Fitz – (Irish, from Norman French) "son of", from Latin "filius" meaning "son" (mistakenly thought to mean illegitimate son, because of its use for certain illegitimate sons of English kings)
i – (Catalan) "and", always in lowercase, used to identify both surnames (e.g. Antoni Gaudí i Cornet)
ka – (Zulu) "(son/daughter) of", always in lower case and preceding the name of the father.
Kil, Gil, Mal, Mul – (English, Irish, Scottish) "son of", "servant of", "devotee of", originating from the Irish "Mac Giolla", typically followed by a Saint's name (e.g. Mac Giolla Bhríde).
-aj (Albanian) (pronounced AY; meaning “of the" ) It denotes the name of the family, which mostly comes from the male founder of the family, but also from a place, as in, Lash-aj (from the village Lashaj of Kastrat, MM, Shkodër). It is likely that its ancient form, still found in MM, was an [i] in front of the last name, as in ‘Déda i Lékajve’ (Déd of Lekës). For ease of use, the [i] in front of the last name, and the ending _ve, were dropped. If the last name ends in [a], then removing the [j] would give the name of the patriarch or the place, as in, Grudaj - j = Gruda (place in MM). Otherwise, removing the whole ending [aj] yields the name of founder or place of origin, as in Lekaj - aj = Lek(ë). Since the names are found most commonly in Malsi e Madhe (North) and Labëri (South), it is likely that this linguistic feature is very old. It must have been lost as a result of foreign influences brought into Albania by the invaders.
-jerhin/-jerin (Kyrghyz) "place (of origin)" Usually, this form of the surname is assigned to kairylmans who do not have a surname. This form is added to the place of residence, origin. Those who do not know their origin can also be used. It is possible at will. (e.g. Pamirjerhin/Pamirjerin, Tongjerhin/Tongjerin). In The Kyrghyz latine alphabet will be -zerin
-ko (Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Serbian)- diminutive, “child,” “descendant of.” It is used in affectionate forms of first names, and is also a common suffix in many surnames.
-sson (Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Scottish) "son (of)" (in Iceland technically the first s is a separate "suffix" of the father's name according to Icelandic language rules, one of the most common modifications)
-tan, -ten, -ton, -tön (Kyrghyz) "from (whom)", when the ancestor 's name ends in a hard consonant (e.g. Syrghaktan, Barsbekten, Bolotton, Küchlüktön)
-teghin (Kyrghyz) "family tree, descent from the ancestor of the same name", is added at the end to the name of one ancestor. (e.g. Esenteghin, Alymbekteghin, Üsönaalyteghin) Marriage form for the surname -teghinghe — "Belonging to this family tree" (e.g. Esenteghinghe, Alymbekteghinghe, Üsönaalyteghinghe)
husband's surname at marriateghinghe
-tzki, -tzky (Polish) – phonetic Germanized spelling of original Polish -cki
-uulu (Kyrghyz) - "son of" (but usually used for patronymic)
-vičs (Latvian) Latvianized version of the Belarusian -vich (Belarusian Latin: -vič) and Polish–wicz
-wala, -wallah, wali,vala, vali (Hindustani, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi) denotes the occupation or place of origin (Occupation example: Batliwala – one who deals with bottles. Place example: Suratwala – one from Surat)
-ys (English) representing i. the archaic plural form, or ii. a diminutive form. Variant forms not limited to -yss, -is, -es. Pronunciation is as modern plural suffix -s; i.e. Sandys = sands; Foulis = fowls.