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Many ethnic Chinese people have lived in Indonesia for many centuries. Over time, especially under social and political pressure during the New Order era, most Chinese Indonesians have adopted names that better match the local language.[1][2][3]

History of Chinese Indonesian surnames

Colonial era until 1965

During the Dutch colonial era, the Dutch administration recorded Chinese names in birth certificates and other legal documents using an adopted spelling convention that was based primarily on the Hokkien (Southern Min), the language of the majority of Chinese immigrants in the Dutch East Indies. The administrators used the closest Dutch pronunciation and spelling of Hokkien words to record the names, condensed as the Indonesian Ejaan Lama (lit.'old spelling'). A similar thing happened in the British Malaya, where the British administrators record the names using English spelling. The spellings of names in the British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies varied because English and Dutch employed distinct spellings for identical sounds.[1] Furthermore, as Hokkien romanization standards did not exist then, some romanized names varied slightly. For example, 郭 (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: kok) could be Kwee, Kwik, Que or Kwek.

Surname in Pinyin and Traditional Chinese Pe̍h-ōe-jī Jyutping British Malaya Dutch East Indies
Chen () Tan Can Chan, Tan Tan, Tjan
Guo () Keh, Kok Gwok Kok, Kuok, Quek Kwee, Kwek, Kwik, Que
Huang () Uin, Ng Wong Ooi, Wee, Wi Oei, Oey
Li () Li Lei Lee, Li Lie
Liang () Liang Loeng Leong Liang, Liong
Lin () Lem, Lim Lam Lim, Ling Liem
Yang () Iang, Iun Joeng Yeoh Jouw, Njoo

The spelling convention survived through the Japanese occupation (1942–1945) well into Indonesian independence (1945) and sovereignty acknowledgment by the Dutch government (1949). Since the independent Indonesian government inherited the Dutch legal system, it also survived until 1965 in Sukarno's presidential era.

The Indonesian government later began changing Indonesian spelling to harmonize it with the spelling used for Malay in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, first under the Ejaan Suwandi introduced in 1947, and again under Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan (lit.'perfected spelling') adopted in 1972. Modifications were identified in this updated spelling system. For instance, the Dutch-influenced "oe" became "u", influenced by English. Additionally, the Dutch-style "j" underwent a shift to the English "y." Consequently, alterations in surname spellings occurred; for instance, the surname Lie became Li or Lee, Loe became Lu, Njoo became Nyoo, and Oey became Wi.


After Suharto came to power, his regime created many anti-Chinese legislations in Indonesia. One of them was 127/U/Kep/12/1966 which strongly encouraged ethnic Chinese living in Indonesia to adopt Indonesian-sounding names instead of the standard three-word or two-word Chinese names.

Despite the Indonesianization, the Hokkien surnames are still used today by the Chinese-Indonesian diaspora overseas (mostly in the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States)—usually by Chinese-Indonesians courageous enough during Suharto's regime to keep their Chinese names (e.g., Kwik Kian Gie)—or by those who couldn't afford to process the name change through Indonesia's civil bureaucracy.


After Suharto resigned from the presidency, subsequent governments revoked the ban on the ethnic Chinese from speaking and learning Chinese in public. Using the original Chinese surnames is no longer a taboo but only a small minority have decided to re-adopt the original Hokkien names or to use the Mandarin Chinese pinyin romanization, pronunciation and spelling. For example author Maria Audrey Lukito legally changed her name to Yu Jia Hui (Chinese: 俞佳慧).[4][5]

Individuals who retain their Indonesianized names do it because they remain concerned about the persistence of racial issues, they believe non-Chinese speakers might struggle with pronunciations, it has become a habit from the New Order era, their family no longer speaks Chinese, they believe Chinese names are better when written in Hanzi, or they have never given it much thought.[6]

Presently, Chinese Indonesians born in the vicinity of the New Order era, particularly between 2000 and 2003, predominantly adopt Western-sounding names. While some of these names may be associated with religions like Christianity,[7] others choose Western names because they find them appealing and meaningful, they align with current trends, offer a diverse range of choices, are inspired by Western celebrities, reflect family traditions, showcase their exposure to Western cultures, symbolize aspirations for international recognition, or simply because they prefer names that don't sound Indonesian.[6]

Approaches to adopting Indonesian-sounding names

There were various strategies that were employed to obtain an Indonesian-sounding name. Most names were Hokkien surname syllables with Western or Indonesian prefix or suffix, resulting in many exotic-sounding names. However, alternative methods were also present. Consequently, individuals with the same Chinese surname may adopt distinct Indonesian-sounding names.[2][8]

Furthermore, due to the absence of regulations in the past regarding the number of names in legal documents, some Chinese Indonesians might have had an Indonesian-sounding given name without an accompanying surname. This was only addressed in 2022 through Regulation of The Minister of Home Affairs Number 73 of 2022, which stipulated the necessity of having at least two names in one's legal name in Indonesia.

Adopting an Indonesian given name whilst retaining the Chinese surname

One of the strategies to Indonesianize their name is to retain their Chinese surname as they are, but have an Indonesian-sounding given name. The placement of their Chinese surname can vary, adhering to either the Western or Chinese naming order. The most common method of adopting Indonesian-sounding names were to obtain a first name alongside an Indonesian surname with elements derived from their Chinese surname. In certain instances, the phonetic spelling of these surnames is utilized instead of their original spelling, likely to aid non-Chinese speakers in accurate pronunciation or reading of the names.

In cases where the western order is maintained, their surname is placed at the end of the name. For example, Sofyan Tan placed his surname Tan (陳) at the end. Other individuals who used this approach include Felix Siauw, Stephen Tong, and Warren Hue. An example of an altered spelling based on phonetics is Teddy Yip, which altered the spelling of his surname Jap (葉) into Yip.

Conversely, individuals who adhered to Chinese naming customs positioned their surname at the beginning of their names. For example, Ong Yenny and Lie A. Dharmawan positioned their surnames Ong (王/汪) and Lie (李), respectively, at the beginning of their full names. An instance of a phonetic spelling alteration is observed in Leo Suryadinata, who changed their respective surnames Liauw (廖) to Leo.

Adding Indonesian-sounding words to their Chinese surname

The prevalent approach to adopting Indonesian-sounding names involved acquiring a first name paired with an Indonesian surname incorporating elements derived from their Chinese surname. This process includes the addition of Indonesian-sounding names through paragoge, prosthesis, and epentheses between two syllables.[9] It's important to note that this method does not entail any spelling alterations in their names, ensuring that the surname remains unchanged.

In the context of paragoge, Chinese Indonesians adopted Indonesian-sounding surnames by appending a suffix to their Chinese surname. As an example, Kimun Ongkosandjojo adopted his surname by combining his Chinese surname Ong (王) with the suffix -kosandjojo meaning "one who brings victory". Other examples include Lukita for Lu (呂), as used by Enggartiasto Lukita, and Tanoto for Tan (陳), as used by Sukanto Tanoto. As for adding Indonesian names as a prosthesis, Indonesian-sounding prefixes are added directly onto their Chinese surname. This is observed in Taslim and Nursalim for Lim (林), as used by Joe Taslim and Cherie Nursalim, respectively. Another method is maintaining the original Chinese surname and is placed between two syllables as an epenthesis. Examples include Sasongko for Ong (王/汪) and Johanes for Han (韓).

In certain instances, this approach is used by placing the surname at the beginning of the full name, following Chinese naming customs. As an example, Loekito Sudirman placed Loekito, derived from Loe (呂), before his Indonesian given name Sudirman.[10]

Adding Indonesian-sounding words to the phonetic spelling of their Chinese surname

In certain instances, Chinese surnames are combined with Indonesian-sounding names through minor modifications of their Chinese surnames. This process often involves adopting a phonetic spelling.[11] Similar to incorporating Indonesian-sounding names directly to their Chinese surnames, epentheses are employed.[9] This is the most common method employed.[2]

Illustrating this method is Eka Tjipta Widjaja, who constructed his surname by phonetically incorporating Oei (黃), represented as Wi- as a paragoge, and appending the suffix -djaja, meaning "victory". This approach is frequently employed by individuals with the surname Oei (黃) and Wei (魏), leading to the emergence of various names with the suffix wi-, including Wijaya, Winata, and Wiyoko. Other examples include Danandjaja for Tan (陳), as used by James Danandjaja, and Pangestu for Phang (彭/馮), as used by Prajogo Pangestu (彭) and Mari Pangestu (馮).[12]

Adopting an actual Indonesian surname

During the reign of Suharto, Indonesian families may have given their family name to a Chinese person to facilitate their name alterations.[2] Alternatively, some Chinese Indonesians opted for an actual Indonesian surname to better assimilate with neighboring ethnic groups.[13] For instance, the surname Lembong, which is of Minahasan origin,[14] is used by Tom Lembong, with the surname Ong (汪).[15] Lembong's father resided in Manado, the ancestral homeland of the Minahasan ethnic group, implying a possible adoption of Indonesian surnames influenced by the region's geography or neighboring ethnic communities.[16] Another example of this phenomenon is the Moluccan surname Afaratu.[14] Initially exclusive to individuals of the Tanimbarese ethnic group native to the Maluku, this surname has recently been identified among Chinese Indonesians with Hokkien ancestry.[17] Do note that this is different from the adoption of existing Indonesian surnames due to interracial marriages.

Individuals employing this method


Translating their Chinese given names or surnames

In employing this strategy, individuals translate their Chinese name into Indonesian, Indonesian regional languages, or non-native names that are common in Indonesia, such as those with Arabic or Sanskrit origins. For example, Sofjan Wanandi translated his surname Liem (林), which meant forest, to the old Javanese word wana. Furthermore, he also added the male suffix -ndi, resulting in the surname Wanandi.[21]

In a newspaper article from 1967, now archived at the National Library of Indonesia, a guide recommended the adoption of Indonesian words as new names for Chinese Indonesians. The article provided direct translations of the meanings of Chinese words, leading to the creation of potential new names for individuals of Chinese descent. For instance, individuals bearing the name Kok (國), which signifies "country", might possess names directly translated to the Indonesian term negara, such as Martanegara. Likewise, individuals with the name Ong (王), signifying "king", might have names associated with the words raja or ratu.

Including only Chinese given names in their Indonesian-sounding name

In this approach, the surname is typically completely excluded, while at least one of the individual's given names is retained. When incorporating both given names into their Indonesian-sounding names, significant spelling alterations may occur, but the phonetics generally remain the same or similar.[9]

Most commonly, the entirety of an individual's Chinese given name is used in their Indonesian-sounding name. As an example, Mochtar Riady adapted his Chinese given name, Lie Mo Tie (Chinese: 李文正), by transforming Mo to Moch- and Tie to -tar in his Indonesian name. His surname was ultimately excluded. Likewise, Teddy Jusuf utilized his Chinese given name, Him Tek Jie (Chinese: 熊德怡), by converting Tek to Ted- and Jie to -dy in his Indonesian name.

In rare instances, only one of the Chinese given names is included in an individual's Indonesian-sounding name. Christiandy Sanjaya, for example, only integrated San from his Chinese name Bong Hon San (Chinese: 黃漢山) into his Indonesian name. He also added the Sanskrit-derived suffix -jaya, which meant "victory".

Adopting Indonesian-sounding names without parts of their Chinese names

In some cases, the adopted Indonesian-sounding name bears no connection whatsoever to their Chinese name. Sutanto Djuhar's name, for example, lacks any elements from his Chinese name, Liem Oen Kian (Chinese: 林文镜). Another, more recent example is Cecelia Fransisca, or Iunn Ti Hui (Chinese: 楊智輝).[10]

Examples of Chinese surnames and their Indonesian-sounding adoptions

The table is arranged in alphabetical order according to pinyin. It is important to highlight that the table includes only spellings based on the currently-used Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System. Real-life surnames may use outdated spelling systems such as the Van Ophuijsen Spelling System. Variations of an Indonesian-sounding surname are denoted by parentheses.

Surname and Pinyin Hokkien and Teochew Cantonese Hakka Dutch East Indies Indonesian-sounding adaptations
(Ān) An, Ang, Oan, Uan On On An, Ngon Andi, Andre, Andrea, Andrean, Andreas, Andrei, Andrew, Anindita, Anita, Anna, Hadi,[18] Rahman, Vandros
(Bái, Bó) Beh, Peeh, Peh, Pek, Piak Baak, Bak Phak Pee, Peh, Pek Fatimah,[12] Purnomo,[10] Wongsorejo[18]
鮑 (Bào) Bao, Pâu Baau, Bau Pau Pou, Pouw Bauseno, Paulus, Pauwanto, Pouwardiman, Pouwin, Pualam, Purnama, Sastrajaya[18]
(Bèi) Bue, Bui, Poe Boi, Bui Bi, Pi Pui Sudarto[22]
(Cài) Chhai, Chhoa, Cua Coi, Toi Chhai Tjai, Tjhoi, Tjoa, Tsai Anthony,[10] Budianto,[22] Ceha,[12] Coa,[18] Cuaca,[10] Effendy,[10] Halim,[18] Harjamulya,[12] Irman,[22] Manansang,[18] Muliawan,[22] Satyawardaya,[18] Sudin,[18] Sujono,[10] Sulaiman,[12] Surya,[22] Suwatan, Tirtakusuma,[22] Wonowijoyo[18]
(Cáo) Cao, Cho Cou, Tau Chho Djau, Jau, Jauw, Tjo, Tjou Jasa,[10] Lakasamana,[10] Sarana,[22] Susanto[22]
(Cháng) Siang, Sien, Sion, Siong, Siun Siang, Soeng Song - Kristian[10]
(Chén) Cing, Dang, Ding, Tan, Tin, Ting Can, Cin Chhun Chan, Chen, Tan, Tjan, Tjhin Adil,[12] Amin,[18] Ananta,[18] Buana,[12] Buasan,[18] Budianta,[18] Budiman,[12] Chandinegara,[18] Chandra,[12] Chandinegara,[18] Chendriadi, Cula,[12] Dananjaya,[18] Darmawan,[18] Gunawan,[10] Harjosusilo,[12] Hartanto, Hartanu, Haryono,[12] Hasan,[18] Hertanto, Irtanto,[10] Iskandar,[18] Ismanto,[18] Kartajaya,[18] Kartanegara,[18] Karyadi,[12] Kynan,[10] Lolita,[10] Lukman,[22] Marwoto,[12] Mawira,[12] Mulyono,[22] Pitoby,[22] Pohan,[10] Prawoto,[12] Raharja,[18] Robida,[10] Santo, Satyadiningrat,[18] Setiabudi,[18] Setianto,[12] Setyodiningrat,[12] Suhartono,[10] Sukowiyono,[18] Sumanto,[18] Sumantri,[22] Sumardi,[10] Susanto,[10] Susastro,[23] Sutanto,[24] Sutanu,[18] Sutiarto,[22] Sutyanto,[18] Tabaluyan,[12] Tanadi, Tanaja, Tanaka, Tanamal, Tanandar, Tanara, Tandi,[10] Tandiari,[10] Tandiono,[18] Tandoko, Tandubuana, Tandyawasesa,[22] Tanjung, Tanlain, Tanojo, Tanoto,[18] Tansil,[25] Tanta,[10] Tanzil,[10] Tanubrata, Tanudisastro, Tanujaya,[12][18] Tanumiharja, Tanusaputra, Tanuseputra, Tanuseputro, Tanusudibyo,[18] Tanuwibowo,[22] Tanuwijaya, Taslim,[26] Thamrin,[22] Viriyanto,[10] Wijaya,[12] Winata,[22] Winarta,[18] Wiryaprawira, Wiryoprawiro, Young[18]
(Chéng) Teng, Thee, Theng, Thian, Tian Cing Chhang Sjiung, Thia, Tjing Ali,[10] Chengadi, Sengani, Sundari
(Chéng) Chhian, Chian, Cian, Sian, Seng, Zian Cing, Sen, Seng, Siang, Sing Sang, Sun
(Cūi) Chhui, Cui Ceoi Chhui, Cui - Faustine[10]
(Dài) Dai, Di, Do, Tai, Te, Ter, Ti Ai, Daai Tai Thee Kinarto,[10] Patros,[18] Teja,[22] Teriandy,[10] Thomas[10]
(Dīng) Deng, Teng Ding, En Ten Teng, Ting, Tieng Ateng, Tenggara, Tengger, Tranggono
(Dèng) Deng, Teng Ang, Daang Then Tang, Then, Thien Dengah, Tengger, Tengker
(Dǒng) Dang, Dong, Tang, Tong Dung Dung, Tung Tang Lintang[10]
() Dou, To Dou, U Tu, Thu Dhoe Basri[10]
(Fàn) Hoan, Huam, Huang Faan Fam Hoan, Hwan, Fam Famita, Fandi, Fandy, Fani, Handoko, Hoanike, Hoanita, Hoanoto, Van, Vandi
(Fāng) Bang, Beng, Bung, Hng, Hong, Huang, Pang, Png, Puin Fong Fong Pheng, Poei, Poey, Poeij, Poeng Frans,[10] Pribadi, Prihandi, Pujiadi
(Fáng) Bang, Hong, Pang, Phong, Pong Fong Fong, Piong - Yulia[10]
(Féng) Bang, Hong, Pang Fung, Fuung Phung Hoeng, Phang, Tjung Arif,[18] Cung, Effendi,[12] Hongki, Pangestu,[18] Panglaykim,[18] Priyatna, Priyo, Priyono, Wiliadinata[22]
() Hu Fu Fu, Phu Hoe Hussy[10]
() Bou, Hu, Po Fu Fu Poh Irawan,[18] Priyatna[22]
(Gān) Gam, Kam, Kan Gam Kam Gam Prayetno[10]
(Gāo) Gao, Go, Kau, Ko Gau, Gou Ko Kho, Ko, Kouw Koco,[12] Kosasih,[12] Saleh[18]
() Khoe, Koo Khu, Ku Hioe, Hiu Kho, Koe, Koo Hendarta,[22] Iskandar,[10] Kumala,[10] Kusno,[22] Nawing,[10] Suripto[12]
(Guān) Guang, Guen, Gueng, Koan, Koen, Kuin Gan, Gwaan Guan, Koan Khoan Johan,[10] Karlam,[22] Kasman,[22] Kosasih,[10] Raharjo[22]
(Guō) Guag, Gueh, Keh, Kerh, Koeh, Kok Gwok, Kok Kok Oe, Koe, Kwee, Kwik, Kwok, Tjoa Cokrosaputro,[12][18] Darmawan,[10] Gunadarma, Gunawan,[12][18] Kartawiharja, Kartono, Karwandi, Kasigit,[12] Kumala,[12] Kuncara, Kuncoro, Kurnia,[12] Kurniawan, Kusmita,[12] Kusnadi,[12] Kusuma,[18] Kusumaningrum, Kusumawijaya, Mintarjo,[12] Paramitha,[12] Prasetyo,[12] Santoso,[12] Situwanda,[10] Somadi,[12] Susanto,[12] Valentina,[10] Winata[18]
(Hán) Han, Hang Hon Hon Han Burhan, Halen, Handaya, Handayana, Handayani, Handoko, Handoyo, Hanggar, Hanjoyo, Hans, Hantoro, Johan, Johana, Johanes, Jonas, Juan, Pernollo,[12] Suhandi, Suhandri, Suhanto, Suhantoro
() Ho, Oa Ho Ho Ho, Hoo Halen, Hans, Hartono, Hayes, Hendra,[12] Hendri, Hendriawan, Hendry, Hengky, Heredero, Herho, Herman, Hermawan, Hermes, Hermosa, Hernales, Hernandez, Herrera, Herz, Honarto, Honolario, Honoris,[18] Horten, Hortensia, Hosea,[10] Nugroho,[12] Setiawan,[18] Wijaya[10]
() Ho Ho Fo, Ho - Martinus[10]
(Hóng) Ang, Hong Hung Fung Ang, Hoeng Aang,[12] Angga, Anggakusuma, Anggara, Anggawarsito, Anggawirya, Anggi, Anggoro, Anggraeni, Anggraini, Anggrianto, Anggriawan, Angkadireja, Angkang, Angkasa, Angkiat, Angkouw, Angryanto, Angsana, Arbi,[12] Budiman, Dharsono,[22] Rahmat,[22] Suryaatmaja,[12] Suryadi,[18] Sutarti,[10] Tahir,[27] Wahyudi,[12] Wardhana[12]
(Hòu) Hao, Hau, Hio, Ho Hau Heu - Minarto[22]
() Ho, Hu, O, Ou Vu, Wu Fu Auw Harsono,[18] Husino,[18] Syarifudin[10]
(Huáng) Hong, Wang, Ui Wong, Vong Wung Bong, Oei, Oey, Oeij, Wong Alianto,[10] Atmawijaya, Atmawirya, Darmawan,[18] Fajrin,[18] Hartono,[28] Hutomo, Jingga, Kaliana,[18] Karim,[18] Kariman,[18] Marching,[18] Osteven,[22] Permatasari,[10] Rahmat,[12] Ridwan,[18] Sabu,[10] Sanjaya,[18] Secadiningrat,[12] Setiawan,[18] Sia,[12] Sugianto,[22] Sumanto,[18] Sumawi,[10] Supratikno,[18] Syarif,[22] Tumenggung,[12] Uray,[18] Usman,[22] Wahidin,[22] Wahyudi,[10] Wantah,[22] Wibawa, Wibisono,[18] Wibowo,[22] Wicaksana, Wicaksono, Widiyono,[12] Widyaningrat,[12] Widyono,[18] Wiguna,[12] Wiharja,[12] Wijaya,[18] Wijayakusuma,[10] Wikarso,[10] Winata, Winatan, Winda, Windi, Windra, Winoto, Wiraatmaja, Wiranata, Wiranto, Wirawan, Wirya, Wiryanto, Wiryo, Wiyadi,[10] Wiyonarko, Wiyono, Wullur

Wirawan, Wirya, Wiryanto, Wiryo, Wiryono, Wisanto, Witarya, Witular, Wiyanarko, Wiyonarko, Wiyono, Wullur[18]

霍 (Huò) Hok Fok Vok Fok Darmadi[12]
() Gi, Ki Geik Ki Tjie, Tjhie Barki,[18] Hadinata[29]
(Jiāng) Gang, Kang Gong Kong Tjiang, Kong Konjaya,[10] Murni,[10] Sutomo,[12] Yahya[22]
(Jīn) Gim, Ging, Kem, Kim Gam, Gim Kim Keh, Tjing Kencanawati[12]
() Gua, Kho, Ko, Koa O Kho Kwa Secakusuma,[12] Utomo (Hutomo)[18]
(Kuàng) Kong, Kuang - Fong, Kwong Kuang Kondoh,[10] Kongdoro,[10] Mulya[22]
(Lài) Lai, Loa, Lua, Nai, Noa Laai, Lai Lai Lay, Laij, Loa Laiherman, Laimena, Lainera, Lais, Laiyar, Lasuki, Layaro, Laynes, Layzaro, Lohanda,[18] Rasidin,[10] Sasmita,[10] Setiadi[22]
蘭 (Lán) Lan, Lang Laan Lan Lan Lanny[12]
() Le, Li, Loi Lai Lai, Li Laij Layendra[10]
() Li Lei Li Lee, Li, Lie Adidarma,[12] Ali,[18] Aliwarga, Boddhihiya,[12] Cahyo,[12] Darma,[18] Dipojuwono,[18] Elly,[10] Gozeli,[18] Gunawan,[18] Hakim,[22] Julianto, Kartikahadi,[12] Koty,[10] Kusumo,[22] Ledesma, Lehmann, Leman, Leonardo, Leviste, Lianto, Liawan, Libiran, Licindo, Lidarta, Lieus,[12] Lika,[22] Likhwan,[10] Limanto, Linardi, Linata, Lince, Liow, Listianto, Listiohadi, Listiono, Lisye, Litelnoni,[18] Liyanto,[18] Liyono, Lyman,[18] Mahatirta,[22] Meirobi,[10] Mulyadi,[10] Pujianto,[12] Ramali, Ramli, Riady,[18] Romuli, Rusli,[22] Sadeli,[18] Sarumaha,[10] Sujatmiko,[18] Suparmin,[22] Suryono,[18] Suwondo,[18] Wahyadiyatmika,[10] Winarko,[10] Wiraatmaja,[12] Wuisan,[18] Yahya[12]
(Lián) Hian, Len, Liam, Lian, Liang, Lieng Len, Lin Lien Lem Lembang,[22] Lembong[10]
樑, 梁


Liang, Liong, Nien, No, Nion, Niu Liang, Loeng Liong Liang, Nio, Niouw Arif,[18] Dewi,[18] Graha,[10] Irawan,[10] Kurniawan,[30] Liando, Liangani, Nagaria,[22] Neolan, Neonardi, Nurjaman, Nurtani,[10] Santosa,[18] Santoso[10]
廖, 遼 (Liáo) Liao, Liau, Liou Liau, Liu Liau Liauw Arfandy,[22] Leo,[22] Maulana,[10] Susanto[22]
(Lín) Lem, Lim, Na, Nan Lam, Lim, Lem Lim Lim, Liem Abubakar,[10] Alim,[18] Benly,[10] Budiharjo,[10] Chandra,[10] Chondrowajoyo,[22] Djuhar,[31] Durianto,[18] Halim,[18] Harkata,[12] Herlambang,[10] Hidayat,[12] Jaya,[18] Juhar,[18] Kalona,[12] Kamil,[18] Karya,[18] Laksana, Laksmana, Laksono, Lambina, Lammar, Lamsana, Lanandi, Lantera, Lantiko, Lemarga, Lembata, Lemonon, Liam, Liamarta, Liamarto, Liamono, Liman, Limanjaya Limantara, Limanto, Limantoro, Limanus, Limardi, Limarjo, Limasi,[10] Limawan, Limbara, Limena, Limengan, Limintang, Limiyanto, Limpo, Lina, Linanto, Linda,[10] Linnas, Linus, Lumakso, Lumbao, Lumberta, Lumbo, Malik,[12] Matius,[32] Mulyadi,[12] Nurimba,[18] Nursalim, Pribadi,[12] Raharja,[18] Ruslim, Salim,[18] Sampurna,[18] Setyadi,[12] Sidhunata,[12] Subrata,[10] Sugiarto,[18] Sugiharto,[10] Sujatmiko,[18] Sulistio,[10] Sumitomo,[10] Sunasto,[12] Surya,[12] Suryana,[22] Susanto,[12] Sutanto,[12] Taslim, Waworuntu,[22] Wijaya,[33] Witarsa,[18] Yanto[12]
(Líng) Leng Ling Leng Lin Thamlin[22]
(Liú) Lao, Lau, Liu Lau, Liu Liu Lauw, Law, Lioe, Liew Fernardo,[10] Hanafi,[12] Kabulloh,[22] Karyadi,[12] Lauwani,[18] Leo,[10] Lukito,[12] Meilinda,[26] Nuralan,[22] Pahlawan, Pranoto,[10] Rosadi,[12] Wijaya,[18] Yahya,[18] Yanty[10]
(Lóu) Lau, Lio, Lo Lau, Leu Leu - Antonius[10]
() Lo, Lou, Lu Lou, Lu Lu - Wijaya[10]
() Le, Li, Lir, Lu Leoi, Lui Li Loe, Loei, Lu Hamzah,[22] Lukito (Lukita),[12][18] Tirtakusuma[10]
() Lak, Leg, Liok, Log, Lok Luk, Luuk Liuk Loek, Luk Lukito (Lukita),[12] Lukman, Lukmantara, Lukmanto, Lukmantoro, Lumantau, Lumenta, Lumoindong, Lumowa, Lusanto, Luwiharto[12]
(Luó) Lo Lo Lo Loh Kartolo, Lukman,[10] Lumampau,[10][26] Susilo,[22] Walujo
() Be, Bee, Bhe, Ma Ma, Maa Ma Be, Bhe, Mah Ahmad, Amu, Aoki, Bay, Kimura, Kuroki, Mac, Machado, Mae, Maghan, Magnus, Mahany, Maher, Maheux, Mahfud, Mahfuz, Mahmud, Mahmudin, Mahood, Mai, Makarim, Makhdum, Maki, Maku, Malamud, Malaret, Mamo, Mamoto, Mamu, Mamuaja, Mamud, Mamusung, Manguni, Manoj, Manu, Mapother, Margrethe, Mari, Marie, Marina, Mario, Mark, Mars, Martel, Martin, Mas'ud, Matilda, Matsu, Maud, Maxim, May, Maya, Mayumi, Mehmed, Moen, Monroe, Moon, Moran, More, Morgan, Mori, Moses, Mozart, Muchtar, Muhammad, Pangestu, Sasaki, Sulendro,[18] Wijaya,[18] Umar, Yuki
(Mài) Beeh, Beh, Bek, Bheh, Biak Maak, Mak Mag, Mak - Syukur[10]
() Boh, Bok, Mog Mok Mok Bok, Moh, Mok Mocktar[18]
() Ge, Ghoi, Ngi Ngai Nga Nie, Ngie, Gee Hidrayat[10]


Aoiang, Auiang, Auiong, Oiong Aujeong Euyong Auwjong, Ewjong, Ojong Sidharta[12]
(Pān) Phoan, Phun, Puan, Pung Pun Phan Phan, Phoan, Phoa, Phwa, Bwa, Poen Bunardi,[10] Pribadi,[12] Suprana,[18] Wisaksana,[18] Trenggono[10]
(Péng) Pen, Phen, Pheng, Phi Paang, Pang Phang Phang, Phe Narthavirosa,[10] Pangestu,[18] Pitrajaya[10]
(Qín) Chin, Cing Ceon, Tun Chhin, Qin Tjin Mardanus[22]
(Qiū) Khiu, Khu, Kiu, Ku Hiu, Jau Hiu Hioe , Kauw, Khoe, Khew Chundra, Cinora,[10] Hendra,[22] Husen,[10] Khusniaty,[22] Kokoh,[10] Kosasih,[18] Kurniawati,[26] Kusumawan,[10] Sasanasurya,[18] Sudarmono,[10] Surya,[22] Tirtawinata[12]
(Quán) Cuang, Cueng, Chng, Choan, Chuin Cyun, Tun Chhion Kwan Kuanna
(Ráo) Jiau, Liau, Riao Jiu Ngieu Djiauw, Jauw, Nyao, Nyauw Admajaya,[12][18] Harjono,[12] Jayadarta, Jayadi, Johari
(Róng) Iong Jung, Yuung Yung Joeng Budiono[22]
(Shěn) Sim Sam, Sim Sum Siem, Sim Budiharjo, Hasim,[10] Islamy,[12] Kasiman, Rochimat,[10] Susanti,[10] Yusuf[18]
(Shī) Si, Soa Si Su Sie Cahyadi,[18] Lesmana,[18] Notowijoyo,[18] Sanusi,[10] Siswanto
(Shí) Chioh, Sek, Set, Sia, Siak, Zieh, Zioh Sek, Siak Sag, Sak Sek, Tjiok, Sik Seinal[10]
(Shǐ) Sai, Se, Si, Sir, Su Lhu, Si Su Soe Budiman,[34] Seinal,[10] Sutrawan[18]
司徒 (Sītú) Situ, Sirto, Suto Lhuhu, Sitou Suthu Sieto, Soeto Lutansieto, Seto, Sieto, Suhuyanli, Suhuyanly, Suto,[18] Yosieto
() So, Sou Lhu, Sou Su Soe, Su Anastasia,[10] Budiarso,[12] Soberano, Soledad, Solihin, Soriano, Sosrojoyo,[12] Sotto, Suan, Sudarto,[12] Suganda, Sugihartanto, Suhadi, Suhandinata,[12] Sukojo, Sunardi, Surya, Suryo, Susanto,[10] Sutianto, Suwandi, Suwarno,
(Sūn) Seng, Sng, Suin, Sun, Sung Lhun, Syun Sun Soen, Sun Anthony, Salvatore, Santo, Singh, Suan, Suen, Sunak, Sunardi, Sunarto, Sundara, Sundari, Sundoro, Sunjoyo, Sunny, Sunur,[18] Suwandi, Suwandito, Suwendi, Tony, Wijaya,[18] William
(Tán) Tam, Tan, Tham Ham, Taam Tam, Tham Ham Hamdani[22]
(Táng) Deng, Tang, Thang, Tng, Tong Hong, Tong Thong Teng, Thong, Tong Bintang, Lintang, Lumintang, Motet,[12] Tenggara[10]
(Tāng) Teng, Thng, Thong Hong, Tong Thong Thung Jackson,[12] Haliman,[22] Tirtawijaya[18]
(Téng) Teng, Tang Thin Thang, Theng Hardi,[10] Nangoi,[12] Tangkau,[10] Teguh, Temenggung,[12] Tendean, Tengadi, Tengagung, Tenggara, Tenggeli, Tengker, Tengwidjaya
(Tián) Tian, Tiang, Tieng Hen, Tin Tien, Thien Thien Setiandi[22]
() To, Tho, Tu, Tou Tou - Tho Thosatria[10]
(Wāng) Ong, Uang Wong Vong Ang, Hong, Ong, Wang, Wong Am,[12] Bunandi,[10] Darmadi,[12] Darmansyah,[12] Dharmawangsa, Enggano, Esmara,[18] Gosal,[10] Hamid,[18] Haditono,[35] Himawan,[18] Husni,[18] Kurniawan,[22] Lembong,[18] Mranata,[22] Ongko,[12] Ongkowijaya, Pranata, Raja, Rahmanata,[18] Rusli,[12] Sasongko, Setiawan,[12] Sindhunatha,[18]Surianto,[22] Surya,[12] Susanti,[18] Sutyanto, Suwandi,[12] Wangsa, Waskito, Wijaya,[12] Wiranata,[18] Wongkar, Wongso,[12] Wongsoseputra,[18] Wongsowinoto[10]
(Wáng) Heng, Ng, Ong, Uang Wung, Wong Vong
(Wèi) Ghui, Gui, Ngui Ngai Ngui Goei, Goey, Gui, Ngoei, Wei Anton,[18] Budikusuma,[18] Elka,[10] Gunardi,[10] Gunawan,[12] Hartono,[22] Wijaya, Wiratama[18]
(Wēn) Un, Ung Vun, Wan Vun Boen, Oen, Wen, Woen Budiman,[12] Budiono, Bunaidi, Bunawan, Bunda, Buntara,[10] Darmohusodo,[18] Elkana,[12] Gunawan, Knowles, Kuncoro, Lukman,[22] Setiawan,[12] Sulaksono,[12] Suwandi,[12] Suwargana,[12] Untung, Utomo,[18] Wenarto, Wenas, Wendi, Winans,
烏, 鄔 () O͘, Ou, U Wu Vu Go, Goh, Gouw, Ng, Wou, Wu Angkosubroto,[18] Dirgagunarsa,[12] Ganjar,[12] Gautama,[12] Geniusaharja,[22] Gomarga,[12] Gondasetra,[12] Gondokusumo,[12] Gondowijoyo,[12] Gono, Gossidhy, Gotama, Govino, Gozal,[22] Gozali,[18] Gunadi, Gunarsa,[18] Gunawan,[12] Halim,[10] Harjonagoro,[18] Hartono,[22] Husien,[22] Japri,[26] Kusuma,[18] Lunandi,[18] Masrini,[12] Nadesul,[12] Purnomo,[12] Prayogo, Setiady,[10] Subroto,[12] Sudargo,[22] Sudirgo, Sugondo, Sumargo, Suryo,[36] Susanto,[22] Sutedy,[22] Unggul,[10] Utama, Widargo, Wurianto, Yoga
() Ghou, Go, Ngo M, Ng Ng
伍, 仵 () Go, Ngo, Ngou M, Ng Ng
() Bhu, Bu Mou, Mu Vu
(Xiāo) Siao, Siau, Sio, Siou Lhiau, Siu Seu Siauw, Sieuw Guinata,[10] Saputra,[10] Sugiharto,[10] Suwahyu,[22] Swastika[12]
(Xiè) Chia, Sia, Zia Die, Ze Chhia Tjia, Tjhia, Tjie Cahyadi, Cahyono,[12] Chandra, Chia, Chiasmanto, Ciawi, Gunawan,[12] Hidayat,[12] Indriatno,[12] Jaya,[12] Sakti,[22] Setiawan,[22] Siady,[10] Suryajaya,[18] Syahputra, Siahaya, Sukri,[10] Syarif, Syaril[22]
(Xìng) Heng Hang Hen - Husada[10]
(Xióng) Him, Hing, Hiong Hung Yung Sioeng, Sjong, Him Hartono,[22] Yusuf[12]
() Ce, Chhi, Si, Sir, Su Ceoi, Tui Chhì Djie, Tjie Bunarso,[22] Ciputra,[37] Dharmajie, Hartawan,[22] Jimantoro, Pujiati, Santosa,[22] Tilaar,[18] Widodo
() He, Hi, Hir, Hu, Kho, Khu, Kou Heoi, Hui Hi Hie, Kho, Khouw, Kow, Tji Darmono,[22] Hakim,[18] Hamdani,[10] Kahono,[12] Karmawan,[18] Kartika,[12] Kosasih,[26] Kumarga,[12] Kusno,[12] Mulyadi,[18] Permana,[10] Setiawan,[12] Setiono,[18] Srimulat,[18] Sukowati,[12] Sulaiman,[22] Sulendro,[12] Sunarko,[12] Suripto[18]
(Xuē) Siat, Sih Sit Siet Siek Sidharta,[18] Wilamarta[22]
(Yán) Giam, Iam, Ngiam Jim Ngiam Gan,Giam, Ian, Ien Gani[12], Ganwarin, Hartono[10]
(Yán) Gan, Hian, Ngang, Nguang, Ngueng Ngaan, Ngan Ngian, Ngien
(Yáng) Chhion, Chhiu, Chiiun, Iang, Ien, Ion, Iong, Iun Joeng, Yiang Yong Jo, Jouw, Njoo, Nyoo, Injo, Yeo, Yoe Anwar,[12] Dharmanandi,[10] Inyo,[18] Irawady,[22] Johan,[10] Juwono, Kasman,[22] Kusbianto,[12] Mulyoto,[38] Naga,[18] Nyoto, Renata,[39] Sanyoto,[12] Senjaya,[22] Setyadi,[22] Sudarso,[10] Sudhamek,[22] Sugondo,[22] Sukandinata,[22] Sunyoto,[10] Suryani,[10] Suryawan,[18] Sutaryo, Tambayong, Tannos,[18] Tirta,[22] Wiharjo,[22] Yangmulyoto, Yohan,[10] Yongki, Yorensin, Yoso, Yudha, Yuwana
(Yáo) Iau, Ie, Io Jiu Yeu Iau, Jauw, Jaouw Handoko,[22] Jayanto,[22] Yuswanto, Yaosono
() Iab, Iag, Iap Jip, Yiap Yap Jap, Jip, Yap, Ijap, Yip Effendi,[10] Haryanto,[10] Hendrawan,[12] Husodo,[12] Joyo,[10] Laksana,[18] Meliana,[10] Riand,[10] Prananto,[10] Prawirohusodo,[18] Wijaya,[12] Suparno,[22] Supit,[12] Yananto,[12] Yappy,[10] Yaputra,[18] Yektiurip, Yipman
() Eg, Ek, Iah, Iak Jik, Yet Yit - Rahmani[10]
(Yóu) Iu Jau Yu Joe, Yoe, Jioe, Yu Buntoro,[12] Hartoyo, Yalung, Yovita, Yovito, Yukatan, Yusuf,[12] Yuwono[12]
游, 㳺 (Yóu) Iu Jau, Yiu Yu
() E, I, Ir, U Jyu, Yi Yi Jie Halim,[22] Jita,[10] Sumbaji,[22] Susanto,[10] Sutarji[10]
() Ju, Lu Jyu Yi Ie, Djie, Joe Dawis,[18] Irawan,[12] Lukito,[4] Suji[10]
(Zēng) Chan, Cheng, Chng, Zang, Zeng Dang, Zeng Chen Chan, Tjan, Tjen, Tjin Chandra,[22] Chandrakusuma,[12] Chandrawinata,[40] Negara,[10] Silalahi,[18] Sudharmono[22]
(Zhān) Chiam, Ziam Zim Cham Tjam, Tjiam Soetjiamidjaja,Tjamar/Chamar, Chandra, Tjiampea, Jimakta, Jimerto
(Zhāng) Tiang, Tiaun, Tiong, Tion, Tiun, Ziang Ziang, Zoeng Chong Teh, Thio, Tjang, Tjong Chandra (Chandradinata),[10][12] Hidayat,[22] Irawan,[12] Jaya,[10] Johan,[18] Kuswati,[10] Mukianto,[10] Pambudi,[10] Prasetya, Prasetyo, Sajiono,[10] Sanusi,[10] Setio,[10] Sudarso,[41] Sujino,[22] Sulistiyo,[22] Tyos,[10] Wijayakusuma[18]
(Zhèng) Den, Teng, Ten, Tin Zeng, Ziang Chhang The, Tjeng Budiono,[10] Darmaputra,[18] Hasan,[18] Idris,[12] Jinarakhita,[18] Kharisma,[22] Liyanti,[26] Menaro,[12] Nusantara,[22] Sufida,[22] Tahyar,[18] Teddy, Tejokumoro, Tedyono, Teja, Tejakusmana, Tejamulia, Tejarukmana, Tejawati, Tejokumoro, Tejosuwito[18]
(Zhōng) Cheng, Chiong, Zeng Zung, Zuung Chung Chung, Tjoeng Arsajaya,[18] Chandra,[10] Cundiawan, Cungandi, Cungkoro, Hadijaya,[12] Thamrin,[12] Theodora,[10] Purnama[42]
(Zhōu) Chiu, Ziu Zau, Ziu Chu Tjioe, Djioe Cahyadin,[22] Ciwijaya,[10] Cuanda, Gimin,[22] Frans,[10] Hartanto,[10] Johari, Jowarsa, Juanda, Juandi, Juano, Kusumanegara,[12] Mulyono,[12] Surikin,[22] Trismitro[12]
(Zhū) Chu, Zu Zi, Zyu Chu Tjoe Joyonegoro,[12][18] Jugito, Jumena, Juwinata, Sutrisno,[18] Yusuf,[22] Zulfikar, Zulfikri, Zuneng
(Zhuó) Doh, Toh, Tok Coek, Zoek Chok - Harsono[10]
(Zhuāng) Chng, Choang, Chon, Chong, Zang, Zeng, Zuang Zong Chong Tjuang, Tjung Dozan,[43] Juanda,[44] Juandi[22]
(Zōu) Chau, Zou Zau Cheu Tjeuw, Tjouw Murdaya[18]

See also


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