Walt Whitman, often described as the United States' national poet
Hovhanes Tumanyan
Léopold Sédar Senghor
Du Fu
Ferdowsi
Rabindranath Tagore
Shota Rustaveli
Murasaki Shikibu
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
William Shakespeare
Ausiàs March
Dante Alighieri
Luís de Camões
Miguel de Cervantes
Johan Ludvig Runeberg
Alexander Pushkin
Lydia Koidula
Muhammad Iqbal
Adam Mickiewicz
Neruda
Taras Shevchenko
César Vallejo
János Arany
Robert Burns
Kazi Nazrul Islam

A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.[1] The national poet as culture hero is a long-standing symbol, to be distinguished from successive holders of a bureaucratically-appointed poet-laureate office. The idea and honoring of national poets emerged primarily during Romanticism, as a figure that helped consolidation of the nation states, as it provided validation of their ethno-linguistic groups.[1]

Most national poets are historic figures, though a few contemporary writers working in relatively new or revived national literatures are also considered "national poets". Though not formally elected, national poets play a role in shaping a country's understanding of itself.[2] Some nations may have more than one national poet; the idea of a single one is always a simplification. It has been argued that a national poet "must write poetry that closely identifies with the nation's cause – or is thought to do so",[3] with an additional assumption being that "a national poet must write in a national language".[4]

The following is a list of nations, with their associated national poets. It is not a list of sovereign states or countries, though many of the nations listed may also be such. The terms "nation" (as cultural concept), "country" (as geographical concept) and "state" (as political concept) are not synonyms.

Africa

Country Poet Sources
 Algeria Si Mohand, Moufdi Zakaria [5][6]
 Angola Agostinho Neto [7]
 Egypt Ahmed Shawqi [8]
 Ethiopia Gibreab Teferi, Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin [9]
 Ghana Atukwei Okai, Kofi Awoonor [10][11]
 Lesotho Thomas Mofolo [12]
 Liberia Melvin B. Tolson [13]
 Madagascar Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo [14]
 Mali Fily Dabo Sissoko [15]
 Mauritius Léoville L'Homme [16]
 Morocco Mohammed Awzal [17]
 Mozambique José Craveirinha [18]
 Namibia Mvula ya Nangolo [19]
 Nigeria Christopher Okigbo [20][21]
 Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor [22]
 Sierra Leone Davidson Nicol [23]
 Somalia Hadrawi [24]
 South Africa Mazisi Kunene, S. E. K. Mqhayi [25][26]
 Tanzania Shaaban bin Robert [27]
 Tunisia Aboul-Qacem Echebbi [28][29]
 Western Sahara Zaim Allal [30]

Asia

Country (or region) Poet Sources
 Afghanistan Rumi, Khushal Khattak [31][32]
 Azerbaijan Nizami Ganjavi (controversy), Fuzûlî, Imadaddin Nasimi, Samad Vurgun [33][34][35][36]
 Bangladesh Kazi Nazrul Islam [37]
 China Du Fu, Li Bai [38][39][40]
 Cambodia Preah Botumthera Som [41]
 India Maithili Sharan Gupt, Subramania Bharati, Kalidasa, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Rabindranath Tagore [42][43][44][45][46]
 Indonesia Chairil Anwar [47]
 Iran Ferdowsi, Rumi, Hafez, Attar, Omar Khayyám [48][49][50]
 Iraq Muthaffar al-Nawab, Al-Mutanabbi, Muhammad Mahdi al-Jawahiri [51][52][53]
 Israel Yehuda Amichai, Hayim Nahman Bialik [54][55]
 Japan Matsuo Bashō, Lafcadio Hearn, Tanikawa Shuntaro, Ishikawa Takuboku [56][57][58]
 Jordan Mustafa Wahbi al-Tal [59]
 Kazakhstan Abai Qunanbaiuli [60]
Korea Cho Ki-chon, Yun Dongju, Han Yong-un, Park Mok-wol, Jeong Cheol [61][62]
 Kurdistan Hemin Mukriyani, Sherko Bekas, Abdurrahman Sharafkandi, Ehmedê Xanî [63][64][65][66]
 Kyrgyzstan Toktogul Satylganov [67]
 Lebanon Kahlil Gibran, Said Akl [68][69]
 Malaysia Usman Awang [70]
 Mongolia Ochirbatyn Dashbalbar, Dulduityn Danzanravjaa, Dashdorjiin Natsagdorj, Byambyn Rinchen, Hadaa Sendoo [71][72][73][74][75]
 Myanmar Min Thu Wun [76]
   Nepal Madhav Prasad Ghimire [77]
 Pakistan Allama Muhammad Iqbal [78]
 Palestine Mahmoud Darwish [79]
 Philippines Francisco Balagtas [80]
 Sri Lanka Parakrama Kodituwakku [81]
 Syria Nizar Qabbani [82]
 Taiwan Yang Mu, Yu Youren [83][84]
 Tajikistan Sadriddin Ayni, Bozor Sobir, Mirzo Tursunzoda, Saadi, Rudaki, Rumi, Gulnazar Keldi [85][86][87][88][89][90][91]
 Thailand Sunthorn Phu [92][93]
 Tibet Tsering Woeser [94]
 Turkey Rumi, Nâzım Hikmet, Ziya Gökalp, Mehmet Âkif Ersoy [49][95][96][97]
 Turkmenistan Magtymguly Pyragy [98]
 Uzbekistan Abdulla Oripov, Erkin Vohidov, Gʻafur Gʻulom, Mirtemir [99]
 Vietnam Nguyễn Du, Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Hồ Xuân Hương [100][101][102]
 Yemen Abdullah Al-Baradouni, Waddah al-Yaman [103][104]

Europe

Country (or region) Poet Sources
 Albania Gjergj Fishta, Naim Frashëri [105][106]
 Abkhazia Dmitry Gulia [107]
 Armenia Hovhannes Tumanyan, Sayat-Nova, Yeghishe Charents [108][109][110]
 Austria Franz Grillparzer ,Johann Nepomuk Nestroy,Georg Trakl, Rainer Maria Rilke [111][112][113]
 Bashkortostan Rami Garipov, Mustai Karim [114][115][116]
 Basque Country Bernard Etxepare [117]
 Belarus Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas [118][119]
 Belgium Emile Verhaeren, Maurice Maeterlinck [120][121]
 Catalonia Ausiàs March, Jacint Verdaguer [122][123]
 Chechnya Ismail Kerimov [124]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Cemalettin Latic, Mak Dizdar, Izet Sarajlić [125][126]
 Brittany Théodore Claude Henri, vicomte Hersart de la Villemarqué [127]
 Bulgaria Hristo Botev, Ivan Vazov [128][129]
 Carpathian Ruthenia Alexander Dukhnovych [130]
 Croatia Marko Marulić, Ivan Gundulić [131]
 Cyprus Vasilis Michaelides [132]
 Czech Republic (Czech lands) Karel Hynek Mácha, Jan Neruda [133][134]
 Dagestan Rasul Gamzatov [135]
 Denmark Adam Oehlenschläger, Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard, N. F. S. Grundtvig [136][137][138]
 Faroe Islands William Heinesen, Nólsoyar Páll, Mikkjal á Ryggi [139][140][141]
 England Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare, William Blake, William Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, W. H. Auden, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Philip Larkin [142][143][144][145][146][147]
 Estonia Kristjan Jaak Peterson, Lydia Koidula [148][149]
 Finland Eino Leino, Elias Lönnrot, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Edith Södergran [150][151][152]
 Flanders Émile Verhaeren, Hendrik Conscience, Guido Gezelle, Hugo Claus [120]
 Friesland Gysbert Japicx (or Japiks) [153]
 France Charles Baudelaire, Victor Hugo, Arthur Rimbaud [154][155]
 Galicia Rosalía de Castro, Ramón Cabanillas [156][157]
 Georgia Shota Rustaveli [158]
 Germany Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich von Schiller, Heinrich Heine,Bertolt Brecht, Friedrich Hölderlin,Novalis, Friedrich Nietzsche,Hermann Hesse, Stefan George [159][160][161][162][163][164]
 Greece Homer,Sappho,Pindar, Solon, Dionysios Solomos [165][166][167]
 Guernsey George Métivier [168]
 Hungary Sándor Petőfi, János Arany [169][170]
 Iceland Jónas Hallgrímsson, Hallgrímur Pétursson [171][172]
 Ireland Thomas Moore, William Butler Yeats, Seamus Heaney, Patrick Pearse [173][174][175][176][177][178]
 Isle of Man T. E. Brown [179]
 Italy Ovid, Virgil, Horace, Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca, Giosuè Carducci, Giacomo Leopardi, Ugo Foscolo, Gabriele D'Annunzio [180][181][182][183][184][185][186][187]
 Jersey Wace [188]
 Kosovo Ali Podrimja [189]
 Latvia Rainis, Andrejs Pumpurs [190][191]
 Lithuania Kristijonas Donelaitis, Maironis, Justinas Marcinkevičius, Adomas Mickevičius [192][193][194]
 Luxembourg Edmond de la Fontaine, Michel Lentz [195][196]
 Malta Dun Karm Psaila [197]
 Moldova Grigore Vieru, Mihai Eminescu [198][199]
 Montenegro Petar II Petrović-Njegoš [133]
 Netherlands Joost van den Vondel, Jacob Cats [200][201]
 North Macedonia Kočo Racin [202]
 North Ossetia-Alania Kosta Khetagurov [203]
 Norway Henrik Wergeland [204]
 Occitania Frédéric Mistral, Arnaut Daniel, Bernart de Ventadorn, Comtessa de Dia [205][206][207][208]
 Poland Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Zygmunt Krasiński [209]
 Portugal Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa [210][211]
 Provence Frédéric Mistral, Comtessa de Dia [205][208]
 Romania Mihai Eminescu [212]
 Russia Alexander Pushkin,Anna Akhmatova, Boris Pasternak,Sergei Yesenin, Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Bunin [213][214][215]
 Sápmi Anders Fjellner [216]
 Scotland Robert Burns, Hugh MacDiarmid [217][218]
 Serbia Desanka Maksimović, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, Jovan Sterija Popović, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj [219][220][221][222]
 Slovakia Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav [223]
 Slovenia France Prešeren [224]
 Spain Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Federico García Lorca [1][225]
 Styria Peter Rosegger [226]
 Sweden Carl Michael Bellman, Gustaf Fröding, Verner von Heidenstam, Esaias Tegnér [227][228][229][230]
  Switzerland Gottfried Keller, Carl Spitteler [231][232]
 Tatarstan Ğabdulla Tuqay, Musa Cälil, Ravil Fayzullin [233][234] Fänis Yarullin [tt][235][236]
 Turkey Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Nâzım Hikmet [237][238]
 Ukraine Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainka [239][240][241]
 Wales Dylan Thomas, Dafydd ap Gwilym [242][243]

North America

Country Poets Sources
 Barbados Kamau Brathwaite [244]
 Canada Margaret Atwood, E. Pauline Johnson, E. J. Pratt, Octave Crémazie, Al Purdy, Milton Acorn, [245][246][247][248]
 Costa Rica Aquileo J. Echeverría, Jorge Debravo [249][250]
 Cuba José Martí, Lezama Lima, Nicolás Guillén [251][252]
 Curaçao Pierre Lauffer [253]
 Dominican Republic Pedro Mir [254]
 El Salvador Roque Dalton [255]
 Greenland Henning Jakob Henrik Lund [256]
 Guatemala Rafael Landívar [257]
 Haiti Oswald Durand [258]
 Honduras Roberto Sosa [259]
 Jamaica Claude McKay [260]
 Martinique Aimé Césaire [261][262]
 Mexico Octavio Paz, Ramón López Velarde [263]
 Nicaragua Rubén Darío [264]
 Panama Ricardo Miró [265][266]
 Puerto Rico Julia de Burgos, Giannina Braschi, Juan Antonio Corretjer, Lola Rodríguez de Tió, Nimia Vicéns [267][268][269][270][271]
 Quebec Gaston Miron, Octave Crémazie [272][273]
 Saint Lucia Derek Walcott [274]
 Sint Maarten Lasana M. Sekou [275][276]
 United States Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, William Carlos Williams, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Carl Sandburg, Maya Angelou, Gwendolyn Brooks, Langston Hughes, Jack Kerouac, James Arlington Wright, Allen Ginsberg [277][278][279][280][281][282][283][284]

Oceania

Country Poets
 Australia Dorothea Mackellar, Mary Gilmore, Judith Wright, Henry Lawson, Adam Lindsay Gordon, A. B. "Banjo" Paterson, C.J. Dennis [285][286][287]
 Fiji Kamla Prasad Mishra [288]
 New Zealand James K. Baxter, Thomas Bracken, Allen Curnow [289]

South America

Country Poets Sources
 Argentina José Hernández, Jorge Luis Borges, Leopoldo Lugones [290]
 Brazil Gonçalves Dias, Olavo Bilac, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Machado de Assis [291][292][293][294]
 Chile Pablo Neruda, Gabriela Mistral [295][296]
 Colombia Rafael Pombo, José Asunción Silva, Álvaro Mutis [297][298]
 Ecuador Remigio Crespo Toral [299]
 Guyana Martin Carter [300]
 Peru César Vallejo [301]
 Suriname Trefossa [302]
 Uruguay Juan Zorrilla de San Martín [303]
 Venezuela Andrés Eloy Blanco [304]

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Further reading