat roles in five CAPFs.[32] The Union Home Minister announced that women's representation in the CRPF and CISF would be made 15 percent while it would be 5 percent in the BSF, ITBP and SSB.[33] In 2016, it was decided that 33 percent of posts at the constabulary level would be reserved for women in the CRPF and the CISF, and 14-15 percent of posts at the constable level in the BSF, SSB and ITBP in a phased manner.[34]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Equivalent to the rank Lieutenant general (लेफ्टिनेंट - जनरल)
  2. ^ Equivalent to the rank Lieutenant general (लेफ्टिनेंट - जनरल)
  3. ^ Equivalent to the rank Lieutenant general (लेफ्टिनेंट - जनरल)
  4. ^ Equivalent to the rank Major general (मेजर - जनरल)
  5. ^ Equivalent to the rank Brigadier (ब्रिगेडियर)
  6. ^ Equivalent to the rank Colonel (कर्नल)
  7. ^ Equivalent to the rank Lieutenant colonel (लेफ्टिनेंट - कर्नल)
  8. ^ Equivalent to the rank Major (मेजर)
  9. ^ Equivalent to the rank Captain (कप्तान)
  10. ^ Equivalent to the rank Head constable (-)
  11. ^ Equivalent to the rank Constable (-)

References

  1. ^ Bureau, The Hindu (1 February 2022). "Union Budget 2022 | ₹1.85 lakh crore allocation to MHA; CAPF, police get funds for modernisation". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
  2. ^ Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs (18 March 2011). "Office Memorandum" (PDF). mha.gov.in. Director (Personnel), MHA. p. 1. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b Online, The Telegraph (26 March 2011). "For the paramilitary, all's in a new name". telegraphindia.com. The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Indian Police: An Introductory and Statistical Overview" (PDF).
  5. ^ Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs (12 December 2018). Working conditions in Border Guarding Forces Sashastra Seema Bal, Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Border Security Force) (PDF). Rajya Sabha. p. 1. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  6. ^ Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs (23 November 2011). "Office Memorandum" (PDF). mha.gov.in. Director (Personnel), MHA. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  7. ^ "Central Armed Police Forces | Ministry of Home Affairs | GoI". Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  8. ^ ANI (25 May 2022). "MHA to explain functioning of Assam Rifles in northeastern states before Parliamentary panel". ANI News. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  9. ^ "Border Security Force". bsf.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d "MHA Annual Report 2016-2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017.
  11. ^ "COBRA to sting Naxal virus: new force gets Centre nod". Financial Express. 29 August 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  12. ^ "Indo-Tibetan Border Police". Archive.india.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  13. ^ "Home | Indo Tibetan Border Police, Ministry of Home Affairs". itbpolice.nic.in. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Guarding the Nation's Frontiers | eGov Magazine". Egov.eletsonline.com. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  15. ^ "Force Profile- SSB Ministry Of Home Affairs, Govt. Of India". ssb.nic.in. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  16. ^ https://dopt.gov.in/sites/default/files/14017_47_2011-Estt.RR-01082012.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  17. ^ "Give paramilitary officers higher grade salary if you can't promote them when eligible: SC to Govt". 6 February 2019.
  18. ^ https://main.sci.gov.in/supremecourt/2013/7829/7829_2013_Judgement_05-Feb-2019.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  19. ^ "Cabinet approves proposal for Grant of Organized Group 'A' Service (OGAS) to Group 'A' Executive Cadre Officers".
  20. ^ "Centre gives nods to grant OGAS status to Group 'A' Executive Cadre Officers". Business Standard India. 3 July 2019 – via Business Standard.
  21. ^ "असम राइफल्स विनियमन 2016 - Assam Rifles Regulation 2016" (PDF). 18 November 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  22. ^ "Two Hundred Thirteenth Report - Security Situation in the North Eastern States of India" (PDF). Department-Related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs. 19 July 2018. pp. 6–8. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  23. ^ a b "All ranks inclusive annual governing body meeting". Central Industrial Security Force. 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 23 September 2022 – via Facebook.
  24. ^ a b "The Central Industrial Security Force Act, 1968 (50 of 1968): (As Modified Vide Act No.14 of 1983, 20 of 1989, 40 of 1999 and 22 of 2009)" (PDF). Central Industrial Security Force. 2009. p. 18.
  25. ^ a b "The Central Reserve Police Force Rules/Regulations/Scheme,1955" (PDF). 24 February 1955.
  26. ^ a b "Career Prospects". Central Reserve Police Force. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022.
  27. ^ a b "The National Security Guard Act, 1986 (47 of 1986)" (PDF). Government of India. 22 September 1986. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  28. ^ a b "Sashastra Seema Bal Rules, 2009" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. 2009.
  29. ^ "Two Hundred Thirteenth Report - Security Situation in the North Eastern States of India" (PDF). Department-Related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs. 19 July 2018. pp. 6–8. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  30. ^ "Manipuri among 13 regional languages approved for CAPF exam". Imphal Free Press. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  31. ^ "CAPF Recruitment Examination In Assamese, Manipuri, Bengali, Odia & Other Regional Languages - NE India Broadcast". 15 April 2023. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  32. ^ a b "Government allows women to be combat officers in all Central Armed Police Forces". The Economic Times. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  33. ^ "Women quota in CRPF, CISF to be made 15 percent". telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  34. ^ Selvaraj, A. "Archana Ramasundram becomes first woman to head paramilitary forces". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 9 January 2020.