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Styles represent the fashion by which monarchs and noblemen are properly addressed. Throughout history, many different styles were used, with little standardization. This page will detail the various styles used by royalty and nobility in Europe, in the final form arrived at in the nineteenth century.[why?]

Imperial, royal, and princely styles

Only those classified within the social class of royalty and upper nobility have a style of "Highness" attached before their titles. Reigning bearers of forms of Highness included grand princes, grand dukes, reigning princes, reigning dukes, and princely counts, their families, and the agnatic (of the male bloodline) descendants of emperors and kings. Royalty (usually emperors to princely counts) are all considered sovereign princes (German: Fürsten).

In addition to their national royal styles, many monarchs had "treaty styles" to distinguish one monarch from another in international settings. For example, the sovereign of France as "Most Christian Majesty", of Spain as "Catholic Majesty", of Hungary as "Apostolic Majesty", of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation as "August Majesty", of the United Kingdom was customarily referred to as "Britannic Majesty", etc. Monarchs also typically had a longer style than other princely members within the same royal house. For example, the monarch of the United Kingdom has a much longer style than that of other members of the British royal family. The full style of Elizabeth II in the United Kingdom was, "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith".

Royal and noble styles in France

Noble styles in the United Kingdom

Main article: Forms of address in the United Kingdom



Noble styles in Germany

Mediatized nobility

Non-mediatized nobility

See also



  1. ^ a b c Samuel Maunder (1840), The Treasury of Knowledge and Library Reference, Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longmans, p. 1.
  2. ^ Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, Burke's Peerage Limited, 1885, p. 81.
  3. ^ The Wiltshire Archæological and Natural History Magazine, H. Bull, 1854, p. 325.
  4. ^ The Christian Guardian, 1827, p. 259.
  5. ^ John Bernard Burke (1852), A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, Colburn, p. 13.
  6. ^ George Crabb (1823), "Marquis", Universal Technological Dictionary, Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, p. 10.
  7. ^ Royal Album: Court Directory and General Guide, Spottiswoode & Company, 1867, p. 3.
  8. ^ Discours adressé à Monseigneur le Duc d'Ursel par les Officiers de la ...

General sources