Jalandhar
jullundar
Jalandhar is located in Punjab
Jalandhar
Jalandhar
Jalandhar is located in India
Jalandhar
Jalandhar
Coordinates: 31°15′25″N 75°26′36″E / 31.2569°N 75.4432°E / 31.2569; 75.4432
Country India
StatePunjab
DistrictJalandhar
Named forIn Water
Government
 • TypeDemocratic
 • BodyPolitical
 • Divisional CommissionerVeerendra Kumar Meena, IAS[1]
 • Deputy CommissionerMs. Deepshikha Sharma, IAS[2]
 • Member of ParliamentSushil Kumar Rinku, Aap
 • MayorJagdish Raja[3]
Area
 • Total1,016 sq mi (2,632 km2)
 • Rank3rd in Punjab
Elevation
748 ft (228 m)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total868,929
 • Density2,190/sq mi (847/km2)
DemonymJalandhariye
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
144 001
Area code0181
Vehicle registrationPB08, PB90, PB37 PB67, PB33
Literacy75.3%
Nearest cityKapurthala
HDIDecrease 0.451 Low
sex ratio922 females per 1000 male
LanguagePunjabi
Websitejalandhar.nic.in

Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab in India. With a considerable population, it ranks as the third most-populous city in the state and is the largest city in the Doaba region. Jalandhar lies alongside the historical Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected junction for both rail and road networks.

The city is located 148 km (92 mi) northwest of the state capital Chandigarh, 83.5 km (51.9 mi) southeast of the city of Amritsar, and 61.3 km (38.1 mi) north of Ludhiana. The national capital, Delhi, is approximately 381 km (237 mi).

The National Highway 1 (NH1), crosses Jalandhar, further enhancing its connectivity.

History

Kos Minar along Grand Trunk Road in Dakhini near Jalandhar, from Sher Shah Suri period

The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

Ancient

The city may be named after Jalandhara, a Nath Guru who was from here.[citation needed] The city was founded by Devasya Verma as mentioned in the Vedas. Other possibilities include that it was the capital of the kingdom of Lava, son of Rama or that the name derives from the vernacular term Jalandhar, meaning area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas.[5] The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley civilisation have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of the Harappa period. Jalandhar was known as Prasthala during the Vedic period and it was the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom.[6]

Medieval

Jalandhar and the Doaba may have been conquered around 1070 by the Ghaznavids during the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazni.[7] The city was conquered by Raja Jasrat in 1431.[8] It later formed part of the province of Lahore during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. The 18th century saw upheaval in Jalandhar amidst an anarchy caused by the disintegration of the Mughals and power struggles involving Persians, Afghans and Sikhs. It was captured by the Faizullahpuria Misl in 1766, and in 1811 Maharaja Ranjit Singh incorporated it within the Sikh Empire.[9]

In 1849, following the annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company, the city of Jalandhar, written in English as Jullundur by company officials, became the headquarters of the division and District of the same name. In 1858, company rule in India ended and the city became part of the British Raj. In the mid to late 19th century, the Punjab administration regarded Jullundur as too densely populated and farmed to capacity. This led to the district being a chief recruitment area for settlers to colonise the newly irrigated Punjab Canal Colonies, in western Punjab.[10]

Modern

The Khilafat Movement started in the district in the early 1920s to bring pressure on the government to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement, however in response, the District was declared a 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. In 1924, Pakistani general and military dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in the city.

Prior to the partition of India, Muslims were in plurality in Jalandhar. According to the 1941 census, Muslims made up 45.2% of the population, compared to Hindus and Sikhs being 27.6% and 26.5% respectively.[11] Within a period of 10 years, from 1941 to 1951, the Muslim population in Jalandhar reduced from 45.2% to 0.2%.[11]

Geography

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and long, hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm. In 2018, Jalandhar witnessed unusually heavy rainfall, with an over 20% increase from average rainfall levels.[12] Since it is located in the northern plains, the area feels quite cold during winters and very hot during summers.

Rainfall

The city receives an average annual rainfall of approximately 70 cm. However, fluctuations are not uncommon, as observed in 2018 when Jalandhar experienced a significant increase in precipitation. The city registered over a 20% increase from its average rainfall that year, which marked it as a year of heavy rainfall.

Despite the variations in climate across seasons, one thing remains constant: the extremity of temperatures, with winters feeling notably cold, and summers, feelings markedly hot due to Jalandhar's location in the northern plains.

Climate data for Jalandhar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
21.6
(70.9)
26.0
(78.8)
34.5
(94.1)
39.4
(102.9)
40.6
(105.1)
34.1
(93.4)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
27.2
(81.0)
22.3
(72.1)
30.2
(86.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
8.6
(47.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.8
(78.4)
21.8
(71.2)
18.3
(64.9)
12.1
(53.8)
7.2
(45.0)
17.2
(63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10.7
(0.42)
16.7
(0.66)
32.8
(1.29)
15.2
(0.60)
20.4
(0.80)
69.7
(2.74)
155.2
(6.11)
183.6
(7.23)
60.0
(2.36)
1.5
(0.06)
6
(0.2)
15
(0.6)
586.8
(23.07)
Source: [13]

Demographics

See also: List of cities in Punjab and Chandigarh

Population

As per the 2011 census, Jalandhar had a population of 868,929, of which 460,811 were male, and 408,118 female. The literacy rate is 86.20%: for males are 88.81% and females 83.26%. Children of 0-6 years are 90,044 (10.36%), with a sex ratio of 867 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes are 27.26% of the population.[14]

Religion

Religion in Jalandhar city[15]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
74.90%
Sikhism
21.39%
Islam
1.47%
Christianity
1.02%
Others
1.22%

As per the census of 2011, Hinduism is the predominant religion in Jalandhar city, with adherents of Sikhism being a significant minority.

Religious groups in Jalandhar City (1881−2011)[a]
Religious
group
1881[17][18]: 520  1891[19]: 68  1901[20]: 44  1911[21]: 20  1921[22]: 23  1931[23]: 26  1941[16]: 32  2011
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 31,326 60.1% 38,994 58.9% 40,081 59.17% 40,903 58.59% 42,261 59.52% 52,577 59.06% 80,242 59.31% 12,744 1.47%
Hinduism 18,514 35.52% 23,085 34.87% 24,715 36.49% 23,383 33.49% 24,253 34.16% 30,833[b] 34.63% 48,375[b] 35.76% 650,863 74.9%
Jainism 373 0.72% 347 0.52% 471 0.7% 438 0.63% 477 0.67% 1,014 1.14% 768 0.57% 3,203 0.37%
Sikhism 363 0.7% 2,274 3.43% 901 1.33% 3,636 5.21% 2,686 3.78% 3,003 3.37% 4,676 3.46% 185,869 21.39%
Christianity 1,569 2.37% 1,543 2.28% 1,440 2.06% 1,322 1.86% 1,533 1.72% 977 0.72% 8,889 1.02%
Zoroastrianism 3 0% 22 0.03% 18 0.03% 9 0.01% 70 0.08%
Buddhism 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1,407 0.16%
Others 1,543 2.96% 0 0% 2 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 245 0.18% 5,954 0.69%
Total population 52,119 100% 66,202 100% 67,735 100% 69,818 100% 71,008 100% 89,030 100% 135,283 100% 868,929 100%

Languages spoken in Jalandhar city (2011)[24]

  Punjabi (81.48%)
  Hindi (15.63%)
  Others (2.89%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 81.48% of the population spoke Punjabi and 15.63% Hindi as their first language.[24]

Economy

Jalandhar is notable for its sports goods industry. With an employment of 60,000 to 70,000 people, it is estimated to be 1,700 crore industry, with 400 crore export and 1,300 crore domestic supply.[25] In 2022, the Sports Goods Manufacturers and Exporters Association in Jalandhar, with collaboration from local self-help groups, started an initiative to train 1,500 women in stitching soccer balls, ensuring financial development and welfare in the district.[26]

Another significant contributor to Jalandhar's economy is its leather industry, having a turn over of 1,200 to 1,500 crore, and 400 crore export.[27][28]

Smart City Project

In the second phase of the Indian Government's Smart City Project, Jalandhar has been selected to participate, marking a pivotal shift in the city's development.[29]

Transport

By air

The nearest airport is Adampur Airport, northwest of Jalandhar, which currently only handles scheduled operation on maiden flights of the private carrier Spicejet, to Delhi, Mumbai and Jaipur. The nearest fully-fledged International Airport is Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport, in Amritsar. It is the second busiest airport in North India, and is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including London Stansted, Birmingham, Dubai, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.

By rail

Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur, Jhansi, Gwalior, Bhopal and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station include the Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, and the Paschim Express. Now, many trains of Jammu route are extended up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

Jalandhar City Railway Station is well-connected to other parts of the country. Jalandhar City is a major stop between the Amritsar-Delhi rail link, which is serviced by Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express, among others

Direct Services to major cities such as Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi are available. There are prestigious services such as the Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express.

By road

There is one of the largest networks of bus services of Punjab at Shaheed-e-Azam, Sardar Bhagat Singh ISBT (Jalandhar), Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.

Religious places

Leisure

Interior of Viva Collage Mall, Jalandhar
View Of WonderLand's Water Park in the Evening

Media

Punjab Kesari header with the photos of its founders, Lala Jagat Narain and Romesh Chander.
Jag Bani

Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India).[32] It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.

The city is the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Truescoop News, Hind Samachar, etc.[33][34][35][36][37][38]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jalandhar that transmits programs of mass interest. FM local radio stations include:

Healthcare

The Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar claims that the city has over 800 hospitals, [39] making it the city with the highest number of hospitals per capita in Asia. Three new Health Centres were set up in Jalandhar on 9 September 2020.[40]

Sports

Cricket

Cricket is very popular in the grounds and streets of Jalandhar. There is an international-standard stadium at Gandhi Stadium, formerly known as Burlton Park. The Indian cricket team played a Test Match against the Pakistan cricket team on this ground on 24 September 1983.[41]

Kabaddi

Major Kabaddi matches are usually held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium.

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used for football matches and served as the home stadium of JCT Mills FC.[42] People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. The Punjab government has started new projects at the stadium.

Surjit Hockey Stadium

Surjeet Hockey Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar-born Olympian Surjit Singh. This stadium is home of the franchise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.

Sports college

There is a Government Sports College in the city and it is a focus for many of the National Sports Councils. In this college, many sports are played like cricket, hockey, swimming, volleyball and basketball.

Education

Main article: List of institutions of higher education in Punjab

Higher education institutions in Jalandhar include;

Universities

Schools

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Jalandhar Cantonment

Main article: Jalandhar Cantonment

Notable people

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Diljit Dosanjh
I. K. Gujral
Sugandha Mishra
Amrish Puri
Harbhajan Singh
Rannvijay Singh
Dharam Singh Uppal
Name Occupation
Yash Chopra Producer/Director[53]
Anurag Singh (director) Director, Producer, Writer
Diljit Dosanjh Actor, Singer
Karambir Singh 24th Chief of Naval Staff of Indian Navy
Ranbir Singh Kanwar Sugarcane Researcher, Director of Research (Agriculture) PAU, Director of Research Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University[54]
Lawrence Durrell Expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer[55]
Vanya Mishra Winner of Miss India Femina 2012
Sunil Dutt Actor[56]
Kundan Lal Saigal Actor/Singer[57]
Amrish Puri Actor[58]
Jazzy B Singer
Sukhwinder Panchhi Singer
Apache Indian Singer
Sarbjit Cheema Singer
Kanth Kaler Singer
Karan Mehra Actor
Nooran Sisters Singers
Master Saleem Singer
Hans Raj Hans Singer
Jagjit Singh Singer
Bahadur Singh Indian former shot putter who won gold medal
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Chief of Army Staff, fourth Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan
Diwan Bhai Abdul Hamid Revenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State
Hafeez Jullundhri Writer and poet
Baba Kashmira Singh Head of Sidhant Sant Samaj or Gurbani
Paul Nischal NRI President, first Indian candidate for the British Political Party
Col. Balbir Singh Kular Hockey Player
Varinder Singh Ghuman Bodybuilder, Wrestler and Punjabi Film Actor
Ajit Pal Singh Hockey Player
Pargat Singh Hockey Player
Inder Kumar Gujral Former Prime Minister of India
Harbhajan Singh Cricketer
Wasim Sajjad Two-time Acting President of Pakistan, Ex-Chairman of Senate
Sheikh Anwarul Haq Former Chief Justice
Mian Mohammed Sharif Surveyor General
Lala Amarnath Cricketer
Sushil Kohli Swimmer
Lala Jagat Narain Freedom fighter and founder of Punjab Kesri
Basheer Hussain Najafi One of the six Grand Ayatollahs
Taruwar Kohli Cricketer
Swaran Singh Politician
Udham Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Avneet Kaur Actress
Darshan Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Salma Mumtaz Actress
Saurav Mandal Football player
Ashwini Kumar Chopra Journalist, Politician (MP-Karnal)
Kartar Singh Duggal Writer
Kulwant Singh Virk Writer
Ishar Singh (poet) Poet
Sadhu Singh Hamdard Freedom fighter and Writer
Prem Parkash Writer
Ajit Saini Writer and Army General
Hasrat Writer
Gurbachan Singh Talib Writer
Gurdial Singh Writer and novelist
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Former Prime Minister of Pakistan
Swami Shraddhanand Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary
Wazir Ali Cricketer
R. Paul Dhillon Indo-Canadian journalist
Arun Shourie Politician, author, and journalist
Amanjot Singh Social Worker
Agha Sadiq Writer and poet
Fateh Ali Khan Singer. Father of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Dharam Singh Uppal Athlete
Balbir Singh Sr. Hockey Player
Mandeep Singh Cricketer
Vimi Actress
Ranvir Shorey Actor
Sugandha Mishra Singer, Anchor, Comedian
Nalini Priyadarshni Poet, Writer
Vijay Sampla State Minister in Union Govt
Bhagat Chunni Lal Minister in Punjab Govt
Ram Kapoor Indian Actor
Buta Singh Ex-Home Minister of India
Sukhbir Singh Punjabi Musician, Singer
Amarjit Kaypee Former highest run scorer in Ranji Trophy (Cricket)
Akshaye Khanna Indian Actor
Surbhi Jyoti Indian Actress
Jyotica Tangri Playback singer, appeared in several reality TV shows
Lord Wilberforce British Judge
Jass Manak Singer
Manpreet Singh Hockey Player
Garry Sandhu Singer
Akhil Singer
Jasmine Sandlas Singer

Notes

  1. ^ 1891-1941: Data for the entirety of the town of Jalandhar, which included Jalandhar Municipality and Jalandhar Cantonment.[16]: 32 
  2. ^ a b 1931-1941: Including Ad-Dharmis

References

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