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Saint John the Baptist as an allegory of the Canadian people holding the Carillon-Sacré-Coeur in a prayer card.

Clerico-Nationalism was a right-wing ideology current in Quebec from the years after World War I until the end of the 1950s, (from the premiership of Maurice Duplessis until the Quiet Revolution). Clerico-nationalism was a traditionalist, religious form of French Canadian nationalism focused on the Roman Catholic Church. In France, a similar ideology was referred to as National Catholicism.


Flag of Quebec displaying the Sacred Heart, promoted by Lionel Groulx as an emblem for Canadian Catholics.

The term clerico-nationalism was coined by Paul-André Linteau. Henri Bourassa publicized clerico-nationalist views, as did the editors of his newspaper Le Devoir, and the League des droits du français (League of French Rights). Clerico-nationalist thinking was most thoroughly developed and spread by Lionel Groulx and the Ligue d'Action française (French Action League), which he led.

Clerico-nationalism was focused on the past. Clerico-nationalists pushed a conservative line in politics and defended the interests of what they called the French Canadian race. Advocates of clerico-nationalism were strictly Catholic and mostly members of the clergy. They defended traditional family values, respect for hierarchy, submission of the wife to the authority of her husband, and natalism. They also defended agriculture and the rural way of life. They were on guard against what they saw as the dangers of the city and praised popular religious education.[1]

Clerico-nationalists also took stands on language and culture. They were purists about the French language, preferring the French spoken in France as the standard form of the language. In terms of culture and literature, Groulx and his fellows were traditionalists and opposed to modernist French and European. They promoted rural, conservative, and nationalist literature which opposed exoticism, art in the Parisian style, or Parnassianism, which was characterized by the study of 'art for art's sake'.

Opposition and decline

Starting in the 1930s, other more radical nationalist ideas (secularist and separatist) began to coalesce. These reduced the influence of Clerico-nationalism. These more radical ideas took hold in the movements inspired by Paul Bouchard and Adrian Arcand, and the group Jeune-Canada (Young Canada).

In the 1940s, opposition to the ideology of Groulx's generation became more vigorous. The young artists of Refus global, centered around Paul-Émile Borduas, strongly rejected clerico-nationalism, which they believed was reactionary. They were modern, anti-clerical, and revolutionary. This opposition had little effect at the time, but the generation of the Quiet Revolution would later rediscover it, opening the door to Marxism and the far left.

After the premiership of Duplessis Clerico-nationalism, often associated with his government, progressively gave way to the liberalism represented by Jean Lesage. However, the ideology represented by Groulx and his successors during close to a quarter century was a major influence on Quebec history in the 20th century. Clerico-nationalism brought together a number of intellectuals and figures from different nationalist milieus in defense of French Canadian tradition against rising liberalism, secularism, urbanization, and capitalism in the.[clarification needed] The often passionate debates that Clerico-nationalism stirred up focused discussion on modernity, the influence of Catholicism on political life, and the idea of progress in Quebec during a turning point in its history.

See also


  1. ^ Anderson, Emma (November 18, 2013). The Death and Afterlife of the North American Martyrs. Harvard University Press. pp. 112–115.