Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA)
CoBRA Insignia
CoBRA Insignia
Common nameCoBRA
Motto"Saṃgrāmeṃ parākramī jyī"
"Victory for gallant in war"
Agency overview
Formed12 September, 2008[1]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionIndia
Legal jurisdictionIndia
Primary governing bodyCentral Reserve Police Force
Secondary governing bodyMinistry of Home Affairs (India)
Operational structure
HeadquartersDirectorate General, Central Reserve Police Force, New Delhi
Active Personnel[2]s10,000
Agency executive
Parent agencyCentral Reserve Police Force
  • Shri. K Vijay Kumar IPS, Shri. K Durga Prasad IPS, Shri. NC Asthana IPS, Shri KV Madhusudhanan, former IG, CRPF
  • 12 September 2008

COBRA (backronym for COmmando Battalion for Resolute Action) is a special operation unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) of India proficient in guerrilla tactics and jungle warfare. Originally established to counter the Naxalite movement,[4][5] CoBRA is deployed to address insurgent groups engaging in asymmetrical warfare.[6] Numbering ten battalions as of 2011,[1] CoBRA is considered to be one of the most experienced and successful law enforcement units in the country.[1]


In 2009, the MHA approved the raising of 10 CoBRA (Commando Battalion for Resolute Action) to meet the challenges posed by the Naxal rebels.[7] The unit was initially raised to counter the Naxal insurgents in the Red Corridor.[7] The regiment initially started off with 2 battalions, in 2009, followed by the raising of another 8 battalions in 2 years.[7]

CoBRA Battalions are trained to conduct operations against insurgents in all manners of rugged terrain.[7] The highly efficient personnel are chosen from the CRPF and are conditioned with rigorous physical endurance, and taught the planning and execution of operations, GPS and map reading, gathering of intelligence, and Fast-Roping amongst other activities. The highly efficient personnel are trained and specialized in various fields including but not limited to guerrilla warfare, explosive tracking and bomb disposal, field engineering, survival, and jungle warfare.

Special intelligence courses have been conducted by premier intelligence agencies to train troops in intelligence gathering.[7] To maintain the uniformity of standards and the evolution of a unique ethos as well as training of troops. A dedicated CoBRA school of jungle warfare & tactics is in the works.[7]

The founder of CoBRA, DIG K.V. Madhusudhanan, spoke about the CoBRA's unit's rules of engagement in an interview. "The Maoist menace is a grievance-driven movement and ideology-driven insurgency. Hence, CoBRA would require new tactical doctrines, skills and resources. While the Maoist struggle is total—no time limit or fixed geographical target—CoBRA had to operate under limitations of law. There were no drawn lines of conflict, and CoBRA had to account for every person apprehended, injured or killed. The extremists have no such liabilities."[8]

Since its inception, the unit has been successful in the taking down of 61 Naxals, and the apprehension of 886 more. They have also recovered vast amounts of ammunition dumps, along with arms and explosives.[7] The CoBRA personnel's efforts have also been acknowledged with more than 200 commendation disc(s) from the DG CRPF.[7] The valour and gallant actions of CoBRA has been recognised and the unit has been decorated with multiple Gallantry medals including -

1986 was the year when No. 88 Mahila Battalion, CRPF was raised, earning the distinction of being the first all-women battalion in the world. In 2021, 34 personnel from the hallowed ranks of the CRPF, to form an all-women CoBRA battalion.


Battalion City Geo-Location
201 CoBRA Battalion Karanpur
202 CoBRA Battalion Sunabeda, Koraput, Odisha
203 CoBRA Battalion Changsari, Assam
204 CoBRA Battalion Masgaon, Chhattisgarh
205 CoBRA Battalion Barwadih, Bihar
206 CoBRA Battalion Chintapur, Maharashtra
207 CoBRA Battalion Tyangrasol, West Bengal
208 CoBRA Battalion Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh
209 CoBRA Battalion RANCHI, Jharkhand
210 CoBRA Battalion Dalgaon, Assam
88 Mahila Battalion

Firearms and equipment

CoBRA is a well-equipped Central Armed Police unit in the country,[9] set up with a budget of 293 billion from the Central government.[10]

Small arms

Most of the equipment for the Cobra is manufactured indigenously by the Indian Ordnance Factories controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, Ministry of Defence, Government of India.[11][12]

Some weapon like long-range sniper rifles are imported from overseas


CoBRA's are trained in the CRPF jungle warfare institutions in Belgaum and Koraput. Their training regime and duration is along the lines of other commando forces of the country such as the National Security Guard. They are trained to adapt themselves in the art of camouflage and jungle warfare with the main focus being on guerilla and jungle warfare . All personnel are trained for helicopter borne insertion and drops. Refresher courses are conducted annually and bi-annually to ensure that the unit and its personnel function as a well-oiled machine without any hijinks. Their role is to carry out reconnaissance and long range patrols, gather intelligence on the whereabouts of the insurgents, and also carry out ambushes and precision strikes when required.[6]

After three months of training in Belgaum or Koraput, CoBRA members are deployed to their respective units to counter-Naxal activities.[13]

Major operations


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "CRPF - CENTRAL RESERVE POLICE FORCE, GOVT. OF INDIA". Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  2. ^ "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) - Frontpage - COBRA on way to fight Naxalites in Jharkhand". Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  3. ^ "About Sector | CoBRA Sector | Central Reserve Police Force, Government of India". Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  4. ^ Dholabhai, Nishit (7 September 2008) "COBRA on way to fight Naxalites in Jharkhand" The Telegraph, retrieved 19 June 2009
  5. ^ Indian COBRA Troops to Take on Maoist Insurgents[dead link] Defence News
  6. ^ a b c Mund, Prasenjit; Mandal Caesar (19 June 2009). "Shadow warriors:Guerrillas wary of Cobra strike". The Times of India. Kolkata: 2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "CRPF Maintaining Peace in Nation". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  8. ^ "Cobra forces are burdened by law, naxals are not". The Week. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  9. ^ Times of India (6 October 2012)"All-out war against PLFI before puja"
  10. ^ "Expenditure Profile - 2022-23, Ministry of Finance, Budget Division" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). February 2022.
  11. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: OFB in Brief". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Press Information Bureau English Releases". Retrieved 27 March 2015.