Scottish nationalism promotes the idea that the Scottish people form a cohesive nation and national identity.
Scottish nationalism began to shape from 1853 with the National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights, progressing into the Scottish National Movement in to 1920s maturing by the 1970s and achieved present ideological maturity in the 1980s and 1990s. The nation's origin, political context and unique characteristics including the Gaelic language, poetry and film maintains an individual's distinct identification and support of Scotland.
The Acts of Union merged both the Parliaments and Kingdoms of Scotland and England in 1707 to be "united into one Kingdom of Great Britain", but a separate legal system and distinct Scottish institutions continue to exist.
Scottish Gaelic, also known as the founding language of Scotland is currently the oldest Scottish language still in use today.
Gaelic itself has been through a tremendous history of turmoil, from Scots nobles being made to learn English as a first language as far back as the 13th century, religious leaders knowing no Gaelic, Lowland migration and culture migrating north with trade, or some ten such acts between 1494 and 1698 passed by the Scots Parliament to make English the first language, Gaelic had struggled to retain a foothold over Scotland. As Scotland and Great Britain were united under the Acts of Union 1707, Gaelic lost its legitimacy as a legal and administrative language. Gaelic did however continued to gain importance as the language of the Highland clans, and the language of the Jacobite's.
Prior to the Education (Scotland) Act 1872, the Act of Proscription 1746 was implemented to assimilate Highland Scots into Lowland & British culture. Following the Government victory over the Jacobite's, Jacobitism as a significant political force diminished, Highland dress was outlawed, banned, and Highland culture & Language deterred, those speaking Gaelic, or wearing highland dress historically received various forms of punishment.
On the 1st July 1782, royal assent was given to Repeal of the Act Proscribing the Wearing of Highland Dress 22 George III, Chap. 63, 1782 and a proclamation issued in Gaelic and English.
Under the Education (Scotland) Act, school attendance was compulsory and only English was taught, or tolerated in the schools of both the Lowlands and the Highlands and Islands. As a result, any student who spoke Scottish Gaelic in the school or on its grounds could expect what Ronald Black calls the, "familiar Scottish experience of being thrashed for speaking their native language of Gaelic.
Since devolution and the passing of the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, Scottish nationalists have spearheaded an effort to bring Scottish Gaelic back from the brink of extinction through the spread of immersion schools funded by the Scottish Parliament.
The Scots Language, previously known as Inglis/Early Scots is a lowland, West Germanic Language which also has a reported history of being deterred within Scottish Education. Scots speakers today agree that they have received various forms of punishment for speaking Scots. For this reason, the protection and revival of both Gaelic and Lowland Scots play a key role in nationalist ideology.
Linguistic independence is primarily associated with the poetry of Robert Burns about the events of the Wars of Scottish Independence, before it experienced a resurgence during the Scottish Renaissance, as led by Hugh MacDiarmid.
Within politics, Scottish nationalism was held as a key ideology by the National Party of Scotland which later became the Scottish National Party (SNP). Their rise in popularity since being elected to government at Holyrood in 2007 led to the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. The referendum was held on 18 September 2014, and was a victory for the Better Together campaign; who advocated keeping Scotland part of the United Kingdom, with 55% of the Scottish electorate across all 32 council areas voting "No" to independence. However, four of the thirty-two local authority council areas in Scotland did have a majority "Yes" vote in support of independence: Dundee, Glasgow, North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire, which accounted for the wishes of 1,617,989 people.
Despite the nationalist side losing the referendum, the SNP experienced a surge in support in the following months, and won a landslide majority in Scotland at the UK general election the following year; ending 51 years of dominance by Scottish Labour. Many long-serving Labour politicians lost their seats in the biggest political upset in decades, with the SNP winning all but three Scottish House of Commons seats and displacing the Liberal Democrats to become the third party of the United Kingdom; despite only standing for election in Scotland. On Thursday, 23 June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on continuing membership of the European Union, which resulted in 52% of the British electorate voting for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union. A second Scottish independence referendum has been proposed, as 62% of the Scottish electorate voted for the UK to remain in the European Union, and guaranteed prosperity through single market access was part of the Better Together campaign's argument to convince the Scottish people to vote to stay part of the UK.
In 2021, former SNP Leader and First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond launched the Alba Party and announced it would run in the 2021 Scottish Parliament election, to try and a achieve "supermajority" for Scottish independence. However, the party failed to win any seats in Parliament.
On 15 June 2022 First Minister Nicola Sturgeon declared that she plans to hold a second Scottish independence referendum in October 2023.
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