Fitz – (Irish, from Norman French) "son of", from Latin "filius" meaning "son" (mistakenly thought to mean illegitimate son, because of its use for certain illegitimate sons of English kings)
i – (Catalan) "and", always in lowercase, used to identify both surnames (e.g. Antoni Gaudí i Cornet)
ka – (Zulu) "(son/daughter) of", always in lower case and preceding the name of the father.
Kil, Gil – (English, Irish, Scottish) "son of", "servant of", "devotee of", originating from the Irish "Mac Giolla", typically followed by a Saint's name (e.g. Mac Giolla Bhríde).
-aj (Albanian) (pronounced AY; meaning “of the" ) It denotes the name of the family, which mostly comes from the male founder of the family, but also from a place, as in, Lash-aj (from the village Lashaj of Kastrat, MM, Shkodër). It is likely that its ancient form, still found in MM, was an [i] in front of the last name, as in ‘Déda i Lékajve’ (Déd of Lekës). For ease of use, the [i] in front of the last name, and the ending _ve, were dropped. If the last name ends in [a], then removing the [j] would give the name of the patriarch or the place, as in, Grudaj - j = Gruda (place in MM). Otherwise, removing the whole ending [aj] yields the name of founder or place of origin, as in Lekaj - aj = Lek(ë). Since the names are found most commonly in Malsi e Madhe (North) and Labëri (South), it is likely that this linguistic feature is very old. It must have been lost as a result of foreign influences brought into Albania by the invaders.
-ko (Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Serbian)- diminutive, “child,” “descendant of.” It is used in affectionate forms of first names, and is also a common suffix in many surnames.
-sson (Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Scottish) "son (of)" (in Iceland technically the first s is a separate "suffix" of the father's name according to Icelandic language rules, one of the most common modifications)
-vičs (Latvian) Latvianized version of the Belarusian -vich (Belarusian Latin: -vič) and Polish–wicz
-wala, -wallah, wali,vala, vali (Hindustani, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi) denotes the occupation or place of origin (Occupation example: Batliwala – one who deals with bottles. Place example: Suratwala – one from Surat)
-ys (English) representing i. the archaic plural form, or ii. a diminutive form. Variant forms not limited to -yss, -is, -es. Pronunciation is as modern plural suffix -s; i.e. Sandys = sands; Foulis = fowls.