In linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate. For those learning a language, suppletive forms will be seen as "irregular" or even "highly irregular".

The term "suppletion" implies that a gap in the paradigm was filled by a form "supplied" by a different paradigm. Instances of suppletion are overwhelmingly restricted to the most commonly used lexical items in a language.

Irregularity and suppletion

An irregular paradigm is one in which the derived forms of a word cannot be deduced by simple rules from the base form. For example, someone who knows only a little English can deduce that the plural of girl is girls but cannot deduce that the plural of man is men. Language learners are often most aware of irregular verbs, but any part of speech with inflections can be irregular.

For most synchronic purposes—first-language acquisition studies, psycholinguistics, language-teaching theory—it suffices to note that these forms are irregular. However, historical linguistics seeks to explain how they came to be so and distinguishes different kinds of irregularity according to their origins.

Most irregular paradigms (like man:men) can be explained by phonological developments that affected one form of a word but not another (in this case, Germanic umlaut). In such cases, the historical antecedents of the current forms once constituted a regular paradigm.

Historical linguistics uses the term "suppletion"[1] to distinguish irregularities like person:people or cow:cattle that cannot be so explained because the parts of the paradigm have not evolved out of a single form.

Hermann Osthoff coined the term "suppletion" in German in an 1899 study of the phenomenon in Indo-European languages.[2][3][4]

Suppletion exists in many languages around the world.[5] These languages are from various language families : Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Arabic, Romance, etc.

For example, in Georgian, the paradigm for the verb "to come" is composed of four different roots (di-, -val-, -vid-, and -sul-).[6]

Similarly, in Modern Standard Arabic, the verb jāʾ ("come") usually uses the form taʿāl for its imperative, and the plural of marʾah ("woman") is nisāʾ.

Some of the more archaic Indo-European languages are particularly known for suppletion. Ancient Greek, for example, has some twenty verbs with suppletive paradigms, many with three separate roots. (See Ancient Greek verbs § Suppletive verbs.)

Example words

To go

In English, the past tense of the verb go is went, which comes from the past tense of the verb wend, archaic in this sense. (The modern past tense of wend is wended.) See Go (verb).

The Romance languages have a variety of suppletive forms in conjugating the verb "to go", as these first-person singular forms illustrate (second-person singular forms in imperative):[7]

Language Imperative Present Subjunctive Future Preterite Infinitive
French va, vas-y 1 vais 1 aille 4 irai 2 allai 4 aller 4
Romansh
(Sursilvan)
va 1 mon 6 mondi 6 ir 2
Sardinian
(Logudorese)
bai 1 ando 3 andaia, andaio 3 andare 3
Italian vai, va, va' 1 vado, vo 1 vada 1 andrò 3 andai 3 andare 3
Occitan
(Languedocien)
vai 1 vau 1 ane 3 anarai 3 anèri 3 anar 3
Catalan vès 1 vaig 1 vagi 1 aniré 3 aní 3 anar 3
Spanish ve 1 voy 1 vaya 1 iré 2 fui 5 ir 2
andávos 3
Portuguese vai 1 vou 1 1 irei 2 fui 5 ir 2

The sources of these forms, numbered in the table, are six different Latin verbs:

  1. vādere ‘to go, proceed’,[8]
  2. īre ‘to go’
  3. ambitāre ‘to go around’,[9] also the source for Spanish and Portuguese andar ‘to walk’
  4. ambulāre ‘to walk’, reflected in Fr. aller
  5. fuī suppletive perfective of esse ‘to be’.[10]
  6. meāre ‘to go along’.

Many of the Romance languages use forms from different verbs in the present tense; for example, French has je vais ‘I go’ from vadere, but nous allons ‘we go’ from ambulare. Galician-Portuguese has a similar example: imos from ire ‘to go’ and vamos from vadere ‘we go’; the former is somewhat disused in modern Portuguese but very alive in modern Galician. Even ides, from itis second-person plural of ire, is the only form for ‘you (plural) go’ both in Galician and Portuguese (Spanish vais, from vadere).

Sometimes, the conjugations differ between dialects. For instance, the Limba Sarda Comuna standard of Sardinian supported of a fully regular conjugation of andare, but other dialects like Logudorese do not (see also Sardinian conjugation). In Romansh, Rumantsch Grischun substitutes present and subjunctive forms of ir with vom and giaja (both are from Latin vādere and īre, respectively) in the place of mon and mondi in Sursilvan.

Similarly, the Welsh verb mynd ‘to go’ has a variety of suppletive forms such as af ‘I shall go’ and euthum ‘we went’. Irish téigh ‘to go’ also has suppletive forms: dul ‘going’ and rachaidh ‘will go’.

In Estonian, the inflected forms of the verb minema ‘to go’ were originally those of a verb cognate with the Finnish lähteä ‘to leave’, except for the passive and infinitive.

Good and bad

In Germanic, Romance (except Romanian), Celtic, Slavic (except Bulgarian and Macedonian), and Indo-Iranian languages, the comparative and superlative of the adjective "good" is suppletive; in many of these languages the adjective "bad" is also suppletive.

good, better, best
Language Adjective Etymology Comparative Superlative Etymology
Germanic languages
English good Proto-Germanic: *gōdaz[11]

cognate to Sanskrit: gadhya, lit.'what one clings to'

better best Proto-Germanic: *batizô[11]

cognate to Sanskrit: bhadra "fortunate"

Danish god bedre bedst
German gut besser besten
Faroese góður betri bestur
Icelandic góður betri bestur
Dutch goed beter best
Norwegian god bedre best
Swedish god bättre bäst
Romance languages
French bon Latin: bonus

from Old Latin: duenos

meilleur
Portuguese bom melhor
Spanish bueno mejor
Catalan bo millor
Italian buono migliore
Celtic languages
Scottish Gaelic math Proto-Celtic: *matis

from Proto-Indo-European: *meh₂- "ripen", "mature"

feàrr Proto-Celtic *werros

from Proto-Indo-European: *wers- "peak"

Irish maith fearr
Breton mat gwell, gwelloc'h (1) gwellañ (1)
  • (1) Proto-Celtic: *u̯el-no-
  • (2) Proto-Celtic *u̯or-gous-on
Welsh da Proto-Celtic: *dagos "good", "well" gwell (1) gorau (2)
Slavic languages
Polish dobry Proto-Slavic: *dobrъ lepszy najlepszy Proto-Indo-European *lep-, *lēp- "behoof", "boot", "good"
Czech dobrý lepší nejlepší
Slovak dobrý lepší najlepší
Ukrainian добрий ліпший найліпший
Serbo-Croatian dobar bolji najbolji Proto-Slavic: *bolьjь "bigger"
Slovene dober boljši najboljši
Russian хороший, khoroshiy probably from Proto-Slavic: *xorb[12] лучше, luchshe (наи)лучший, (nai)luchshiy Old Russian лучии, neut. луче

Old Church Slavonic: лоучии "more suitable, appropriate"[12]

other languages
Persian خوب‎, khūb [xʊb][a] probably cognate of Proto-Slavic *xorb (above). Not a satisfactory etymology for beh; but see comparative and superlative forms in comparison to Germanic خوبتر‎, xūb-tar or بِهْتَر‎, beh-tar[b] خوبترین‎, xūb-tarīn or بِهْتَرين‎, beh-tarīn From Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hwásuš "good". Not a cognate of the Germanic forms above.
  1. ^ Poetic به‎, beh
  2. ^ The superlative of beh- 'good' in Ancient Persian is beh-ist which has evolved to بهشت‎, behešt "paradise" in Modern Persian.

The comparison of "good" is also suppletive in Estonian: heaparem and Finnish: hyväparempi.

bad, worse, worst
Language Adjective Etymology Comparative Superlative Etymology
Germanic languages
English bad Uncertain, possibly from OE bæddel ("effeminate man, hermaphrodite, pederast"), related to OE bædan ("to defile") < Proto-Germanic *baidijaną ("constrain, cause to stay")
In OE yfel was more common, compare Proto-Germanic *ubilaz, Gothic ubils (bad), German übel (evil / bad) Eng evil
worse worst OE wyrsa, cognate to OHG wirsiro
Old Norse (illr, vándr) verri verstr
Icelandic (illur, vondur, slæmur) verri verstur
Faroese (illur, óndur, ringur) verri verstur
Norwegian (ond, vond) verre verst(e)
Swedish (dålig, ond) sämre, värre sämst, värst
Danish (dårlig, ond) værre værst
Romance languages
French mal[a] Latin: malus pire Latin: peior, cognate to Sanskrit padyate "he falls"
Portuguese mau pior
Spanish malo peor
Catalan mal[b] pitjor
Italian male[a] peggiore
Celtic languages
Scottish Gaelic droch Proto-Celtic *drukos ("bad") < (possibly) PIE *dʰrewgʰ- ("to deceive") miosa Proto-Celtic *missos < PIE *mey- ("to change")
Irish droch measa
Welsh drwg gwaeth gwaethaf Proto-Celtic *waxtisamos ("worst")
Slavic languages
Polish zły Proto-Slavic *zel gorszy najgorszy compare Polish gorszyć (to disgust, scandalise)
Czech zlý (špatný) horší nejhorší
Slovak zlý horší najhorší
Ukrainian archaic злий гірший найгірший
Serbo-Croatian zao gori najgori
Russian плохой (plokhoy) probably Proto-Slavic *polx[12] хуже (khuzhe) (наи)худший ((nai)khudshiy) Old Church Slavonic хоудъ, Proto-Slavic *хudъ ("bad", "small")[12]
  1. ^ a b These are adverbial forms ("badly"); the Italian adjective is itself suppletive (cattivo, from the same root as "captive", respectively) whereas the French mauvais is compound (malifātius < malus+fatum).
  2. ^ Mal is used in Catalan before nouns, the form after nouns (dolent) is also suppletive (< Latin dolente "painful").

Similarly to the Italian noted above, the English adverb form of "good" is the unrelated word "well", from Old English wel, cognate to wyllan "to wish".

Great and small

Celtic languages:

small, smaller, smallest
Language Adjective Comparative / superlative
Irish beag
(Old Irish bec < Proto-Celtic *bikkos)
níos lú / is lú
(< Old Irish laigiu < Proto-Celtic *lagyūs < PIE *h₁lengʷʰ- ("lightweight"))
Welsh bach
(< Brythonic *bɨx
< Proto-Celtic *bikkos)
llai / lleiaf
(< PIE *h₁lengʷʰ- (“lightweight”))
great, greater, greatest
Language Adjective Comparative / superlative
Irish mór
(< Proto-Celtic *māros < PIE *moh₁ros)

< Proto-Celtic *māyos < PIE *meh₁-)
Welsh mawr
(< Proto-Celtic *māros < PIE *moh₁ros)
mwy / mwyaf
< Proto-Celtic *māyos < PIE *meh₁-)

In many Slavic languages, great and small are suppletive:

small, smaller, smallest
Language Adjective Comparative / superlative
Polish mały mniejszy / najmniejszy
Czech malý menší / nejmenší
Slovak malý menší / najmenší
Ukrainian малий, маленький менший / найменший
Russian маленький (malen'kiy) меньший / наименьший (men'she / naimen'shiy)
great, greater, greatest
Language Adjective Comparative / superlative
Polish duży większy / największy
Czech velký větší / největší
Slovak veľký väčší / najväčší
Ukrainian великий більший / найбільший

Examples in languages

Albanian

In Albanian there are 14 irregular verbs divided into suppletive and non-suppletive:

Verb Meaning Present Preterite Imperfect
qenë to be jam qeshë isha
pasur to have kam pata kisha
ngrënë to eat ha hëngra haja
ardhur to come vij erdha vija
dhënë to give jap dhashë jepja
parë to see shoh pashë shihja
rënë to fall, strike bie rashë bija
prurë to bring bie prura bija
ndenjur to stay rri ndenja rrija

Ancient Greek

Main article: Ancient Greek verbs

Ancient Greek had a large number of suppletive verbs. A few examples, listed by principal parts:

  • erkhomai, eîmi/eleusomai, ēlthon, elēlutha, —, — "go, come".
  • legō, eraō (erô) / leksō, eipon / eleksa, eirēka, eirēmai / lelegmai, elekhthēn / errhēthēn "say, speak".
  • horaō, opsomai, eidon, heorāka / heōrāka, heōrāmai / ōmmai, ōphthēn "see".
  • pherō, oisō, ēnegka / ēnegkon, enēnokha, enēnegmai, ēnekhthēn "carry".
  • pōleō, apodōsomai, apedomēn, peprāka, peprāmai, eprāthēn "sell".

Bulgarian

In Bulgarian, the word човек, chovek ("man", "human being") is suppletive. The strict plural form, човеци, chovetsi, is used only in Biblical context. In modern usage it has been replaced by the Greek loan хора, khora. The counter form (the special form for masculine nouns, used after numerals) is suppletive as well: души, dushi (with the accent on the first syllable). For example, двама, трима души, dvama, trima dushi ("two, three people"); this form has no singular either. (A related but different noun is the plural души, dushi, singular душа, dusha ("soul"), both with accent on the last syllable.)

English

In English, the complicated irregular verb to be has forms from several different roots:

This verb is suppletive in most Indo-European languages, as well as in some non-Indo-European languages such as Finnish.

An incomplete suppletion exists in English with the plural of person (from the Latin persona). The regular plural persons occurs mainly in legalistic use. More commonly, the singular of the unrelated noun people (from Latin populus) is used as the plural; for example, "two people were living on a one-person salary" (note the plural verb). In its original sense of "populace, ethnic group", people is itself a singular noun with regular plural peoples.

Irish

Several irregular Irish verbs are suppletive:

There are several suppletive comparative and superlative forms in Irish; in addition to the ones listed above, there is:

Latin

Main article: Latin conjugation

Latin has several suppletive verbs. A few examples, listed by principal parts:

  • sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - "be".
  • ferō, ferre, tulī or tetulī, lātus - "carry, bear".
  • fīō, fierī, factus sum (suppletive and semi-deponent) - "become, be made, happen"
  • tollō, tollere, sustulī, sublātus - "raise, lift, elevate".

Polish

In some Slavic languages, a few verbs have imperfective and perfective forms arising from different roots. For example, in Polish:

Verb Imperfective Perfective
to take brać wziąć
to say mówić powiedzieć
to see widzieć zobaczyć
to watch oglądać obejrzeć
to put kłaść położyć
to find znajdować znaleźć
to go in/to go out (on foot) wchodzić, wychodzić wejść, wyjść
to ride in/to ride out (by car) wjeżdżać, wyjeżdżać wjechać, wyjechać

Note that z—, przy—, w—, and wy— are prefixes and are not part of the root

In Polish, the plural form of rok ("year") is lata which comes from the plural of lato ("summer"). A similar suppletion occurs in Russian: год, romanizedgod ("year") > лет, let (genitive of "years").

Romanian

The Romanian verb a fi ("to be") is suppletive and irregular, with the infinitive coming from Latin fieri, but conjugated forms from forms of already suppletive Latin sum. For example, eu sunt ("I am"), tu ești ("you are"), eu am fost ("I have been"), eu eram ("I used to be"), eu fusei/fui ("I was"); while the subjunctive, also used to form the future in o să fiu ("I will be/am going to be"), is linked to the infinitive.

Russian

In Russian, the word человек, chelovek ("man, human being") is suppletive. The strict plural form, человеки, cheloveki, is used only in Orthodox Church contexts. It may have originally been the unattested *человекы, *cheloveky. In any case, in modern usage, it has been replaced by люди, lyudi, the singular form of which is known in Russian only as a component of compound words (such as простолюдин, prostolyudin). This suppletion also exists in Polish (człowiek > ludzie), Czech (člověk > lidé), Serbo-Croatian (čovjek > ljudi),[17] and Slovene (človek > ljudje).

Generalizations

Strictly speaking, suppletion occurs when different inflections of a lexeme (i.e., with the same lexical category) have etymologically unrelated stems. The term is also used in looser senses, albeit less formally.

Semantic relations

The term "suppletion" is also used in the looser sense when there is a semantic link between words but not an etymological one; unlike the strict inflectional sense, these may be in different lexical categories, such as noun/verb.[18][19]

English noun/adjective pairs such as father/paternal or cow/bovine are also referred to as collateral adjectives. In this sense of the term, father/fatherly is non-suppletive. Fatherly is derived from father, while father/paternal is suppletive. Likewise cow/cowish is non-suppletive, while cow/bovine is suppletive.

In these cases, father/pater- and cow/bov- are cognate via Proto-Indo-European, but 'paternal' and 'bovine' are borrowings into English (via Old French and Latin). The pairs are distantly etymologically related, but the words are not from a single Modern English stem.

Weak suppletion

The term "weak suppletion" is sometimes used in contemporary synchronic morphology in reference to sets of stems whose alternations cannot be accounted for by synchronically productive phonological rules. For example, the two forms child/children are etymologically from the same source, but the alternation does not reflect any regular morphological process in modern English: this makes the pair appear to be suppletive, even though the forms go back to the same root.

In that understanding, English has abundant examples of weak suppletion in its verbal inflection: e.g. bring/brought, take/took, see/saw, etc. Even though the forms are etymologically related in each pair, no productive morphological rule can derive one form from the other in synchrony. Alternations just have to be learned by speakers — in much the same way as truly suppletive pairs such as go/went.

Such cases, which were traditionally simply labelled "irregular", are sometimes described with the term "weak suppletion", so as to restrict the term "suppletion" to etymologically unrelated stems.

See also

References

  1. ^ "suppletion". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ Osthoff, Hermann (1900). Vom Suppletivwesen der indogermanischen Sprachen : erweiterte akademische Rede ; akademische Rede zur Feier des Geburtsfestes des höchstseligen Grossherzogs Karl Friedrich am 22. November 1899 (in German). Heidelberg: Wolff.
  3. ^ Bobaljik, Jonathan David (2012-10-05). Universals in Comparative Morphology: Suppletion, Superlatives, and the Structure of Words. MIT Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780262304597. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  4. ^ Liberman, Anatoly (9 Jan 2013). "How come the past of 'go' is 'went?'". Oxford Etymologist. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  5. ^ Greville G, Corbett (2009). Suppletion: Typology, markedness, complexity. Berlin: On Inflection. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 25–40.
  6. ^ Andrew Hippisley, Marina Chumakina, Greville G. Corbett and Dunstan Brown. Suppletion: frequency, categories and distribution of stems. University of Surrey. [1]
  7. ^ However, some unstandardized languages are chosen in non-standard dialects instead based on their uniqueness. This table below excludes periphrastic tenses.
  8. ^ Vadere is cognate with English wade (PIE root *weh₂dʰ-).
  9. ^ Late Lat. *ambitāre is a frequentative form of classical ambio ‘to go around’.
  10. ^ The preterites of "to be" and "to go" are identical in Spanish and Portuguese. Compare the English construction "Have you been to France?" which has no simple present form.
  11. ^ a b Wiktionary, Proto-Germanic root *gōdaz
  12. ^ a b c d Max Vasmer, Russisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch
  13. ^ "eDIL - Irish Language Dictionary". www.dil.ie.
  14. ^ "Comparative forms". nualeargais.ie.
  15. ^ "Pota Focal | sia". Pota Focal.
  16. ^ Ionnrachtaigh, Seosamh Mac (June 2, 2015). Impreasin na Gaeilge I – Z: (Fuaim na Gaeilge). AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781496984203 – via Google Books.
  17. ^ Kordić, Snježana (2005). "Gramatička kategorija broja" [Grammatical category of number] (PDF). In Tatarin, Milovan (ed.). Zavičajnik: zbornik Stanislava Marijanovića: povodom sedamdesetogodišnjice života i četrdesetpetogodišnjice znanstvenoga rada (in Serbo-Croatian). Osijek: Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera, Filozofski fakultet. p. 191. ISBN 953-6456-54-0. OCLC 68777865. SSRN 3438755. CROSBI 426600. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  18. ^ Paul Georg Meyer (1997) Coming to know: studies in the lexical semantics and pragmatics of academic English, p. 130: "Although many linguists have referred to [collateral adjectives] (paternal, vernal) as 'suppletive' adjectives with respect to their base nouns (father, spring), the nature of ..."
  19. ^ Aspects of the theory of morphology, by Igor Mel’čuk, p. 461