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Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
Iudaea Capta, "Conquered Judaea", commemorative coin issued by the Roman emperor Vespasian (left) after the Jewish War
Iudaea Capta, "Conquered Judaea", commemorative coin issued by the Roman emperor Vespasian (left) after the Jewish War
An early example of national personification in a gospel book dated 990: Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Emperor Otto III.
An early example of national personification in a gospel book dated 990: Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Emperor Otto III.
In this Allegory depicting the 1576 Pacification of Ghent by Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne, the seated women represent a short-lived unity among the embattled provinces of what would become the present-day Belgium and Netherlands
In this Allegory depicting the 1576 Pacification of Ghent by Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne, the seated women represent a short-lived unity among the embattled provinces of what would become the present-day Belgium and Netherlands
1909 cartoon in Puck shows (clockwise) US, Germany, Britain, France and Japan engaged in naval race in a "no limit" game.
1909 cartoon in Puck shows (clockwise) US, Germany, Britain, France and Japan engaged in naval race in a "no limit" game.

A national personification is an anthropomorphic personification of a state or the people(s) it inhabits. It may appear in political cartoons and propaganda.

Some early personifications in the Western world tended to be national manifestations of the majestic wisdom and war goddess Minerva/Athena, and often took the Latin name of the ancient Roman province. Examples of this type include Britannia, Germania, Hibernia, Hispania, Helvetia and Polonia. Examples of personifications of the Goddess of Liberty include Marianne, the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), and many examples of United States coinage. Another ancient model was Roma, a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state, and who was revived in the 20th Century as the personification of Mussolini's "New Roman Empire". Examples of representations of the everyman or citizenry in addition to the nation itself are Deutscher Michel, John Bull and Uncle Sam.[1]

Personifications by country or territory

Location Image Personification Animal used for the same purpose
 Albania
Mother Albania Tirana 2.JPG
Mother Albania (Nëna Shqipëria)
Americas
The Four Continents (America), Johann Joachim Kaendler and assistants, Meissen Porcelain Factory, c. 1760, hard-paste porcelain - Wadsworth Atheneum - Hartford, CT - DSC05373.jpg
Personification of the Americas
 Argentina
La Libertad en la cima de la Piramide de Mayo.jpg
Effigy of the Republic/Liberty/Progress/Fatherland, Gaucho
 Armenia
Mother Armenia Statue (55651114).jpeg
Mother Armenia (Mayr Hayastan; lit. "Mother Hayastan")
 Australia
LBM-Lindsay.jpg
Little Boy from Manly Boxing kangaroo
 Austria
Wien 01 Austriabrunnen 07.jpg
Austria (Personification) Double-headed eagle
 Bangladesh Bangamata (lit. Mother Bengal).[2] Bengal tiger[3]
Basque Country
Olentzero Hendaia 2006.JPG
Olentzero Arrano beltza
 Belgium
La-Belgique-couronnant-ses-enfants-illustres-Jamar-1854.tif
La Belgique or Belgica, Manneken Pis[4][5] Brabantic Lion, Leo Belgicus
 Brazil
Rodrigues-republica-mab.jpg
Efígie da República; the Bandeirante (only in São Paulo State and Minas Gerais); the "Tropeiro" (in Minas Gerais); the Candango (in Brasília); the Gaúcho (in Rio Grande do Sul);
 Bulgaria
Georgi-Danchov-Svobodna-Bulgaria.jpg
Mother Bulgaria
 Cambodia
Statue of Preah Thong and Neang Neak.png
Preah Thong and Neang Neak
 Canada
RCMP 1935 postcard.jpg
Mountie,[6] Johnny Canuck,[7] Le Vieux de '37 (French Canada), Canada Bereft also known as Mother Canada (at the Canadian National Vimy Memorial). Canada was often personified as a young woman in 19th and early 20th century editorial cartoons, called simply '"Canada," "Miss Canada,'" or sometimes "Mother Canada"[8] Canadian beaver
 Chile
Roto chileno.jpg
El Roto, El Huaso, Doña Juanita (an average Chilean woman from the countryside) Condorito
 China and  Taiwan
Jade Emperor. Ming Dynasty.jpg
Jade Emperor Chinese dragon
 Colombia
Juanvaldez.png
Juan Valdez
 Croatia
Ferdo Quiqerez,Predziđe kršćanstva.jpg
Mother Croatia (Mati Hrvatska)
 Czechia
Vaclav Maly -The National Museum in Prague 048.jpg
Čechie, Czech Vašek, Svejk. double-tailed Czech lion
 Denmark
Holger danske.jpg
Holger Danske, Mother Denmark
 Dominican Republic
Conchoprimo.jpeg
Conchoprimo
 Egypt
Nahdet Misr.jpg
Mother of the World (Om El Donia)
 El Salvador
SalvadorDelMundo.jpg
Salvador del Mundo
 European Union
Enlèvement d
Europa or Europa regina Zeus as a white bull
 Finland
SuomiNeito.png
Finnish Maiden (Suomi-neito)
 France
Marianne - symbol of French Republic.jpg
Marianne Gallic rooster
 Georgia
Mother of Georgia view.jpg
"Mother of a Georgian" (Kartlis Deda)
 Germany
Image Germania (painting).jpg
Germany: Germania, Deutscher Michel
Regional

Bavaria: Bavaria, Berlin: Berolina, Bremen: Brema (de), Brunswick: Brunonia (de), Franconia: Franconia (de), Frankfurt: Francofurtia (de), Hamburg: Hammonia, Prussia: Borussia (de), Palatinate: Palatia, Saxony: Saxonia (de)

Reichsadler, Bundesadler
Regional: Berliner Bär, Bavarian Lion, Marcher Eagle (Brandenburg), Prussian Eagle
 Greece
Theodoros Vryzakis, Grateful Hellas (1858).jpg
Hellas
 Haiti
Czestochowska.jpg
Ezili Dantor, Katrin (based on the real life Haitian hero, Catherine Flon)
 Hungary
Hungária nőalak Aradon.jpg
The Lady of Hungaria Turul
 Iceland
Arnason-front.jpg
The Lady of the Mountains (Fjallkonan)
 India
Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore.jpg
Bharat Mata ("Mother India") Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion

Indian peafowl

 Indonesia
Statue of Goddess or Queen at Monas.JPG
Ibu Pertiwi Garuda Pancasila
 Iran,  Afghanistan and  Tajikistan
Rostam killing the White Demon.jpg
Rostam[9][10][11] Lion and sun
 Ireland
Ériu, Banba, Fódla, Kathleen Ni Houlihan, Hibernia, The Old Woman of Beare[12]
 Israel
P Srulik.png
Srulik
 Italy
Reggio calabria monumento all
Italia Turrita, Roma Italian wolf[citation needed]
 Japan
Amaterasu cave crop.jpg
Amaterasu, Emperor Jimmu Green Pheasant, Koi
 Kenya Wanjiku
Korea ( North Korea and  South Korea - despite mutual enmity, both states lay claim to the same historical heritage)
Portrait of Dangun.jpg
Dangun, Ungnyeo, Yangban Korean Tiger, Chollima
 Kyrgyzstan
Manas.jpg
Manas
 Latvia
1916 Zariņš Tēvuzemei Grūti Laiki.jpg
Milda
 Lithuania
Union in lublin.JPG
Lietuva
Benelux Low Lands or Benelux (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg)
Strada, Leo Belgicus, 1648, Cornell, CUL PJM 1011 01.jpg
Leo Belgicus
 Malaysia
Hang Tuah, Muzium Negara - cropped.jpg
Hang Tuah[13][14] Malayan tiger[15]
 Malta
Malta 1922 One Pound.jpg
Melita
 Mexico
Alegoría de la Patria Mexicana 1.jpg
Alegoría de la Patria Mexicana (es), La China Poblana Golden eagle
 Morocco
BarbaryLionB1898bw.jpg
Barbary Lion
 Montenegro
Vlah Church 2.jpg
Fairy of Lovćen, Mother Montenegro
 Netherlands
Beeld van de Nederlandse maagd, bovenop monument 1813 -
Dutch Maiden Dutch Republic Lion, Leo Hollandicus, Leo Belgicus
   Nepal
Gurkha Soldier Monument, London - April 2008.jpg
Gurkha, Sherpa
 New Zealand
Palmerston NZ Boer War Memorial closer.jpg
Zealandia[16] Kiwi
 Nicaragua
El Güegüense Original.jpg
El Güegüense Motmot
 North Macedonia
Mother Macedonia - personification of Macedonia.jpg
Mother Macedonia[17][18]
 Norway
Norges Grundlov 1814 Frihed Lighed Broderskab, 1914.jpg
Mother Norway [no], stereotyp. Ola Nordmann & Kari Nordmann, hist. Nór
 Palestine
Handara - panoramio.jpg
Handala
 Peru
Patria (foto de Eugenio Courret).jpg
Libertad also known as Madre Patria (Allegory of the Peruvian Motherland) Vicuña
 Philippines
RizalParkIntramurosGolfClubjf8588 13.JPG
Ináng Bayan, Filipinas, Juan dela Cruz Philippine Carabao
 Poland
Quincunx Polonia.jpg
Polonia White eagle
 Portugal
Zepovinho.jpg
Zé Povinho, Eu nacional (National Self), Republic effigy, Guardian Angel of Portugal Rooster of Barcelos
 Romania
Gheorghe Tattarescu - 11 februarie 1866 Romania Moderna.jpg
România Modernă
 Russia
RossiiaLaveretsky.jpg
Mother Russia Russian bear
 Serbia
Kosovo Maiden, Uroš Predić, 1919.jpg
Mother Serbia, Kosovo Maiden
 Singapore
Singapore Mini Merlion.JPG
Merlion
 Slovakia
Wladyslaw Skoczylas - Janosik.jpg
Jánošík
 Slovenia
Leopold Layer - Kralj Matjaž.jpg
Kralj Matjaž ("King Matjaž", a legendary king in Slovenia and some other nations), Peter Klepec[citation needed]
 Spain
Madrid - Biblioteca Nacional de España 04.jpg
Hispania Hispanic Lion
 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Matha Sinhala Lion
 Suriname
Mama Sranan Sculpture.JPG
Mama Sranan (Mother Suriname), a 1965 sculpture by Jozeph Klas in the center of Paramaribo, of a mother figure holding five children representing Suriname's ethnic groups in her arms.[19]
 Sweden
Moder svea berga.JPG
Mother Svea
  Switzerland
Johannes Meiner Frau Buck als Helvetia.jpg
Helvetia
 Thailand
Phra Sayamadevathiraja.jpg
Siam Devadhiraj (พระสยามเทวาธิราช "The Guardian Angel of Siam") White elephant
 Tibet
Snow Lion (facing right), image detail from The Ninth Karmapa, Wangchug Dorje (1555-1603) (cropped).jpg
Snow Lion
 Ukraine
Fedir Stovbynenko - Kozak-bandyryst (1890).jpg
Cossack Mamay
 United Kingdom
Britannia-Statue.jpg
Britannia (United Kingdom), John Bull (England), Dame Wales (Wales) The Lion and the Unicorn (England and Scotland), Bulldog (United Kingdom), Welsh dragon (Wales)
 United States
Unclesamwantyou.jpg
Uncle Sam (government personification), Lady Liberty, Columbia, Johnny Reb (The South, obsolete), Billy Yank (The North, obsolete), Brother Jonathan (New England, obsolete) Bald Eagle, North American Bison, Timber rattlesnake (American Revolution, obsolete)
 Uruguay
El Altar de la Patria.png
Personification of Uruguay
 Vietnam
Phù điêu Quốc tổ Lạc Long Quân tại Đền Nội Bình Đà.jpg
Lạc Long Quân, Âu Cơ, The Four Immortals Vietnamese Dragon, Lạc Bird
Flag of Republic of Venice (1659-1675).svg
Venice
Judith with the Head of Holofernes by Cristofano Allori.jpg
Juditha Venetian Lion

See also

References

  1. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, "Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe, 1870-1914," in Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, 1983), 263-307.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 310. ISBN 8176484695. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  3. ^ "NATIONAL SYMBOLS". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. Archived from the original on 2016-12-28. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
  4. ^ Couvreur, Manuel; Deknop, Anne; Symons, Thérèse (2005). Manneken-Pis : Dans tous ses états. Historia Bruxellae (in French). Vol. 9. Brussels: Musées de la Ville de Bruxelles. ISBN 978-2-930423-01-2.
  5. ^ Emerson, Catherine (2015). Regarding Manneken Pis: Culture, Celebration and Conflict in Brussels. Leeds: Taylor & Francis Ltd. ISBN 978-1-909662-30-8.
  6. ^ McGill, Robert (2017). War Is Here: The Vietnam War and Canadian Literature. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780773551589. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  7. ^ Barber, Katherine (2007). Only in Canada You Say: A Treasury of Canadian Language. Oxford University Press Canada. p. 70. ISBN 9780195427073.
  8. ^ "Library and Archives Canada". Library and Archives Canada.
  9. ^ Hassanabadi, Mahmoud. "Rostam: A Complex Puzzle: A New Approach to the Identification of the Character of Rostam in the Iranian National Epos Shāhnāme". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Dallmayr, Fred (25 August 1999). Border Crossings: Toward a Comparative Political Theory. ISBN 9780739152546.
  11. ^ https://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1866/14232/Heck_Isabel_2003_memoire.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y[bare URL PDF]
  12. ^ O'Rourke Murphy, M. & MacKillop, J. (2006). An Irish Literature Reader: Poetry, Prose, Drama.
  13. ^ Liok Ee Tan (1988). The Rhetoric of Bangsa and Minzu. Monash Asia Institute. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-86746-909-7.
  14. ^ Melanie Chew (1999). The Presidential Notes: A biography of President Yusof bin Ishak. Singapore: SNP Publications. p. 78. ISBN 978-981-4032-48-3.
  15. ^ Minahan, James B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems. Greenwood. p. 101. ISBN 978-0313344961.
  16. ^ "South African War memorial, Waimate".
  17. ^ "A Manifesto from the Provisional Government of Macedonia". 1881. Our mother Macedonia became now as a widow, lonely and deserted by her sons. She does not fly the banner of the victorious Macedonian army ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Bulgarian graphic representation of Bulgaria, East Rumelia and North Macedonia
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-14. Retrieved 2016-03-30.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further reading