In Christianity, a name day is a tradition in many countries of Europe and the Americas, among other parts of Christendom. It consists of celebrating a day of the year that is associated with one's baptismal name, which is normatively that of a biblical character or other saint. Where they are popular, individuals celebrate both their name day and their birthday in a given year.
The custom originated with the Christian calendar of saints: believers named after a saint would celebrate that saint's feast day. Within Christianity, name days have greater resonance in areas where the Christian denominations of Catholicism, Lutheranism and Orthodoxy predominate.
In some countries, however, name-day celebrations do not have a connection to explicitly Christian traditions.
The celebration of name days has been a tradition in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries since the Middle Ages, and has also continued in some measure in countries, such as the Scandinavian countries, whose Protestant established church retains certain Catholic traditions. The name days originate in the list of holidays celebrated in commemoration of saints and martyrs of the church. For example, the name Karl or Carl is celebrated in Sweden on January 28, the anniversary of the death of Charlemagne (Charles Magnus, i.e., "the great"). The church promoted the celebration of name days (or rather saints' feast days) over birthdays, as the latter was seen as a pagan tradition.
Where name days occur, official lists contain the current assignations of names to days. There are different lists for Finnish, Swedish, Sámi, and other countries that celebrate name days, though some names are celebrated on the same day in many countries. From the 18th century and onwards the list of name days has been modified in Sweden and Finland.
Main article: Name days in Bulgaria
Name days (имени дни) in Bulgaria have almost always been associated with Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox celebrations. Some names can be celebrated on more than one day and some have even started following foreign traditions (like Valentina being celebrated on the Catholic St. Valentine's Day).
Two of the most popular name days in Bulgaria are St. George's day (Гергьовден, celebrated on May 6) and St. John's day (Ивановден, celebrated on January 7).
Another example of a name day connected with Christianity is Tsvetnitsa (Цветница, Palm Sunday). On this day people with names derived from flowers, trees, herbs, etc., celebrate. Name days are frequently connected with some year or season features like Dimitrovden (Dimitar's day, Oct. 26) being the beginning of winter and Gergyovden (George's day, May 6) being the end of it according to traditional folklore.
Name days in Bulgaria are important and widely celebrated. Children celebrate their name days by bringing sweets and chocolates to school. By an ancient Bulgarian tradition, everybody is welcome on name days; there is no need to invite guests. Presents are given.
Common well-wishes include "May you hear your name from grandchildren and great-grandchildren!" (Да чуеш името си от внуци и правнуци!), "May you hear your name only with good!" (Да ти се чува името само за добро!) and "May your name be healthy and well!" (Да ти е живо и здраво името!).
Main article: Name days in Croatia
In Croatia, name day (Croatian: imendan) is a day corresponding to a date in the Catholic calendar when the respective saint's day is celebrated. Even though the celebration of the name day is less usual than celebrating a birthday, the name day is more often congratulated by a broader number of acquaintances. This is due to the fact that the date of birth is seldom known and the person's name is known to many.
The names that are celebrated on the certain saint's day are all the names that correspond to the respective name and all the derivative names. For example, if there are different versions of the same name in different languages (e.g. John), i.e. different versions in Slavic, Romance, Germanic or other language groups, all the respective names are celebrated.
Main article: Name days in the Czech Republic
In the Czech Republic, each day of the year corresponds to a personal name (or several names). People celebrate their name day (svátek or dated jmeniny) on the date corresponding to their own given name.
Name days are commonly of less importance than birthdays to Czech people. However, name day celebrations can be, and often are, held together with friends or co-workers of the same name and in this way it can grow in size and importance.
In the past, by law, parents were not allowed to choose just any name for a child. This has changed, although it is still common to choose the name from the name day "calendar". The original list was the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, but changes have been made to reflect the present-day usage of names. Any existing name, Czech or foreign, can be given, but not domestic or diminutive forms.
Name days corresponding to some of the most frequent names in the Czech Republic gained slightly more important than the others. For example, the dates associated with names Josef (Joseph) and Karel (Charles) are commonly known even by people with different names. However, the popularity of these names has decreased in the last years (6836 Josefs were born in 1947, but only 638 in 2014).
Danes have their own calendar for name days (Danish 'navnedag'), see da:Wikipedia, Danske navnedage (Danish name days arranged in a calendar). However, the custom of celebrating one's name day is practically unknown in Denmark, and few Danes know when their name day is.
Finnish Name Days
Finns celebrate their name days (Finnish nimipäivä, Swedish namnsdag) according to their given name on the date given by the calendar published by the University of Helsinki Almanac Office (Almanakkatoimisto). Every day except New Year's Day, Christmas Day and 29 February is a name day. For each day there are names in both Finnish and Swedish; the names are frequently, but not always, cognates.
Women are slightly underrepresented in the calendar: approximately 45 per cent of name days celebrate only women while some 49 per cent are name days of men. The rest are those of names that may be given to either sex, such as Rauni (July 15), or have both a man's and a woman's name, such as Oliver and Olivia (29 May).
Many traditional beliefs attach to various name days, especially involving the weather and the appropriate times to perform seasonal agricultural tasks such as planting some particular crop. For example, there is a saying that "Jaakko (James) casts a cold rock into the water", meaning that on Jaakko's day, July 25, the waters start getting colder, which is not far from true on average. The seven days from the 18th to the 24th of July, being all women's name days, are known as the women's week. It is popularly believed to be an especially rainy week, and this is to some extent supported by statistics, as late July and early August is the rainiest time of the year in Finland.
The Almanac Office reviews the lists at intervals of 5–10 years, adding new names as they gain popularity and striking others that have faded into disuse. The university owns the copyright to the lists of names and their corresponding dates.
The Finnish Orthodox Church has its own calendar of name days, corresponding to the feasts of Orthodox saints.
Main article: Name days in France
In France name days (in French: fête du prénom) have long been very important in everyday culture and it was traditional to give a small gift to a friend or family member on their name day.
Some days of the year are commonly referred to by their saint's day: "la [sc. fête de] Saint Sylvestre" is New Year's Eve; "la Saint Jean" is Midsummer (June 24); and so on.
In Germany name days (in German: Namenstag) used to be widely popular in traditionally Catholic southern and western regions, where historically they were more important than birthdays. Since the 1950s, the tradition has mostly disappeared even in Catholic families.
See also: Name days in Greece
In Greece and Cyprus, a name day (Greek: ονομαστική εορτή, onomastikē eortē, or γιορτή, yiortí, "celebration") is celebrated in a similar way to a birthday, except for expected differences (e.g. no birthday cake). It has been a strong Greek tradition since antiquity for newborn children to be named after one of their grandparents. This results in a continuation of names in the family line.
According to the Greek Orthodox Church, every day of the year is dedicated to the memory of at least one (usually more than one) saint or martyr. If someone is named after a saint, then there is a big celebration on his or her name day. In Greece and Cyprus, many names derive from pagan Greek antiquity, and there may not be a Christian saint of the same name. In such a case, the person is said "not to have" a name day, or they may choose to celebrate on All Saints' Day. The vast majority of name days are on the same date every year; the few exceptions are names directly or indirectly associated with Easter, and so are floating. The tradition facilitates social interaction, as all Greek language calendars include detailed name day lists. Some name days coincide with major Christian feasts. For example, people whose names are Chrēstos or Christine have their name day on Christmas, people named after St. Basil have their name day on New Year's Day, Anastásios and Anastasía on Easter Sunday, and María and Mários either on the Dormition or the Presentation of Mary, mother of Jesus.
The traditional format of a name day celebration is an open house: once a family or person has chosen to celebrate with invited guests (at home, at a restaurant, a bar or a club) if at all (e.g. following a recent bereavement), all well-wishers may be welcomed. Children celebrate their birthdays and name days equally festively, but as the person grows up the emphasis may shift decisively. Entertainment provided by the celebrating host may include a meal, drinks, desserts, music and partying, rather than the guests fussing over the person celebrating. Gifts are expected from the guests. Optionally, an adult relative or a godparent might give pocket money to a celebrant child or teenager instead of a gift. In cases where birthdays and name days are close to each other, the celebrations are best merged. It is also common to shift a name day celebration to a more convenient day, e.g. the following Friday or a weekend. Name days can be celebrated up to 40 days after the nominal date.
Main article: Name days in Hungary
Name days in Hungary are very popular, although not quite as much as a person's actual birth date. A woman is typically given flowers on her name day by acquaintances, including in the workplace, and the price of flowers often rises around the dates of popular names because of demand. A bottle of alcohol is a common gift for men on their name day. Children frequently bring sweets to school to celebrate their name days. Name days are more often celebrated than birthdays in workplaces, presumably because it is simpler to know the date since most calendars contain a list of name days. You can also find the name day on daily newspapers by the date and on Hungarian websites. Some highly popular names have several name days; in that case, the person chooses on which day they wish to celebrate, though traditionally the one closest to their birthday is celebrated. The list of the name days is, as usual in name day celebrating cultures, based on the traditional Catholic saints' feasts, but the link of the secular name days calendar to the Catholic calendar is not maintained any more. For example, even religious Catholic people named Gergely (Gregory) after Pope Gregory the Great still celebrate their name days on March 12, although the Church moved the feast of that saint to September 3 in 1969.
In Ireland, name days were occasionally observed in the past. Among Roman Catholics, it was traditional to begin the celebration on the night before, with a decade of the Rosary to ask the Virgin Mary and the child's patron for his or her needs.
In Italy, one's name day is referred to as his or her "Onomastico" ( Greek: όνομα, spelled: "onoma" / the word name in Greek). People often receive small gifts on their Onomastico; cakes are also baked. Name days are determined according to the Sanctorale, a cycle found in the General Roman Calendar giving almost each day a few saints, so different names may celebrated on the same day. Traditionally, parents fix the name day of their child at christening, according to the favourite saint in case of different ones (on different days) with the same name, and the child will carry it all along with its life. In the case of multiple given names, the child will celebrate only one, usually the first. In South Italy, the onomastico is given a much higher relevance, and sometimes it is considered more important than the birthday itself.
Many parishes used to celebrate the name-day of their patron saint with Mass celebrations, religious processions and also charity festivals. A festival like that, can include a community canteen, food stands or a temporary amusement park, it could last few days and is called sagra, even if the term is broadly used also for non Catholic related town festivals.
In Latvia, name days (in Latvian "vārda dienas") are settled on certain dates; each day (except for February 29 in a leap year) is a name day. Usually, Latvian calendars list up to five names each day—around 1,000 names a year. Recently an extended calendar with around 5,000 names was published, and there are also a few extended calendars found on the Internet listing names even on February 29. February 29 is a popular date to celebrate name days of people who do not have a name day; another such date is May 22. People who do not have name days in ordinary calendars can enjoy many variations when to celebrate—on February 29 or May 22 and, if they have their name in an extended calendar or in the church calendar, on the date listed there (so in a leap year such a person can choose from 2 to 4 dates when to celebrate). The Latvian name days calendar is updated at one or two-year intervals; anyone can suggest a name for the calendar, usually by sending an application to the State Language Centre ("Valsts valodas centrs").
Celebrations are very much like birthday celebrations. It is popular to celebrate name days in one's workplace—usually, the one that has a name day prepares snacks for well-wishers, and during the day colleagues arrive one after another with flowers, sweets and small presents to greet him. Sometimes, especially in smaller companies, a certain time is set for the main celebrations. It is normal to come to a name day celebration without an invitation. At school one is expected to arrive with candy for classmates and teachers. Celebrating name days at home is similar to celebrating a birthday, although it may vary depending on the period of time between one's birthday and name day; usually, one will eat cake with household members and receive presents.
Some families may even celebrate their name days more that their birthdays if the name day falls on a date during a much nicer season. For example: they are more likely to organise a big party for a name day that falls in the summer months- than a birthday during the months with bad weather (late autumn or winter). Name days in Latvia are a precious tradition. There is a lot of joy associated with it and remembering it is a nice gesture.
Name-days (Macedonian: Именден, Imenden) in North Macedonia have been celebrated throughout the history of this country. It has some similarities with the other Balkan countries but there are some name-days unique for the country. The name-days are scheduled according to the Macedonian Orthodox Church following the Julian calendar. Each month there are several name-days which are celebrated by the people with the same name. Some of the name-days that are more significant to the history and culture are non-working days for the whole country. At these days everyone's invited or would like to say „Кој дојде – Добредојде“ ("Whoever comes—is welcomed") in Macedonian. There is no need for bringing presents but if you like you can bring some (usually wine or something symbolic). You salute the celebrant by saying "Let your name last forever" („Нека ти е вечно името“ / "Neka ti e vecno imeto") or "For years to come" („За многу години“ / "Za mnogu godini"). Among the most celebrated name-days in North Macedonia are St. Stefan (January 9), Epiphany (January 19), St. John (January 20), Blagovec (April 7), St. George (May 6), Ss. Cyril and Methodius (May 24), St. Kostadin and Elena (June 3), St. Peter (July 12), St. Paul (July 12), and St. Dimitar (November 8).Sv Nikola is the most celebrated (December 19)
Main article: Name days in Poland
Traditionally, name day celebrations (Polish: imieniny) have enjoyed a celebratory emphasis greater than that of birthday celebrations in parts of Poland. However, birthday celebrations are increasingly popular and important, particularly among the younger generations. Imieniny involve the gathering and socializing of friends and family at the celebrant's home, as well as the giving of gifts and flowers at home and elsewhere, such as at the workplace. Local calendars often contain the names celebrated on a given day.
Name days (onomastica) in Romania are associated with the Orthodox Christian saint's celebrations. The celebrations are made very much in the same way as in Greece (see above). Name days are almost as important as birthdays, and those who have the name of that particular saint get celebrated on that day. Some of the more important Name days are January 1: Sf. Vasile (St. Basil), January 7: Sf. Ioan (St. John), April 23: Sf. Gheorghe (St. George), May 21: Sf. Constantin şi Elena (St. Constantine and Helen), June 29: Sf. Petru şi Pavel (St. Peter and Paul), July 20: Sf. Ilie (St. Elias), August 15 and September 8: Sf. Maria (St. Mary), September 9: Sf. Ana (St. Ann), October 14: Sf. Parascheva (St. Paraskeva), October 26: Sf. Dumitru (St. Demetrios), November 8: Sf. Mihail şi Gavril (St. Michael and Gabriel), November 25: Sf. Ecaterina (St. Catherine), November 30: Sf. Andrei (St. Andrew), December 6: Sf. Nicolae (St. Nicholas), December 27: Sf. Stefan (St. Stephen).
A special mention for persons (especially women) who have no saint name or with flower name, who celebrate their name day on Palm Sunday ("Floriile" in Romanian, which roughly translates as the Flowers Day). This Name day is unfixed and gets celebrated each year on the last Sunday before Orthodox Easter.
Russians celebrate name days (именины (imeniny) in Russian) separately from birthdays. Some calendars note name days, but usually one must address a special name-day calendar. Celebrations range from the gifting of cards and flowers to full-blown celebrations similar to birthday parties. Such a celebration begins with attendance at the divine services marking that day (in the Russian tradition, the All-Night Vigil and Divine Liturgy), and usually with a festive party thereafter. Before the October Revolution of 1917, Russians regarded name days as important as, or more important than, the celebration of birthdays, based on the rationale that one's baptism is the event by which people become "born anew" in Christ.
The Russian Imperial family followed a tradition of giving name-day gifts, such as a diamond or a pearl.
References to name days in Russian literature and theatre include the entire first act of Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters, where Irina celebrates her name day, Alexander Pushkin's Eugene Onegin with the celebration of Tatiana's name day, and Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, Book I, where both the mother and the youngest daughter of the Rostov family (referred to as Natalya and Natasha, respectively) celebrate their name day.
Note: although the name day (именины/"imeniny") celebration is not as popular as a birthday celebration, the Russian word for a person having a birthday (день рождения/"den rozhdeniya") is still именинник/"imeninnik" (literally: a person whose name day is being celebrated).
Main article: Name days in Slovakia
In Slovakia name days (Slovak: meniny) are widely celebrated. Name days are more often celebrated than birthdays in workplaces, presumably because it is simpler to know the date since most calendars contain a list of name days. You can also find the name day in the header of daily newspapers. Celebrations in elementary schools are different from those within the family as the celebrant gives candies to his or her classmates. Within the family, birthday-like celebrations are often held with cakes, presents and flowers. Flowers are sometimes sold out for popular name days. In the past, by law, parents were not allowed to choose just any name for their child. This has changed, although it is still common to choose the name from the name day list in the calendar. The original list was the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, but changes have been made to reflect the present-day usage of names.
Name days (called god, n., m., sing.) were widely celebrated and preferred over birthday celebrations, until after World War II and the advent of Communism. In rural areas as well as among certain strata of town people the custom of celebrating name days lasted longer. Nowadays, while the tradition has not been obliterated, name days are celebrated mostly among older people.
Until recently,[specify] name days in Spain (called onomásticos or día de mi/su santo) were widely celebrated. Onomásticos are not limited to saints but also include the celebration days of the different representations of the Virgin Mary. For example, the name day of a woman named Carmen would be July 16, day of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Currently, onomásticos are still remembered in more traditional families, but are not generally celebrated with festive parties and presents as they were in the past. To celebrate name days, practising Catholics typically attend mass and have some intimate family celebration. In Spain, children often take sweets or cake to school to share with their classmates.
From the 18th century onwards, names used by the royal family were introduced to the Swedish list of name days, followed by other common names. In 1901 a comprehensive modernisation was made to make the list up to date with current names. The monopoly on almanacs, held by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, expired in 1972 and so did the official name day list. Competing name day lists began to emerge but the official list was still in general use until 1986 when the consensus of a new list with three names on each day was reached. This list was revised in 1993 and reduced to two names on each day. However, widespread dissatisfaction with the list prompted the Swedish Academy to compile a new two-name list which was finally accepted and brought into use in 2001. Although it does not have the official status of the 1901 or older lists, it is now universally used in Sweden.
Name days in Ukraine (Ukrainian: день ангела) are usually associated with Ukrainian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox (Moscow Patriarchate), and Ukrainian Catholic churches celebrations of a day when a saint was born.
Sweden, a mostly Protestant Lutheran country, is still into celebrating name days (namnsdagar). And various countries have their own name day calendars. In Latvia, for instance, where your name day is still more important than your birthday, even normal daily calendars indicate the Latvian name days. (Sweden is the same.)
The factor that contributes decisively to the recognition in Greece of the importance of the name day part from the religious parameters, is the name itself, 'the baptismal name' (vaptistiko) and the consequent symbolic power that the name wields in the identification and placing of the individuall in society as a result of bearing the saint's name (Oikonomidis 1962).