Local [ethnic] nationalism
Traditional Chinese地方民族主義
Simplified Chinese地方民族主义
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese狹隘民族主義
Simplified Chinese狭隘民族主义
Literal meaningNarrow nationalism

Local ethnic nationalism,[1][2][3] simply local nationalism[4] or local ethnic chauvinism[5] refers to a form of nationalism that divides China (PRC) by refusing to unite with the Han Chinese by focusing only on the 'national/ethnic interests' (民族利益) of ethnic minorities in China.

In mainland China, "local ethnic nationalism/chauvinism" contrasts with "Han nationalism" (or "Han chauvinism"), but both are perceived[by whom?] as divisive ideas.[6]


From the 1930s to 1945, the Japanese imperialists proclaimed the idea of "national liberation" (民族解放, minzu jiefang) and "national self-determination" (民族自決, minzu zijue) to encourage the separation of Northeast China and North China from the rest of the country.[7]

In the 1950s, Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League leader Xie Xuehong supported Taiwanese self-determination than radical Chinese reunification, which led to her being accused of being a "local ethnic nationalist" during the Anti-Rightist Campaign.[8]

On September 1, 1979, Deng Xiaoping, while listening to the report of the 14th National Conference on United Front Work, said: There are indeed many problems in the national work to which attention should be paid; the current issue is how to strengthen national unity and oppose 'great Han-ism' (大漢族主義) and 'local ethnic nationalism' (地方民族主義), and there is also 'great [ethnic] nationalism' (大民族主義) in some ethnic minorities.[9]

Hong Kong nationalism

Main article: Hong Kong nationalism

See also: Localism in Hong Kong and Localist camp

Hong Kong nationalism recognizes Hongkongers as individual minzu as distinct from "Chinese nation/ethnicity".

The term minzu (民族) may mean "ethnic group" depending on the context, but may also mean "nation" in a broad sense. Therefore, Hong Kong nationalists who reject the concept of "Chinese nation/ethnicity" (中華民族) and insist on "Hong Konger nation/ethnicity" (香港民族) can also be called "local [ethnic] nationalism" (地方民族主義).[10]

See also

China's non-Han nationalisms:



  1. ^ simplified Chinese: 朝鲜民族主义; traditional Chinese: 朝鮮民族主義, Chinese Korean: 조선[의] 민족주의


  1. ^ Ilham Tohti (15 March 2022). We Uyghurs Have No Say: An Imprisoned Writer Speaks. Verso Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-83976-406-6. ... local ethnic nationalism , the government has overlooked growing Han Chinese chauvinism. In Xinjiang, the inverse of local ethnic nationalism is a growing trend toward Han Chinese chauvinism and ethnocentrism.
  2. ^ a b Minglang Zhou; Hongkai Sun (2004). Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949. Springer Netherlands. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-4020-8039-5. ... local/ethnic nationalism and ethnic-nationalist feelings, the Yanbian conference criticized "local nationalism" in Korean standardization in Korean communities.
  3. ^ Pitman B. Potter (30 August 2010). Law, Policy, and Practice on China's Periphery: Selective Adaptation and Institutional Capacity. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-93635-7. ... local ethnic nationalism are suppressed. As well, the broad consensus within governance institutions on the need to resist international support for local ethnic nationalism (particularly US support for the Dalai Lama and Tibet, and ...
  4. ^ Carlos Rojas; Mei-hwa Sung (October 28, 2020). Reading China Against the Grain: Imagining Communities. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-000-21661-5. The Party organization denounced the movement as a manifestation of harmful local nationalism (difang minzu zhuyi 地方民族主義) – referring to the tendency of minority nationalities to secede from the country – and quickly suppressed it in 1958 and 1959.
  5. ^ Gerard A. Postiglione (15 October 2013). China's National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development. Taylor & Francis. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-135-60669-5. ... local ethnic chauvinism ( difang minzu zhuyi ) .
  6. ^ Xiaobo Dong; Yafang Zhang (19 May 2023). On Contemporary Chinese Legal System. Springer Nature Singapore. p. 115. ISBN 978-981-99-2505-6. ... opposing major ethnic group chauvinism, Han chauvinism and local ethnic chauvinism.
  7. ^ Wei Wang; Lisong Jiang (July 19, 2021). Ethnic Identity of the Kam People in Contemporary China: Government Versus Local Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-000-41288-8.
  8. ^ 帝塚山大学教養学部紀要: Issues 30-31. 帝塚山大学教養学部. 1992.
  9. ^ 中共中央文獻研究室, ed. (2011). 《鄧小平思想年編(一九七五——一九九七)》. 中央文獻出版社.
  10. ^ "【大疑團】究竟澳門風災死了多少人?". The News Lens (in Chinese). 27 August 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2024.