.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (February 2011) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 5,959 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Parnasse (littérature)]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Parnasse (littérature))) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Parnassianism (or Parnassism) was a group of French poets that began during the positivist period of the 19th century (1860s–1890s), occurring after romanticism and prior to symbolism. The style was influenced by the author Théophile Gautier as well as by the philosophical ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer.[1]

Origins and name

The name is derived from the original Parnassian poets' journal, Le Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses of Greek mythology. The anthology was first issued in 1866 and again in 1869 and 1876, including poems by Charles Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Sully Prudhomme, Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, François Coppée, Nina de Callias, and José María de Heredia.

The Parnassians were influenced by Théophile Gautier and his doctrine of "art for art's sake".[2] As a reaction to the less-disciplined types of romantic poetry and what they considered the excessive sentimentality and undue social and political activism of Romantic works, the Parnassians strove for exact and faultless workmanship,[3] selecting exotic and (neo-)classical subjects that they treated with rigidity of form and emotional detachment. Elements of this detachment were derived from the philosophical work of Schopenhauer.[citation needed]

The two most characteristic and most long-lasting members of the movement were Heredia and Leconte de Lisle.[4]

Transnational influences

Despite its French origins, Parnassianism was not restricted to French authors. Perhaps the most idiosyncratic of Parnassians, Olavo Bilac, Alberto de Oliveira's disciple, was an author from Brazil who managed carefully to craft verses and metre while maintaining a strong emotionalism in them.[5] Polish Parnassians included Antoni Lange, Felicjan Faleński, Cyprian Kamil Norwid and Leopold Staff.[citation needed] A Romanian poet with Parnassian influences was Alexandru Macedonski.[6] Florbela Espanca was a Parnassian Portuguese poet (Larousse), as was Cesário Verde.[7]

British poets such as Andrew Lang, Austin Dobson and Edmund Gosse were sometimes known as "English Parnassians" for their experiments in old (often originally French) forms such as the ballade, the villanelle and the rondeau, taking inspiration from French authors like Banville. Gerard Manley Hopkins used the term Parnassian pejoratively to describe competent but uninspired poetry, “spoken on and from the level of a poet’s mind”.[8] He identified this trend particularly with the work of Alfred Tennyson, citing the poem "Enoch Arden" as an example.[9] Many prominent Turkish poets of Servet-i Fünun were inspired by Parnassianism such as Tevfik Fikret, Yahya Kemal Beyatlı and Cenap Şahabettin.[10]

See also



  1. ^ Baldick 2015.
  2. ^ G Brereton, A Short History of French Literature (Penguin 1954) p. 288
  3. ^ G Robb, Rimbaud (London 2001) p. 35
  4. ^ G Brereton, A Short History of French Literature (Penguin 1954) p. 289-90
  5. ^ M Rector, Brazilian Writers (2005) p. 91
  6. ^ S Serafin, 20th C Eastern European Writers (2000) p. 220
  7. ^ Lôbo, Danilo (1997). ""O sentimento dum ocidental": uma leitura intersemiótica". Literatura e Sociedade (in Portuguese). 2 (2): 89–99. doi:10.11606/issn.2237-1184.v0i2p89-99.
  8. ^ W H Gardner ed., Gerard Manley Hopkins (Penguin 1975) p. 154
  9. ^ Hopkins, Gerard Manley (2002). The Major Works. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0-19-953885-0.
  10. ^ "Parnasizm nedir? Parnasizm sanat akımı kurucusu, örnekleri, eserleri ve temsilcileri hakkında bilgi".


In France
In Brazil
Essays and criticisms