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A Russian citizen's (Yevgeniy Aleksandrovich Imyarek) internal passport. The lower page includes the lines: Фамилия ("Family name"), Имя ("Name") and Отчество ("Patronymic").

Eastern Slavic naming customs are the traditional way of identifying a person's family name, given name, and patronymic name in East Slavic cultures in Russia and some countries formerly part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.

They are used commonly in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and to a lesser extent in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia.

Name Belarusian example Russian example Ukrainian example
First name (given name) Belarusian: Уладзімір, romanizedUladzimir Russian: Владимир, romanizedVladimir Ukrainian: Володимир, romanizedVolodymyr
Patronymic Belarusian: Антонавіч, romanizedAntonavič Russian: Антонович, romanizedAntonovich Ukrainian: Антонович, romanizedAntonovych
Family name (surname) Belarusian: Іваноў, romanizedIvanoŭ Russian: Иванов, romanizedIvanov Ukrainian: Іванів, romanizedIvaniv

Given names

Eastern Slavic parents select a given name for a newborn child. Most first names in East Slavic languages originate from two sources:

Almost all first names are single. Doubled first names (as in, for example, French, like Jean-Luc) are very rare and are from foreign influence. Most doubled first names are written with a hyphen: Mariya-Tereza.


Belarusian variant Russian variant Ukrainian variant Latin-alphabet transliteration[note 1]
(Belarusian / Russian / Ukrainian)
Origin Comments
Іван, Ян Иван, Ян Іван, Ян Ivan, Jan / Ivan / Ivan Hebrew equivalent to John
Якуб, Якаў Иаков, Яков Яків Yakub, Yakau / Iakov, Yakov / Yakiv Hebrew equivalent to James or Jacob
Ілля Илья Ілля Illa / Ilia / Illia Hebrew equivalent to Elijah
Мікалай, Мікола Николай Микола Mikałaj, Mikoła / Nikolai / Mykola, Mykolai Greek equivalent to Nicholas, meaning "Victory (of the) People"
Барыс Борис Борис Barys / Boris / Borys Bulgar unclear, possibly "wolf", "short" or "snow leopard"
Уладзімір Владимир Володимир Uładzimir / Vladimir / Volodymyr Slavonic meaning "great/famous lord" ( -мир comes from мѣръ and is not related to міръ or миръ, see also the name's etymology) Equivalent to Norse Valdemar.
Пётр, Пятро, Пятрусь Пётр Петро Piotr, Piatro, Piatruś / Petr, Pyotr / Petro Greek equivalent to Peter
Андрэй Андрей Андрій Andrej / Andrei / Andrii Greek equivalent to Andrew
Аляксандр Александр Олександр, Олекса Alaksandr / Aleksandr / Oleksandr, Oleksa Greek equivalent to Alexander
Піліп Филипп Пилип Pilip / Filipp / Pylyp Greek from Greek Φίλιππος (Phílippos), meaning "fond of horses". Equivalent to Philip.
Дзмітры, Зміцер Дмитрий Дмитро Dzmitry, Zmicier / Dmitrii / Dmytro Greek from Greek Δημήτριος (Demétrios), meaning "of Demeter"
Сяргей Сергей Сергій Siarhiej / Sergei / Serhii Latin from the Roman nomen (patrician family name) Sergius, itself from a more ancient Etruscan name
Леанід, Лявон Леонид Леонід Leanid, Lavon / Leonid / Leonid Greek from Greek Leonidas, meaning "Son of the Lion"
Віктар Виктор Віктор Viktar / Viktor / Viktor Latin meaning "Conqueror"
Георгій, Юры Георгий Георгiй Hieorhij, Jury / Georgii / Heorhii Greek the analogues are Егор (Yegor), Юрий (Yury), equivalent to George
Павел, Павал, Паўло Павел Павло Pavał, Paŭło / Pavel / Pavlo Latin equivalent to Paul
Канстанцін, Кастусь Константин Костянтин Kanstancin, Kastuś / Konstantin / Kostiantyn Latin equivalent to Constantine
Кірыл, Кірыла Кирилл Кирило Kirył, Kiryła / Kirill / Kyrylo Greek equivalent to Cyril
Васіль, Базыль Василий Василь Vasiĺ, Bazyl / Vasilii / Vasyl Greek equivalent to Basil
Раман Роман Роман Raman / Roman / Roman Latin -
Уладзіслаў Владислав Владислав Uladzisłaŭ / Vladislav / Vladyslav Slavonic meaning "Lord of Fame"
Вячаслаў Вячеслав В'ячеслав Viačasłaŭ / Viacheslav / Viacheslav Slavonic meaning "Growing Fame"
Матвей, Мацвей Матвей Матвій Matviej, Macviej / Matvei / Matvii Hebrew equivalent to Matthew
Міхал, Міхась Михаил Михайло Michał, Michaś / Mikhail / Mykhailo Hebrew equivalent to Michael
Алег Олег Олег Aleh / Oleg / Oleh Old Norse derivative from Scandinavian "Helgi"
Ігар Игорь Ігор Ihar / Igor / Ihor Old Norse derivative from Scandinavian "Ingvar"
Максім Максим Максим Maksim / Maksim / Maksym Latin meaning "Greatest"
Фёдар Фёдор Федiр Fiodar / Fedor / Fedir Greek equivalent to Theodor
Захар Захар Захар Zachar / Zakhar / Zakhar Hebrew meaning "Remembered”
Аляксей Алексей Олексій Alaksej / Aleksei / Oleksii Greek meaning "Defender”
Макар Макар Макар Makar / Makar / Makar Greek meaning "Blessed”
  1. ^ The same romanization system is used for all three languages for comparative purposes. For the official romanization systems of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian, which will be used throughout the rest of the article, see romanization of Russian, romanization of Ukrainian, and romanization of Belarusian, respectively.


Belarusian variant Russian variant Ukrainian variant Latin-alphabet transliteration
(Belarusian / Russian / Ukrainian)
Origin Comments
Настасся, Наста Анастасия Анастасія Nastassia, Nasta / Anastasiya / Anastasiia Greek from Greek Ἀναστασία (Anastasia) meaning "she of the Resurrection"
Ангеліна Ангелина Ангеліна Anhelina / Angelina / Anhelina Greek From Greek Ἀγγελίνα (Angelina) meaning "messenger"
Ганна Анна Ганна Hanna / Anna / Hanna Hebrew equivalent to Anne or Hannah
Алена Елена, Алёна Oленa Alena / Yelena, Alyona / Olena Greek equivalent to Helen; in Russian Alyona can be both a pet version of Yelena and a name in its own right
Марыя Мария Марія Maryja / Mariya / Mariia Hebrew equivalent to Mary
Наталля Наталья, Наталия Наталя, Наталія Natallia / Natalya / Nataliia Latin equivalent to Natalie
Вольга Ольга Ольга Volha / Olga / Olha Old Norse derivative from Scandinavian Helga
Аляксандра Александра Олександра Alaksandra / Aleksandra / Oleksandra Greek equivalent to Alexandra
Ксенія, Аксана Ксения Оксана Ksienija, Aksana / Kseniya / Oksana Greek in Russian, Oksana is a separate name of the same origin
Кацярына Екатерина Катерина Kaciaryna / Yekaterina / Kateryna Greek equivalent to Catherine
Лізавета Елизавета Єлизавета Lizaveta / Yelizaveta / Ielyzaveta Hebrew equivalent to Elizabeth
Тацяна, Таццяна Татьяна Тетяна Tacciana / Tatyana / Tetiana Latin derivative from the Latinized name of the Sabine king Titus Tatius
Людміла Людмила Людмила Ludmila / Lyudmila / Liudmyla Slavonic meaning "Dear to the People"
Святлана Светлана Світлана Sviatłana / Svetlana / Svitlana Slavonic meaning "The Shining One"
Юлія Юлия Юлія Julija / Yuliya / Yuliia Latin equivalent to Julia or Julie
Вера Вера Віра Vera / Vera / Vira Slavonic meaning "Faith"; a calque of the Greek Πίστη
Надзея Надежда Надія Nadzeja / Nadezhda / Nadiia Slavonic meaning "Hope"; a calque of the Greek Ἐλπίς
Любоў Любовь Любов Luboŭ / Lyubov / Liubоv Slavonic meaning "Love"; a calque of the Greek Ἀγάπη
Соф'я София, Софья Софія Sofja / Sofiya, Sofya / Sofiia Greek equivalent to Sophia, meaning "Wisdom".


Being highly synthetic languages, Eastern Slavic treats personal names as grammatical nouns and apply the same rules of inflection and derivation to them as for other nouns. So one can create many forms with different degrees of affection and familiarity by adding the corresponding suffixes to the auxiliary stem derived from the original name. The auxiliary stem may be identical to the word stem of the full name (the full name Жанна Zhanna can have the suffixes added directly to the stem Жанн- Zhann- like Жанночка Zhannochka), and most names have the auxiliary stem derived unproductively (the Russian name Михаил Mikhail has the auxiliary stem Миш- Mish-, which produces such name-forms as Миша Misha, Мишенька Mishenka, Мишуня Mishunya etc., not *Михаилушка Mikhailushka).

Unlike English, in which the use of diminutive forms is optional even between close friends, in East Slavonic languages, such forms are obligatory in certain contexts because of the strong T–V distinction: the T-form of address usually requires the short form of the counterpart's name. Also, unlike other languages with prominent use of name suffixes, such as Japanese, the use of derived name forms is mostly limited to the T-addressing: there is no way to make the name more formal than the plain unsuffixed full form, and usually no suffixes can be added to the family name.

Most commonly, Russian philologists distinguish the following forms of given names:

Name form Example Formation Comments
Full Анна (Anna) full name stem + case ending -
Short Аня (Anya) short name stem + II declension ending most common for informal communication, comparable to Western name-only form of address (Ann, John), or Japanese surname-only, or surname/name -kun
Diminutive Анька (Anka) short name stem + -к- -k- + II declension ending expresses familiarity, may be considered rude when used between people who are not close friends. Comparable to English diminutives (Annie, Willy) or Japanese unsuffixed names
Affective diminutive Анечка (Anyechka) short name stem + -ечк/очк/оньк/усь/юсь/уль/юль- -echk/ochk/on'k/us/yus/ul/yul- + II declension ending most intimate and affectionate form, comparable to German diminutives (Ännchen) or Japanese -chan suffixes

Short forms

Marina Tsvetaeva, a Russian poet. The name "Marina" traditionally has no short form.
Руслан (Ruslan), a character in Alexander Pushkin's poem Ruslan and Ludmila. The short form for Руслан (Ruslan) is Руся (Rusya).
Николай II (Nicholas II), the last Russian emperor. In private, his wife addressed him as Nicki, in the German manner, rather than Коля (Kolya), which is the East Slavic short form of his name.

The "short name" (Russian: краткое имя kratkoye imya), historically also "half-name" (Russian: полуимя poluimya), is the simplest and most common name derivative. Bearing no suffix, it is produced suppletively and always has the declension noun ending for both males and females, thus making short forms of certain unisex names indistinguishable: for example, Sasha (Russian: Саша) is the short name for both the masculine name Aleksandr (Alexander) and the feminine form Aleksandra (Alexandra).

Some names, such as Zhanna (Jeana) and Mark, have no short forms; others may have two (or more) different forms. In the latter case, one form is usually more informal than the other.

Full name (Cyrillic script) Full name (Latin script) Short forms (Cyrillic) Short forms (Latin)
Александр Aleksandr (m) Саша, Саня, Шура, ukr. Сашко, Лесь Sasha, Sanya, Shura, ukr. Sashko, Les
Александра Aleksandra (f) Саша, Шура, ukr. Леся Sasha, Shura, ukr. Lesia
Алексей Aleksey (m) Алёша, Лёша Alyosha, Lyosha
Анастасия Anastasia (f) Настя, Стася Nastya, Stasya (rare)
Анатолий Anatoly (m) Толя Tolya
Андрей Andrey (m) Андрюша, Дюша, Андря Andryusha, Dyusha, Andrya (rare)
Анна Anna (f) Аня, Анюта, Нюта, Нюша Anya, Anyuta, Nyuta, Nyusha
Борис Boris (m) Боря Borya
Давид David (m) Дава Dava
Даниил Daniil (m) Данила, Даня Danila, Danya
Дарья Darya (f) Даша Dasha
Дмитрий Dmitry (m) Дима, Митя Dima, Mitya
Галина Galina (f) Галя Galya
Геннадий Gennady (m) Гена Gena
Георгий Georgy (m) Гоша, Жора Gosha, Zhora
Григорий Grigory (m) Гриша Grisha
Иван Ivan (m) Ваня Vanya
Иммануил Immanuil (m) Моня Monya
Ирина Irina (f) Ира Ira
Кирилл Kirill (m) Кира, Киря Kira, Kirya
Константин Konstantin (m) Костя Kostya
Ксения Ksenya (f) Ксюша Ksyusha
Лариса Larisa (f) Лара, Лёля Lara, Lyolya (rare)
Леонид Leonid (m) Лёня Lyonya
Лев Lev (m) Лёва Lyova
Лидия Lidiya (f) Лида Lida
Любовь Lyubov' (f) Люба Lyuba
Людмила Lyudmila (f) Люда, Люся, Мила Lyuda, Lyusya, Meela (rare)
Мария Mariya (f) Маша, Маня, Маруся, Машуля, Машенька, Марийка, Маняша, Марічка Masha, Manya, Marusya, Mashulya, Mashеnka, Mariyka, Manyasha (rare), Marichka (ukr.)
Матвей Matvey (m) Мотя Motya
Михаил Mihail (m) Миша Misha
Надежда Nadezhda (f) Надя Nadya
Наталья Natalya (f) Наташа Natasha
Николай Nikolay (m) Коля Kolya
Ольга Olga (f) Оля Olya
Павел Pavel (m) Паша, Павлик Pasha, Pavlik
Полина Polina (f) Поля, Лина Polya, Lina (rare)
Пётр Pyotr (m) Петя Petya
Роман Roman (m) Рома Roma
Семён Semyon (m) Сёма Syoma
Сергей Sergey (m) Серёжа Seryozha
София Sofia, Sofya (f) Соня, Софа Sonya, Sofa
Светлана Svetlana (f) Света, Лана Sveta, Lana
Станислав Stanislav (m) Стас Stas, Stanko
Тамара Tamara (f) Тома Toma
Татьяна Tatyana (f) Таня Tanya
Вадим Vadim (m) Вадик, Дима Vadik, Dima (rare)
Валентин / Валентина Valentin (m) / Valentina (f) Валя Valya
Валерий Valery (m) Валера Valera
Валерия Valeriya (f) Лера Lera
Василий Vasily (m) Вася Vasya
Виктор Viktor (m) Витя Vitya
Виктория Viktoriya (f) Вика Vika
Владимир Vladimir (m) Вова, Володя Vova, Volodya
Владислав, Владислава Vladislav (m), Vladislava (f) Влад, Влада Vlad, Vlada
Вячеслав Vyacheslav (m) Слава Slava
Ярослав Yaroslav (m) Ярик Yarik
Елена Yelena (f) Лена, Алёна Lena, Alyona
Елизавета Yelizaveta (f) Лиза Liza
Екатерина Yekaterina (f) Катя Katya
Евгений / Евгения Yevgeniy (m) / Yevgeniya (f) Женя Zhenya
Юлия Yuliya (f) Юля Yulya
Юрий Yury (m) Юра Yura
Яков Yakov (m) Яша Yasha

Diminutive forms

Veruschka, a German model, actress and artist. The name "Vera" is Slavic and literally means "Faith". "Veruschka" is the German spelling of one of the typical diminutive variants of this name.

Diminutive forms are produced from the "short name" by means of various suffixes; for example, Михаил Mikhail (full) – Миша Misha (short) – Мишенька Mishenka (affectionate) – Мишка Mishka (colloquial). If no "short name" exists, then diminutive forms are produced from the full form of the respective first name; for example, Марина Marina (full) – Мариночка Marinochka (affectionate) – Маринка Marinka (colloquial). Unlike the full name, a diminutive name carries a particular emotional attitude and may be unacceptable in certain contexts. Depending on the nature of the attitude, diminutive name forms can be subdivided into three broad groups: affectionate, familiar, and slang.

Affectionate diminutive

Typically formed by suffixes -еньк- (-yenk-), -оньк- (-onk-), -ечк- (-yechk-), -ушк (-ushk), as illustrated by the examples below. It generally emphasises a tender, affectionate attitude and is roughly analogous to German suffixes -chen, -lein, Japanese -chan and -tan and affectionate name-derived nicknames in other languages. It is often used to address children or intimate friends.

Within a more official context, this form may be combined with the honorific plural to address a younger female colleague.[citation needed]

Full form Short form Diminutive form
Анна/Anna Аня/Anya Ан'ечк'а/Any'echk'a
Виктор/Viktor Витя/Vitya Витенька/Vitenʲka
Дмитрий/Dmitry Дима/Dima Димочка/Dimochka
Ольга/Olga Оля/Olya Оленька/Olyenka
Степан/Stepan Стёпа/Styopa Стёпочка/Styopochka
Colloquial diminutives

Colloquial diminutives are derived from short names by the -к- ("-k-") suffix. Expressing a highly familiar attitude, the use may be considered rude or even pejorative outside a friendly context.

Full form Short form Colloquial diminutive form
(Cyrillic) (Latin) (Cyrillic) (Latin) (Cyrillic) (Latin)
Анна Anna Аня Anya Ань'ка' Anʲ'ka'
Виктор Viktor Витя Vitya Витька Vitʲka
Дмитрий Dmitry Дима Dima Димка Dimka
Ольга Olga Оля Olya Олька Olʲka
Степан Stepan Стёпа Styopa Стёпка Styopka
Slang forms
Колян (Kolyan), a character in the sitcom Реальные пацаны (Realnye patsany, Real Guys). Kolyan shows viewers the ridiculous side of the life of gopniks, a social group similar in many ways to British chavs.

Slang forms exist for male names and, since a few decades ago, female names. They are formed with the suffixes -ян (-yan), -он (-on), and -ок/ёк (-ok/yok). The suffixes give the sense of "male brotherhood" that was once expressed by the patronymic-only form of address in the Soviet Union. Originating in criminal communities[citation needed], such forms came into wide usage in Russia in the 1990s.

Full form Short form Slang form
(Cyrillic) (Latin) (Cyrillic) (Latin) (Cyrillic) (Latin)
Анатолий Anatoly Толя Tolya Тол'ян' Tol'yan'
Николай Nikolay Коля Kolya Колян Kolyan
Дмитрий Dmitry Дима Dima Димон Dimon
Владимир Vladimir Вова Vova Вован Vovan
Александр Alexander Саня Sanya Санёк Sanyok
Татьяна Tatiana Таня Tanya Танюха Tanyukha
Андрей Andrey Андрюша Andryusha Андрюха

Early Soviet Union

Main article: Names of Soviet origin

During the days of the October Revolution, as part of the campaign to rid Russia of bourgeois culture, there was a drive to invent new, revolutionary names.[citation needed] As a result, many Soviet children were given atypical names,[citation needed] often being acronyms/initialisms besides many other names above.

Ksenya Kimovna Borodina, presenter of the TV reality show Dom-2. Her patronymic, "Kimovna", refers to the name of her father, "Kim", which is atypical for East European languages and is an acronym of Коммунистический интернационал молодёжи (Kommunistichesky Internatsional Molodyozhi, "Young Communist International").
Name (Cyrillic) Name (Latin) Origin Comments
Вил, Вилен, Владлен, Владлена Vil, Vilen, Vladlen (m) / Vladlene (f) Владимир Ильич Ленин (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin) -
Мэл(c) Mel(s) Маркс, Энгельс, Ленин Сталин) (Marx, Engels, Lenin (and Stalin)) -
Баррикада Barrikada - "Barricade" - refers to the revolutionary activity
Ревмир, Ревмира Revmir (m) / Revmira (f) Революция мира (Revolyutsiya mira) Means "The World Revolution"
Гертруда Gertruda Герой труда (Geroy truda) Means "The Hero of Labour"
Марлен Marlen Маркс и Ленин (Marx and Lenin) -
Стэн Sten Сталин и Энгельс (Stalin and Engels) -
Ким Kim Коммунистический интернационал молодёжи (Kommunistichesky Internatsional Molodyozhi) Means "Young Communist International"


The patronymic name is based on the given name of the father and is written in all legal and identity documents. If used with the given name, the patronymic always follows it; but it is not analogous to an English middle name.


The patronymic name is obligatory when addressing a person of higher social stance and/or on special occasions such as business meetings; for example, when a pupil addresses a teacher, they are obliged to use both first and patronymic names – Russian: Марья Ивановна, могу я спросить..., lit.'Marya Ivanovna, may I ask...'. Not using patronymic names in such situations is considered offensive.[1]

Addressing a person by patronymic name only is widespread among older generations (more often – "blue collar"-male coworkers) and serves as a display of close relationship based on not only sympathy but also mutual responsibility.[2]


Name Masculine patronym Feminine patronym
Anatoly Anatolyevich Anatolyevna
Constantin Constantinovich Constantinovna
Dmitry Dmitriyevich Dmitriyevna
Ilya Ilyich Ilyinichna
Ivan Ivanovich Ivanovna
Nikolay Nikolayevich Nikolayevna
Vladimir Vladimirovich Vladimirovna
Yakov Yakovlevich Yakovlevna

The patronymic is formed by a combination of the father's name and suffixes. The suffix is -ович (-ovich) for a son, -овна (-ovna) – for a daughter. For example, if the father's name was Иван (Ivan), the patronymic will be Иванович (Ivanovich) for a son and Ивановна (Ivanovna) for a daughter.

If the suffix is being appended to a name ending in a й ("y") or a soft consonant, the initial o in the suffixes -ович (-ovich) and -овна (-ovna) becomes a е ("ye") and the suffixes change to -евич (-yevich) and -евна (-yevna). For example, if the father is Дмитрий (Dmitry), the patronymic is Дмитриевич (Dmitrievich) for a son and Дмитриевна (Dmitrievna) for a daughter. It is not Дмитрович (Dmitrovich) or Дмитровна (Dmitrovna) because the name Дмитрий (Dmitry) ends on "й" ("y");

For some names ending in a vowel, the suffix is -ич (-ich) for a son and -ична (-ichna) or -инична (-inichna) for a daughter; for example, Фока Foka (father's first name) – Фокич Fokich (male patronymic) – Фокична Fokichna (female patronymic); Кузьма Kuzma (father's first name) – Кузьмич Kuzmich (male patronymic) – Кузьминична Kuzminichna (female patronymic).

Historical grounds

The name Rurik on a Viking Age runestone. All the princes of Kievan Rus had the patronymic Ruerikovichi.

Historical Russian naming conventions did not include surnames. A person's name included that of their father: e.g. Иван Петров сын (Ivan Petrov syn) which means "Ivan, son of Peter". That is the origin of most Russian -ov surnames.

Modern -ovich- patronyms were originally a feature of the royal dynasty (Рюриковичи, Ruerikovichi, Rurikids, which makes the East Slavic patronym in its original meaning being similar to German von. From the 17th century, the second name with suffix -ович (-ovich) was the privilege given by the tsar to commoners. For example, in 1610, Tsar Vasili IV gave to the Stroganovs, who were merchants, the privilege to use patronyms. As a tribute for developing the salt industry in Siberia, Pyotr Stroganov and all his issues were allowed to have a name with -ovich. The tsar wrote in the chart dated on 29 May, "... to write him with ovich, to try [him] in Moscow only, not to fee [him] by other fees, not to kiss a cross by himself [which means not to swear during any processions]"[3] In the 18th century, it was the family of merchants to have patronyms. By the 19th century, the -ovich form eventually became the default form of a patronymic.

Legal basis

Everyone in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus is supposed to have a tripartite name. Single mothers may give their children any patronym, and this does not have any legal consequences. Foreigners who adopt Russian citizenship are exempted from having a patronym. Now, an adult person is entitled to change patronyms if necessary,[4] such as to alienate themselves from the biological father (or to show respect for the adopted one) as well as to decide the same for an underage child.


In modern Russia, there are cases when women raising a child without a father give the child their own name instead of a patronymic. This practice is not recognized by law, but the civil registry offices meet such wishes.[5][6]

Family names

Family names are generally used like in English.

Derivation and meaning

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In Russian, some common suffixes are -ов (-ov), -ев (-yev), meaning "belonging to" or "of the clan of/descendant of", e.g. Petrov = of the clan of/descendant of Petr (Peter), usually used for patronymic surnames—or -ский (-sky), an adjectival form, meaning "associated with" and usually used for toponymic surnames. Historically, toponymic surnames may have been granted as a token of nobility; for example, the princely surname Shuysky is indicative of the princedom based on the ownership of Shuya. Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski had the victory title 'Tavricheski', as part of his surname, granted to him for the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, -off was a common transliteration of -ov for Russian family names in foreign languages such as French and German (like for the Smirnoff and the Davidoff brands).

Surnames of Ukrainian and Belarusian origin use the suffixes -ко (-ko), -ук (-uk), and -ич (-ych). For example, the family name Писаренко (Pisarenko) is derived from the word for a scribe, and Ковальчук (Kovalchuk) refers to a smith.

Less often, some versions of family names will have no suffix, e.g. Lebed, meaning swan, and Zhuk, meaning beetle (but see also Lebedev and Zhukov).

Hyphenated surnames like Petrov-Vodkin are possible.


The Coat of Arms of the Романовы (Romanovs), the last Russian royal dynasty. The family name Романов (Romanov) means "pertaining to (the name) Roman".

Eastern Slavic languages are synthetic languages and have grammatical cases and grammatical gender. Unlike analytic languages like English, which use prepositions ("to", "at", "on" etc.) to show the links and relations between words in a sentence, Eastern Slavic suffixes are used much more broadly than prepositions. Words need the help of some suffix to integrate them into the sentence and to build a grammatically correct sentence. That includes names, unlike in German. Family names are declined based on the Slavic case system.

The surnames that originally are short (-ov, -ev, -in) or full (-iy/-oy/-yy) Slavic adjectives, have different forms depending on gender: male forms -ov, -ev, -in and -iy/-oy/-yy correspond to female forms -ova, -eva, -ina and -aya, respectively. For example, the wife of Борис Ельцин (Boris Yel'tsin) was Наина Ельцина (Naina Yel'tsina); the wife of Leo Tolstoy was Sophia Tolstaya, etc. All other, i.e. non-adjectival, surnames stay the same for both genders (including surnames ending with -енко (-yenko), -ич (-ich) etc.), unlike in many West Slavic languages, where the non-adjectival surname of men corresponds to derivative feminine adjectival surname (Novák → Nováková). Note the difference between patronymics and surnames ending with -ich: surnames are the same for males and females, but patronymics are gender-dependent (for example, Ivan Petrovich Mirovich and Anna Petrovna Mirovich)

This dependence of grammatical gender of adjectival surname on the gender of its owner is not considered to be changing the surname (compare the equivalent rule in Polish, for example). The correct transliteration of such feminine surnames in English is debated: the names technically should be in their original form, but they sometimes appear in the masculine form.

The example of Иванов (Ivanov), a family name, will be used:

Example of question Masculine form Feminine form
Cyrillic Latin Cyrillic Latin
Nominative Who? Иванов Ivanov Иванова Ivanova
Genitive Whose? Иванова Ivanova Ивановой Ivanovoy
Dative To whom? Иванову Ivanovu Ивановой Ivanovoy
Accusative Whom? Иванова Ivanova Иванову Ivanovu
Instrumental By whom? Ивановым Ivanovym Ивановой Ivanovoy
Locative (Prepositional) About whom? Иванове Ivanove Ивановой Ivanovoy

The surnames which are not grammatically adjectives (Zhuk, Gogol, Barchuk, Kupala etc.) declines in cases and numbers as the corresponding common noun. The exclusion is when a woman has a surname which is grammatically a noun of masculine gender; in such case, the surname is not declined. For example, Ivan and Anna Zhuk in dative case ("to whom?") would be: Ивану Жуку (Ivanu Zhuku), but Анне Жук (Anne Zhuk).

Family names are generally inherited from one's parents. As in English, on marriage, women usually adopt the surname of the husband; the opposite, when the husband adopt the maiden surname of his wife, very rarely occurs. Rarely, both spouses keep their pre-marriage family names. The fourth, very rare but still legal way is the taking a double surname; for example, in marriage of Ivanov (he) and Petrovskaya (she), the spouses may adopt the family name Ivanov-Petrovsky and Ivanova-Petrovskaya, correspondingly.

Slavicisation of foreign names

Slavicisation of foreign surnames

See also: Azerbaijanization of surnames

Some surnames in those languages have been russified since the 19th century: the surname of Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev has a Russian "-yev" suffix, which literally means "of Nazar-bay" (in which "bay" is a Turkic native noble rank: compare Turkish "bey", Uzbek "boy" "bek", and Kyrghyz "bek"). The frequency of such russification varies greatly by country.

After incorporation of Azerbaijan into the Soviet Union, it became obligatory to register their surnames and to add a Russian suffix such as -yev or -ov for men and -yeva or -ova for women.[7] Since the majority did not have official surnames, the problem was resolved by adopting the name of the father and adding the mentioned suffixes. Examples are Aliyev, Huseynov, and Mammadov.

Since 1930s and 1940s, surnames and patronymics were obligatory in Uzbekistan.[8] The surname could be derived from the name of the father by adding the suffixes -ev after vowels or soft consonants and -ov in all other cases. Examples are Rashidov, Beknazarov and Abdullaev. Most of the people born in this time had the same surname as their patronymic.

Slavicisation of foreign patronymics

By law, foreign persons who adopt Russian citizenship are allowed to have no patronymic.[9] Some adopt non-Slavonic patronymics as well. For example, the Russian politician Irina Hakamada's patronym is Муцуовна (Mutsuovna) because her Japanese father's given name was Mutsuo. The ethnicity of origin generally remains recognizable in Russified names. Other examples are Kazakh ұлы (uly; transcribed into Latin script as -uly, as in Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev), or Azeri оглы/оғлу (oglu) (as in Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev); Kazakh қызы (transcribed into Latin script as -qyzy, as in Dariga Nursultanqyzy Nazarbayeva).[citation needed] Such Turkic patronymics were officially allowed in the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

Bruno Pontecorvo, after he emigrated to the Soviet Union, was known as Бруно Максимович Понтекорво (Bruno Maximovich Pontekorvo) in the Russian scientific community, as his father's given name was Massimo (corresponding to Russian Максим (Maksim)). His sons have been known by names Джиль Брунович Понтекорво (Gigl Brunovich Pontecorvo), Антонио Брунович Понтекорво (Antonio Brunovich Pontecorvo) and Тито Брунович Понтекорво (Tito Brunovich Pontekorvo).

Forms of address

Common rules

Historically, diminutives of the given names were used in reference to commoners, to indicate an their low status: Stenka Razin, Grishka Rasputin, etc. A diminutive could be used by persons of a higher class when referring to themselves to indicate humility, e.g., when addressing to the tsar.

The choice of addressing format is closely linked to the choice of second-person pronoun. Russian language distinguishes:

Вы ("Vy") is the plural of both forms to address a pair or group. Historically, it comes from German, under Peter the Great, which uses du and Sie similarly.[citation needed]

Other than the use of patronymics, Russian forms of address in Russian are very similar to English ones.

Also, the meaning of the form of address strongly depends on the choice of a V-T form:

Vy or ty Form Male example Female example Use
Using "Vy" Full three-name form Anatoliy Pavlovich Ivanov Varvara Mikhailovna Kuznetsova Official documents, very formal occasions (when necessary)
First name + patronymic Anatoliy Pavlovich Varvara Mikhailovna General formal or respectful form
Surname Ivanov Kuznetsova Formal. Often used by a person of a higher social position (like a teacher talking to a student)
Informal first name + informal patronymic Tol' Palych Varvara Mikhalna Respectful but less formal
Full first name Anatoliy Varvara
Diminutive first name Tolya Varya Friendly but still somewhat formal
Affectionate first name Varechka Used almost exclusively towards women, showing fondness but still keeping some formality (like to a younger colleague)
Using "Ty" First name + patronymic Anatoliy Pavlovich Varvara Mikhailovna Can be used between friends on semi-formal occasions or ironically
Informal patronymic Palych Mikhalna Combining familiarity and respect
Surname Ivanov Kuznetsova Similar in use to a "vy" form but less formal
Full first name Anatoliy Varvara Friendly but with a tone of formality. If the name has no diminutive form (Yegor), also used informally
Diminutive first name Tolia Varya General informal form
Colloquial first name Tolik Var'ka Very familiar form
Slang first name Tolyan Varyukha
Affectionate first name Tolen'ka Varechka Tender, affectionate form

Using a "ty" form with a person who dislikes it or on inappropriate occasions can be an insult, especially the surname alone.


Other Eastern Slavic languages use the same adjectives of their literal translation if they differ from Russian analogue. All Eastern Slavic languages are synthetic languages, and grammatical genders are used. Thus, the suffix of an adjective changes with the sex of the recipient.

In Russian, adjectives before names are generally restricted to written forms of communication. Adjectives like Любимый / Любимая (lyubimiy / lyubimaya, "beloved") and Милый / Милая (miliy / milaya, "sweetheart") are informal, and Уважаемый / Уважаемая (uvazhayemiy / uvazhayemaya, literally "respected") is highly formal. Some adjectives, like Дорогой / Дорогая (dorogoy / dorogaya, "dear"), can be used in both formal and informal letters.

See also


  1. ^ "Как обращаться к человеку в русскоязычной среде" [How to address a person in Russian-speaking community] (in Russian). Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  2. ^ "Система обращений и речевой этикет" [System of addressing and speech etiquette] (in Russian). "СЕКРЕТАРСКОЕ ДЕЛО" № 02/2016. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  3. ^ писать его с вичем, судить только в Москве, излишних пошлин с товаров не брать, креста самому не целовать (in Russian). Собр. Гос. Грам. II, № 196.
  4. ^ Federal Law of the Russian Federation on Acts of Civil Statements, Clauses: 58, 59.
  5. ^ ""Марьевна — и точка!" Почему женщины меняют отчество на матроним". РИА Новости (in Russian). 13 January 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  6. ^ "Как оформить матчество в России". Горящая Изба (in Russian). Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  7. ^ Hirose, Yoko (2016). "The Complexity of Nationalism in Azerbaijan". International Journal of Social Science Studies. 4 (5): 136. doi:10.11114/ijsss.v4i5.1531.
  8. ^ Komiljonovna, Koziyeva Iqbal (26 July 2022). "Changes in the system of anthroponyms in the Uzbek language at the end of the 20th century - the beginning of the 21st century". Zien Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 10: 65–67. ISSN 2769-996X.
  9. ^ Family Code of the Russian Federation, Article 58.2 "A child's patronym is formed from the father's [first] name unless otherwise [decreed by] national custom".
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