This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article refers to the ideology that asserts Punjabi cultural solidarity. For the militant separatist movement aimed at creating an independent Sikh country, see Khalistan (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Punjab Province of British India (1909)
Baba Farid, Father of Punjabi nationalism
Baba Farid, Father of Punjabi nationalism

Punjabi nationalism or Punjabiyat[1][2][3] is a vision that emphasizes that Punjabis are one nation and promotes the cultural unity of Punjabis around the world. The demands of the Punjabi nationalist movement are linguistic, cultural, economic and political rights.[4][5][6] Baba Farid Ganjshakar is considered as the Father of Punjabi nationalism.[7][8] Baba Bulleh Shah (wrote Kafis), Waris Shah (wrote Heer Ranjha) and Bhai Vir Singh (Modern Punjabi Literature) have immense contribution to Punjabi Boli.[9] Punjabiyat[10][11] (meaning Punjabi-ness)[12] or Punjabi nationalism is the name of a cultural and language revitalization movement of the Punjabi language. It also focuses on the political, social and literary movement for preservation of Punjabi literature, Punjabi language and Punjabi culture[13] by unity of Greater Punjab.[14] In Pakistan, the goal of the movement is to stop the state-sponsored suppression of Punjabi in favor of Urdu,[15] while in India the goal is to bring together the Sikh and Punjabi Hindu communities and promote the Punjabi language in regions of Northern India.[16] Supporters in the Punjabi diaspora focus on the promotion of a shared cultural heritage.[17]

Rise of Punjabi Nationalism

The act of uniting by natural affinity and attraction of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity with grooming of "Punjabi nationalism" started from the onset of the 18th century, when the "Sikh Empire with Secular Punjabi Rule" was established by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Prior to that the sense and perception of a common "Punjabi" ethnocultural identity and community did not exist, even though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab had long shared linguistic, cultural and racial commonalities.[18]

Actually, after capturing and conquering the Punjab by the Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1022 after defeating the Raja Tarnochalpal, from centuries, Punjab was under continuous attack by the foreign Muslim invaders. Before invasions of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Mughals were the invaders of Punjab. Punjabi tribes, castes and the inhabitants of Punjab revolted against them, but in a personal capacity and without uniting by the natural affinity of Punjabi people. However, Punjabi Sufi Saints were in a struggle to awaken the consciousness of the people of Punjab. Guru Nanak condemned the theocracy of Mughal rulers and was arrested for challenging the acts of barbarity of the Mughal emperor Babar. Shah Hussain approved Dulla Bhatti's revolt against Akbar as; Kahay Hussain Faqeer Sain Da - Takht Na Milday Mungay.[19]

During the late 18th century, due to lacking in unity by the natural affinity of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity, after the decline of the Mughal Empire, led the Punjab region into a lack of governance. In 1747, the Durrani Empire was established by the Ahmad Shah Abdali in Afghanistan, therefore, Punjab saw frequent invasions by the Ahmad Shah Abdali. The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the barbaric and brutal situation that; "Khada Peeta Lahy Da, Baqi Ahmad Shahy Da" ("We Have Nothing With Us Except What We Eat And Wear, All Other Things Are For Ahmad Shah").[20]

In the result of spiritual grooming and moral character building of Punjabi people by the Punjabi Saints and Punjabi poets like; Baba Farid - 12th-13th century, Damodar - 15th century, Guru Nanak Dev -15th - 16th century, Guru Angad - 16th century, Guru Amar Das - 15th - 16th century, Guru Ram Das - 16th century, Shah Hussain - 16th century, Guru Arjun Dev - 16th - 17th century, Bhai Gurdas - 16th - 17th century, Sultan Bahu - 16th-17th century, Guru Tegh Bahadur - 17th century, Guru Gobind Singh - 17th century, Saleh Muhammad Safoori - 17th century, Bulleh Shah - 17th-18th century, Waris Shah - 18th century and due to frequent invasions by the foreign invaders, at last, by the Ahmad Shah Abdali, stimulated the natural affinity of Punjabi people, taught the lesson to the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab and forced them to unite into a broader common "Punjabi" identity. Therefore, Punjabi nationalism started to initiate in the people of the land of five rivers to defend their land, to protect their wealth, to save their culture and retain their respect by ruling their land and governing the people of their nation by their own self.[21]

In the late 18th century, during frequent invasions of the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Misls were in close combat with the Durrani Empire, but they began to gain territory and eventually the Bhangi Misl captured the Lahore. When Zaman Shah invaded Punjab again in 1799, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in the chaos. He defeated Zaman Shah in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. Lahore was a Muslim Punjabi community and Hindu Punjabi community majority city, but the citizens of Lahore encouraged by Sada Kaur offered him the city and Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to take control of it in a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl and their allies.[22]

Beside the fact that, in 1800 century, religious ratio of Punjabi people in Punjab was 48% Muslim Punjabis, 43% Hindu Punjabis, 8% Sikh Punjabis and 1% others, but due to attraction of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity and uniting by natural affinity of "Punjabi Nationalism", Punjab was a secular regime, Punjabi was a secular nation and after throwing out the Muslim Mughal invaders of Punjab from Delhi, India and Muslim Afghan invaders of Punjab from Kabul, Afghanistan, a Sikh Punjabi, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab, which provided the boost to the already initiated Punjabi nationalism.[23][24]

Fall of Punjabi Nationalism

Maharaja Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and expanded the Sikh Empire to the Khyber Pass and also included Jammu and Kashmir in it. He was also successful in keeping the British from expanding across the River Sutlej for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839, internal instability and a sequence of adverse events led eventually to British control of the Lahore Darbar in 1849. The instability and events that led to this were: the internecine fighting between the Sikhs; several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons; the intrigues of the Dogras; and two Anglo-Sikh wars, the first in 1845–1846 and the second, of 1848-1849.[25][26]

As, after Bengali nation and Hindi-Urdu Speaking UP, CP people of Gunga Jumna culture, Punjabi was the third biggest nation in South Asia and for the British, Punjab was a frontier province of British India because, Punjab had boundaries with Afghanistan and China. Therefore, to rule the South Asia, the prime factor for the British rulers was to control the Punjab by dominating or eliminating the Punjabi nation.[27]

British rulers were well aware of the fact that, they succeeded to capture the Punjab but they has not concurred the Punjabi nation. Therefore, British rulers imposed martial law in Punjab to govern Punjab and due to a fear from Punjabi nationalism; British rulers started to eliminate the Punjabi nation into fractions by switching over the characteristics of Muslim Punjabi, Hindu Punjabi, and Sikh Punjabi from “Affinity of Nation to Emotions of Religion”.[28]

For demolishing the nationalism and promoting the religious fundamentalism in the Punjab, British rulers, not allowed the Punjabis to use their mother tongue as an educational and official language. Therefore, the British rulers first introduced the Urdu as an official language in Punjab and they brought the Urdu-speaking Muslim Mullahs and Hindi-speaking Hindu Pundits from UP, CP to Punjab for the purpose of educational teaching of Punjabi people along with, UP, CP bureaucracy, and establishment for the purpose of Punjab administration.[29][30]

It resulted in the supremacy of UP-ites and UP-ite mindsets in policy making and decision taking in national affairs and foreign relationship of the Punjabi nation, managed, motivated and sponsored by the British rulers to eliminate the Muslim, Sikh, Hindu and Christian Punjabis into different religions and languages to secure their rule over last captured land and martial race of the subcontinent.[31]

As a result, the Punjabi nation became a socially and politically depressed and deprived nation due to the domination of Urdu-Hindi language, the hegemony of Gunga Jumna culture and the supremacy of UP-ite traditions.[32][33]

However, despite all the efforts of British rulers to demolish and eliminate the Punjabi nation, due to the struggle of Punjabi nationalists during British rule in India, beside the dissimilarity of religion, because of natural affinity on ground of similar language, culture and tradition, Muslim Punjabi, Hindu Punjabi, Sikh Punjabi and Christian Punjabi were still a nation. Religion was a personal subject for building the moral character and spiritual development for the life of the hereafter. Punjabi nationalism was a subject for the worldly life affairs. Whereas, clans moreover, communities were the institutions for social interaction and charity work. Punjab was a secular region, the Punjabi language was a respectable language, Punjabi culture was an honorable culture and the Punjabi nation was a wealthy nation in the British India.[34]

In the 19th century, due to politics of congress, dominated by the Hindi speaking, UP-ite Hindu leaders of UP, CP, Hindu Punjabi's started to prefer the Hindi language instead of Punjabi by declaring the Hindi as a language of Hindus and started to become clones of Gunga Jumna culture and traditions with the loss of their own Punjabi identity. Later on, Muslim Punjabi's did the same and started to become the clones of Gunga Jumna culture and traditions with the loss of their own Punjabi identity, because of preferring the Urdu language upon Punjabi by declaring the Urdu as a language of Muslims, due to the influence of the Muslim League, dominated by the Urdu speaking, UP-ite Muslim leaders of UP, CP and presence of UP-ite Muslims in Punjab.[35]

As a consequence of preferring Hindi language by Hindu Punjabi's by declaring the Hindi as a language of Hindus[36] and preferring the Urdu language by the Muslim Punjabi's by declaring the Urdu as a language of Muslims, the characteristics of assimilation to accomplish the sociological instinct started to switch over from “ Affinity of Nation to Emotions of Religion” and “A Great Nation of Sub-Continent Got Divided on Ground of Religion with Partition of Punjab and Got Emerged into Muslim and Hindu States, Pakistan and India”.[37]

Hence, it started the fall of Punjabi nation and Punjabi people started to receive the reward of hate and regret from every honorable nation, in addition, the humiliation, loathing, and abuse from Hindi-Urdu speaking persons, too.[38]

This was the punishment of Punjabi's for not respecting their motherland, language, culture, and traditions, due to avoiding, ignoring and rejecting the act of unity by natural affinity and attraction of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity.[39][40]

Therefore, since the partition of British India, socially and politically, the Punjabi nation is a confused, depressed and deprived nation due to "Dilemma of Division of Punjab and Punjabi Nation", "Trauma of Massacre of 2 Million Punjabis" and " Shock of World Largest Mass Migration".[41]

Revival of Punjabi Nationalism in Pakistan

After the division of British India with the creation of Pakistan, the Muslim Punjabi community of undivided Punjabi opted Pakistan as their nation, whereas, the ethnically Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs of undivided Punjabi opted India as their nation.

Pakistani Muslim Punjabis are the majority population of Pakistan and they have significant share in the agricultural sector, trade sector, industrial sector, educational institutions, skilled professions, media organizations, political organizations, civil bureaucracy, the military establishment and foreign affair institutions of Pakistan. However, since the creation of Pakistan, Pakistani Muslim Punjabis have felt uncomfortable and upset due to the insulting attitude and behavior with Pakistani Muslim Punjabis regarding social respect and regard of Punjabi people by the non-Punjabi Muslims, victimization with the Punjabis in Sind, Karachi, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, hurdles in socioeconomic stability of the Pakistani Muslim Punjabi community in Pakistan, conspiracies in the prosperity and integrity of Punjab by the non-Punjabi Muslims of Pakistan.[42]

Many times, Punjabi nationalists tried to gather and unite the Pakistani Muslim Punjabis for the struggle to achieve the goal of social respect and regard of Punjabi people, for fair treatment with the Pakistani Muslim Punjabis in Sind, Karachi, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to remove the obstacles in socioeconomic stability of Pakistani Muslim Punjabis, to counter the conspiracies in prosperity and integrity of Punjab.[43] However, the effort of uniting Pakistani Muslim Punjabis without stimulating awareness of their Punjabi identity in Punjabi masses and without providing them the consciousness of their Punjabi ideology, the effort of Punjabi nationalists always remained frail, fruitless and useless.[44]

However, now it seems that Punjabi nationalists are succeeded in stimulating awareness of Punjabi identity in Pakistani Muslim Punjabi masses, therefore, now Punjabi nationalists are in the struggle to promote Punjabi language, culture, and traditions, along with, demand from Government of Punjab to implement Punjabi as an educational and official language of Punjab. But, it is an initial stage.[45][46][47]

After division of British India with creation of Pakistan, the Christian Punjabi community of Punjabi nation also opted the Pakistan as their state, therefore, revival of Punjabi nationalism in the biggest religious community in Punjabi nation, i.e.; Muslim Punjabi community of Punjabi nation will directly benefit the Christian Punjabi community of Punjabi nation due to creation of atmosphere and circumstances to accelerate the respectable social, economic and political interaction of Punjabi Muslims with the Punjabi Christians because, both the communities are part of same nation.[48]

The Pakistani Muslim Punjabi community of Punjabi nation and Christian Punjabi community of Punjabi nation are the 60% population of Pakistan and Punjabis has total control on the agricultural sector, trade sector, industrial sector, educational institutions, skilled professions, media organizations, political organizations, civil bureaucracy, military establishment and foreign affair institutions of Pakistan.[49]

Post-partition of India

The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (February 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In 1947 after Partition of Punjab into Indian Punjab state and Pakistani Punjab province there were some several movements for protection of Punjabiyat in both Punjabs.

Punjabi Suba movement of East Punjab fulfilled

During the partition of Punjab The Sikhs were promised an autonomous state under Muhammad Ali Jinnah but Jawahar Lal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi fearing that the Sikhs would join Pakistan promised Sikhs an autonomous state as well.

Punjabi Suba movement was aimed at creation of a Punjabi-majority subah ("province") in the Punjab region of India in the 1950s.[50] Objectives of this movement and aspirations of Punjabi people were met when this resulted in the creation of Punjab, India as a Punjabi-speaking ethnically Punjabi majority state of India in 1967.

Ongoing Punjabi Language Movement in West Punjab

In Pakistani Punjab province, Punjabi Language Movement is a linguistic movement in aimed at reviving the Punjabi language, art, culture and literature in Pakistan. There are several attempts going on by Punjabi society for implementation of Punjabi language[51] as it is completely ignored by authorities in Punjab province.[52][53] Urdu is preferred medium of education in local schools-colleges[54][55] as well as Government paperwork which is threatening for survival of Punjabi language in Punjab, Pakistan.[56][57] In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement Punjabi language in the province.[58] Pakistani Punjabi language film industry is in crisis as filmmakers were not producing Punjabi language films like before 1975 Punjabi films ruled in film industry of Pakistan.[59] Television Channels from Lahore (Punjab's capital city) are all in Urdu instead of Punjabi.[60] In August 2015, Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised Khawaja Farid conference and demanded Punjabi University should be established in Lahore and Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.[61] In Lahore, every year thousands of punjabis gather on International Mother Language Day demanding education in Punjabi and protesting against the Urdu-isation of Punjab.[62]

Pan-nationalist Punjabi Reunification

Punjab
Punjab

Further information: Indian reunification

The idea of the reunification of modern Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh into a single Punjab state within India, with its borders corresponding to the former East Punjab state, has not been contemplated seriously apart from the context of reunification of India with Pakistan (consequently, reunification of East and West Punjab.).[63][64]

See also


References

  1. ^ Dixit, Kanak Mani (2018-12-04). "Two Punjabs, one South Asia". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2019-12-25.
  2. ^ "Reader's comment: Pakistan's movement to revive Punjabi culture faces no viable threat". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2019-12-25.
  3. ^ "A history steeped in Punjabi and Punjabiyat". The Tribune. Retrieved 2019-12-25.
  4. ^ Paracha, Nadeem F. (31 May 2015). "Smokers' Corner: The other Punjab". dawn.com. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  5. ^ "Pakistani scholars come to grips with another ethnic ideology: Punjabi nationalism".
  6. ^ "The News on Sunday". The News on Sunday. 5 July 2015. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  7. ^ Singh, Khushwant (24 January 2004). "Father of Punjabi". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  8. ^ "The idea of Punjabiyat". Free Punjabi Music, Free Music,Best Web Site for Music. 25 December 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  9. ^ "Bhai Vir Singh Sahitya Sadan". Bhai Vir Singh Sahitya Sadan. Archived from the original on 2015-09-19. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  10. ^ Bhardwaj, Ajay (15 August 2012). "The absence in Punjabiyat's split universe". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  11. ^ Kachhava, Priyanka (26 January 2015). "Of Punjabiyat, quest to migrate and 'muted masculinity'". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  12. ^ Ayres, Alyssa (August 2008). "Language, the Nation, and Symbolic Capital: The Case of Punjab". The Journal of Asian Studies. The Association for Asian Studies, Inc. 67 (3): 917–946. doi:10.1017/s0021911808001204. S2CID 56127067.
  13. ^ "A labour of love and a battle cry for logical minds". The News International, Pakistan. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  14. ^ Dogra, Chander Suta (26 October 2013). "'Punjabiyat' on a hilltop". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  15. ^ Punjabiyyat, In the name of (15 February 2015). "The News on Sunday". TNS - The News on Sunday. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  16. ^ Singh, IP (17 May 2015). "No Punjabi versus Hindi divide now". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  17. ^ Singh, Pritam. "The idea of Punjabiyat". Academy of the Punjab in North America. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  18. ^ "18 facts on Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh empire founder who put the 'Gold' in Golden Temple". India Today. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  19. ^ Khalid, Haroon. "On Lohri, remembering Dulla Bhatti, the landlord who stood up to the mighty Akbar". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  20. ^ Soofi, Mushtaq (2014-04-11). "Gora Raj: our elders and national narrative". dawn.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  21. ^ Khalid, Haroon. "Despite Mughal-Sikh conflicts, inclusion of Muslim poets in Guru Granth Saheb is proof of close tie". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  22. ^ Khalid, Haroon (2018-07-03). "How a valiant Sikh woman ruler helped Ranjit Singh rise from a chieftain to the Maharaja of Punjab". dawn.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  23. ^ "In Honouring Ranjit Singh, Pakistan Is Moving Beyond Conceptions of Muslim vs Sikh History". The Wire. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  24. ^ "Explained: The enduring legacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab". The Indian Express. 2019-06-28. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  25. ^ "[EXPLAINED] How the 1846 Treaty of Amritsar led to the formation of Jammu and Kashmir". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  26. ^ Noorani, A. G. (8 November 2017). "Dogra raj in Kashmir". Frontline. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  27. ^ Das, Santanu (19 October 2018). "Why half a million people from Punjab enlisted to fight for Britain in World War I". Quartz India. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  28. ^ Datta, Nonica (2019-09-23). "Punjab's pain, India's agony, Britain's unrepentance". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  29. ^ Khalid, Haroon (2016-11-01). "How did Pakistan, where Punjabi literature was born, come to shun the language?". HuffPost. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  30. ^ "Punjabi should be taught in schools". Daily Times. 2014-04-14. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  31. ^ Dhaliwal, Sarbjit (2017-11-01). "A pro-Punjabi movement is building up". Rozana Spokesman. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  32. ^ Singh, I.P. "50 years of Punjab - Is Punjabi losing out to Hindi, English?". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  33. ^ "Pak's Punjab govt replaces English with Urdu as medium of instruction in primary schools". India Today. Press Trust of India. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  34. ^ "The Language Divide in Punjab". apnaorg.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  35. ^ Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (2010-08-03). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812200171.
  36. ^ Singh, I.P. "Future tense?". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  37. ^ "Sikhs in Punjab shed its blind hostility towards Hindi". India Today. April 24, 2015. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  38. ^ Kamal, Neel (October 1, 2019). "Punjabi in Pakistan: Forging ahead against great odds". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  39. ^ Khalid, Haroon (2017-11-29). "The transformation of Punjabi identity over the centuries". dawn.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  40. ^ Khalid, Haroon. "The revolutionary Udham Singh is just one of the many faces of Punjabi identity". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  41. ^ "Thank you Punjabi!". The Nation. 2019-09-30. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  42. ^ Sheikh, Majid (2019-09-30). "HARKING BACK: Jinnah's wish and Sikh-era schools of old Lahore". dawn.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  43. ^ Khalid, Haroon. "Punjab, the Urdu literary hub of Pakistan, is slowly waking up to its lost Punjabi identity". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  44. ^ "Politicians use Punjabi to woo voters, but do nothing for its preservation". Daily Times. 2018-07-30. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  45. ^ "Punjab & Punjabi : Status of Punjabi in West Punjab - Part 1". apnaorg.com. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  46. ^ Kamal, Neel (August 20, 2017). "In Pakistan, Punjabi has to mind its Ps and Qs". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  47. ^ "Punjabi-Speakers in Pakistan Struggle to Preserve Their Language". The Quint. 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  48. ^ "Caste Away: The Ongoing Struggle of Pakistan's Punjabi Christians". The Wire. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  49. ^ Khalid, Kanwal (2015). "Lahore of Pre Historic Era" (PDF). Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan. 52 (2): 73. The earliest mention of five rivers in the collective sense was found in Yajurveda and a word Panchananda was used, which is a Sanskrit word to describe a land where five rivers meet. [...] In the later period the word Pentapotamia was used by the Greeks to identify this land. (Penta means 5 and potamia, water ___ the land of five rivers) Muslim Historians implied the word "Punjab " for this region. Again it was not a new word because in Persian speaking areas, there are references of this name given to any particular place where five rivers or lakes meet.
  50. ^ Pandher, Sarabjit (3 September 2013). "Freedom struggle". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  51. ^ "Case on promotion of Punjabi language referred to CJP".
  52. ^ Hassan, Shiraz (12 February 2014). "Am I a 'ganwaar' if I speak in Punjabi?". The Express Tribune Blog. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  53. ^ Chaudhry, Affan (16 March 2012). "I speak Punjabi (but my kids might not)". The Express Tribune Blog. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  54. ^ Ali, Fawad (26 May 2014). "Ki kehnda?: Most widely-spoken mother tongue ignored in local schools". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  55. ^ Ahmed, Shoaib (22 February 2015). "Struggle for Punjabi has gone a step ahead". dawn.com. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  56. ^ Kamal, Neel (14 September 2015). "Aficionados of the language say that after Partition, policy-makers declared Urdu the national language of Pakistan at the expense of others". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  57. ^ Hussain, Kashif (15 September 2015). "International Mother Language Day observed : Opp leader vows to". DailyTimes. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  58. ^ "Two-member SC bench refers Punjabi language case to CJP". Business Recorder. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  59. ^ Warraich, Faizan; Ali, Haider (15 September 2015). "Intelligentsia urges govt to promote Punjabi language". DailyTimes. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  60. ^ Masood, Tariq (21 February 2015). "The colonisation of language". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  61. ^ "Sufi poets can guarantee unity".
  62. ^ Altaf, Arsalan (4 May 2015). "Urdu-isation of Punjab". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  63. ^ Dhanda, Anirudh (12 August 2019). "Lingering pain of Partition". The Tribune. Retrieved 5 October 2019. Even after seven decades of Partition, it is difficult to comprehend and grasp the trauma in its full essence. ‘May be it is for this reason that the writers are still obsessed with this theme, but hardly any writer has contemplated the reunification of Punjab,’ pondered Amarjit Chandan.
  64. ^ Markandey Katju (10 April 2017). "India And Pakistan Must Reunite For Their Mutual Good". The Huffington Post.