Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Moscow Patriarchate
Logo of the UOC (Moscow Patriarchate).png
Supreme GovernorPatriarch Kirill
PrimateMetropolitan Onuphrius
PolityRussian Orthodox Church
Bishops97[1] (53 governing)
LanguageChurch Slavonic (Russian variant), Ukrainian, Romanian
HeadquartersKyiv Pechersk Lavra
Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ[2] (under construction since 2007)
Origin1990 (self-rule within the Moscow Patriarchate)
RecognitionRecognized as part of the Russian Orthodox Church[3]
SeparationsUkrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate
Members6% of the Ukrainian Orthodox population
(March 2022, study by Info Sapiens; 4% of the entire population of Ukraine)[4]
The Refectory Church, a cathedral church of the UOC-MP (since 1992)
The Refectory Church, a cathedral church of the UOC-MP (since 1992)

The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC), (Ukrainian: Українська Православна Церква, romanizedUkrainska Pravoslavna Tserkva; Russian: Украинская Православная Церковь, romanizedUkrainskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov'), commonly referred to as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP), (Russian: Украинская православная церковь Московского патриархата, УПЦ-МП) is one of the "self-governing" churches under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate, i.e. the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) (In the terminology of the current Statute of the ROC, a "self-governing Church" is distinguished from an "autonomous Church").[5][6][7] The ROC defines the UOC-MP as a "self-governing church with rights of wide autonomy".[5]

Currently, the UOC-MP is one of the two major Eastern Orthodox ecclesiastical bodies in modern Ukraine, alongside the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU). The latter was established at the Unification Council held under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on 15 December 2018 and which council was not attended by the majority of the bishops of the UOC-MP.[8] Since then, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople disputes the claims by the Moscow Patriarchate of its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the territory of Ukraine.[9][10][11]

The UOC-MP enjoys nearly full administrative independence from the ROC's Holy Synod. The Primate of the UOC-MP is the most senior[12] permanent member of that synod and thus has a say in its decision-making in respect of the rest of the ROC throughout the world. Despite the de facto annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014, the eparchies of the UOC-MP in Crimea continue to be administered by the UOC-MP.[13]


The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (MP) insists on its name being just the Ukrainian Orthodox Church,[14] stating that it is the sole canonical body of Orthodox Christians in the country,[14] a Ukrainian "local church" (Ukrainian: Помісна Церква).

It is also the name that it is registered under in the State Committee of Ukraine in Religious Affairs.[15]

It is often referred to as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) or UOC (MP)[16][17][18] in order to distinguish between the two rival churches contesting the name of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church.

Following the creation of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, on December 20, 2018, the Ukrainian parliament voted to force the UOC-MP to rename itself in its mandatory state registration, its new name must have "the full name of the church to which it is subordinated".[19][20][21] This was protested by UOC-MP adherents.[22] On 11 December 2019 the Supreme Court of Ukraine allowed the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP) to retain its name.[23] The UOC-MP had argued that their governing center is in Ukraine's capital, Kyiv, not in Russia's capital, Moscow, and therefore it should not be renamed.[23]


See also: History of Christianity in Ukraine

Under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

Moscow, Lithuania, Galich metropolia

The Ukrainian Orthodox Church considers itself the sole descendant in modern Ukraine of the metropolis of Kyiv and all Rus' within the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople established in Kyiv in the 10th century. Due to invasion of the Mongols in the 13th century the metropolitan seat was moved to Vladimir and later to Moscow, while in the Duchy of Halych and Volhynia was created a separate Metropolis of Halych with own Metropolitan. In the 14th century, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas who established his control over the former territories of Kyivan Rus attempted to move the metropolitan seat back to Kyiv.


In 1596, the Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galich and all Rus' Michael Rohoza accepted the Union of Brest transforming dioceses of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople into the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church under the Holy See's jurisdiction. In 1620, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople Cyril Lucaris reestablished Orthodox dioceses for the Orthodox population of what was then the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — under the Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galicia, and all Russia Job Boretsky as the Patriarchal Exarch.

Merger into the Moscow Patriarchate

Following the transfer of the Cossack Hetmanate under the sovereignty of the Tsardom of Russia in 1654, the Kyivan metropolis in 1686[24][25] was transferred by the Patriarch Dionysius IV under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate, following the election of Gedeon Svyatopolk-Chetvertynsky as the Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galicia, and all Russia with the help of the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Ivan Samoylovych. In late 2018, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople indicated that information about that it transferred jurisdiction over Ukraine to Moscow Patriarchate is inaccurate as Constantinople temporarily provided Moscow with stewardship over the Ukrainian church.[26] The Russian Orthodox Church retorted immediately by stating that the Constantinople's statement is false and further discussion and revision of historical archives needs to be conducted.[27]

Soon, Gedeon gradually lost control of the dioceses which had been under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Kyiv. In January 1688, Gedeon's title was changed by Moscow to the ″Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galich, and Little Russia″. Gedeon's successors were effectively mere diocesan bishops under the Moscow Patriarchate and later Russia's Most Holy Synod.

Before the Battle of Poltava, when Ivan Mazepa sided with Carl XII, the new Metropolitan Ioasaf along with bishops of Chernigov and Pereyaslav was summoned by Peter the Great to Glukhov where they were ordered to declare an anathema onto Mazepa. After the battle of Poltava, in 1709 Metropolitan Ioasaf was exiled to Tver and in 1710 a church censorship was introduced to the Kyiv metropolia. In 1718 Metropolitan Ioasaf was arrested and dispatched to Saint Petersburg for interrogation where he died.

From 1718 to 1722, the Metropolitan See in Kyiv was vacant and ruled by the Kyiv Spiritual Consistory (under the authority of the Most Holy Synod); in 1722 it was occupied by Archbishop Varlaam.

Synodal period

In 1730, Archbishop Varlaam with all members of the Kyiv Spiritual Consistory were put on trial by the Privy Chancellery. After being convicted, Varlaam as a simple monk was exiled to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in Vologda region where he served a sentence of imprisonment of 10 years. After the death of the Russian Empress Anna in 1740, Varlaam was allowed to return and recovered all his Archiereus titles. He however refused to accept back those titles and, after asked to be left in peace, moved to the Tikhvin Assumption Monastery. In 1750 Varlaam accepted the Great Schema under the name of Vasili and soon died in 1751.

In 1743, the title of Metropolitan was re-instated for Archbishop Raphael Zaborovsky.

On 2 April 1767, the Empress of Russia Catherine the Great issued an edict stripping the title of the Kyivan Metropolitan of the style "and all Little Russia".[28]

Fall of monarchy in Russia and Exarchate

See also: Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church

Participants of the 1917 Local Council. Metropolitan Antony Khrapovitsky is to the right of Patriarch Tikhon
Participants of the 1917 Local Council. Metropolitan Antony Khrapovitsky is to the right of Patriarch Tikhon

Metropolitan Vladimir Bogoyavlensky chaired the All-Ukrainian Church Council that took a break between its sessions on 18 January 1918 and was to be resumed in May 1918. On 23–24 January 1918, the Red Guards of Reingold Berzin occupied Kyiv (see Ukrainian–Soviet War). In the evening of 25 January 1918, Metropolitan Vladimir was found dead between walls of the Old Pechersk Fortress beyond the Gates of All Saints, having been killed by unknown people.

In May 1918, the Metropolitan of Kyiv and Galich Antony Khrapovitsky was appointed to the Kyiv eparchy, a former candidate to become the Patriarch of Moscow at the Russian Local Council of 1917 and losing it to the Patriarch Tikhon. In July 1918 Metropolitan Antony became the head of the All-Ukrainian Church Council. Eventually he sided with the Russian White movement supporting the Denikin's forces of South Russia, while keeping the title of Metropolitan of Kyiv and Halych. After the defeat of the Whites and the exile of Antony, in 1919-21 the metropolitan seat was temporarily held by the bishop of Cherkasy Nazariy (also the native of Kazan). After the arrest of Nazariy by the Soviet authorities in 1921, the seat was provisionally held by the bishop of Grodno and newly elected Exarch of Ukraine Mikhail, a member of the Russian Black Hundreds nationalistic movement. After his arrest in 1923, the Kyiv eparchy was provisionally headed by various bishops of neighboring eparchies until 1927. After his return in 1927 Mikhail became the Metropolitan of Kyiv and Exarch of Ukraine until his death in 1929.

In 1945, after the integration of Zakarpattia Oblast into the USSR, eastern parts of the Eparchy of Mukačevo and Prešov were transferred from the supreme jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church to the jurisdiction of the Exarchate of Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine, and a new Eparchy of Mukachevo and Uzhgorod was formed.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union and self rule

Map showing the percentage of religious organizations that were OUC-MP affiliated by oblast of Ukraine, 2006.
Map showing the percentage of religious organizations that were OUC-MP affiliated by oblast of Ukraine, 2006.

On 28 October 1990,[29] the Moscow Patriarchate granted the Ukrainian Exarchate a status of a self–governing church under the jurisdiction of the ROC (but not the full autonomy as is understood in the ROC legal terminology). However, the Ukrainian branch remained crucial to the Moscow Patriarchate, because of historical and traditional roots in Kyiv and Ukraine, and because nearly a third of the Moscow Patriarchate's 36,000 congregations were in Ukraine.[30]

Metropolitan Vladimir (Sabodan), who succeeded Filaret (Denysenko), was enthroned in 1992 as the Primate of the UOC under the title Metropolitan of Kyiv and all Ukraine, with the official residency in the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, which also houses all of the Church's administration.

The UOC-MP, prior to 2019, was believed to be the largest religious body in Ukraine with the greatest number of parish churches and communities counting up to half of the total in Ukraine and totaling over 10,000. The UOC also claimed to have up to 75 percent of the Ukrainian population.[31] Independent surveys showed significant variance. According to Stratfor, in 2008, more than 50 percent of Ukrainian population belonged to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church under the Moscow Patriarch.[32] Razumkov Centre survey results, however, tended to show greater adherence to the rival Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate.[33]

Many Orthodox Ukrainians do not clearly identify with a particular Orthodox jurisdiction and, sometimes, are even unaware of the affiliation of the parish they attend as well as of the controversy itself, which indicates the difficulty of using survey numbers as an indicator of a relative strength of the church. Additionally, the geographical factor plays a major role in the number of adherents, as the Ukrainian population tends to be more churchgoing in the western part of the country rather than in the UOC-MP's heartland in southern and eastern Ukraine. Politically, many in Ukraine see the UOC-MP as merely a puppet of the ROC and consequently a geopolitical tool of Russia, which have stridently opposed the consolidation and recognition of the independent OCU.[34]

Russia-Ukraine conflict

See also: 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schism and Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)

Since 2014 the church has come under attack for perceived anti-Ukrainian and pro-Russian actions by its clergymen.[35] On 14 September 2015 it urged the pro-Russian separatists of the War in Donbass to lay down their arms and take advantage of the amnesty promised to them in the Minsk II agreement.[36] Ukraine passed laws which the Moscow Patriarchate interpreted as discriminatory in 2017.[37]

From 2014 until 2018 around 60 Moscow Patriarchate parishes switched to the Kyivan Patriarchate in transfers the leadership of the Moscow patriarchate says were illegal.[38] According to the Razumkov Center, among the 27.8 million Ukrainian members of Orthodox churches, allegiance to the Kyiv Patriarchate grew from 12 percent in 2000, to 25 percent in 2016—and much of the growth came from believers who previously did not associate with either patriarchate.[39] In April 2018 Moscow patriarchate had 12,300 parishes and the Kyivan Patriarchate 5,100 parishes.[38]

By decision of the Russian Orthodox Church Bishops’ Council (November 29-December 2, 2017), a separate chapter of the ROC Statute was singled out to confirm the status of UOC with the following provisions:

  1. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church is granted independence and self-governance according to the Resolution of the Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church which took place on October 25–27, 1990.
  2. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church is an independent and self-governed Church with broad autonomy rights.
  3. In her life and work the Ukrainian Orthodox Church is guided by the Resolution of the 1990 Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the 1990 Deed of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia and the Statute on the governance of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church.[40]
Metropolitan Onufriy Berezovsky in Kyiv, 8 May 2016
Metropolitan Onufriy Berezovsky in Kyiv, 8 May 2016

In December 2017, the Security Service of Ukraine published classified documents revealing that the NKGB of the USSR and its units in the Union and autonomous republics, territories and regions were engaged in the selection of candidates for participation in the 1945 council that elected Patriarch Alexy I of Moscow from the representatives of the clergy and the laity. This included "persons who have religious authority among the clergy and believers, and at the same time checked for civic or patriotic work". A letter sent in September 1944 and signed by the head of the 2nd Directorate of the NKGB of the USSR Fedotov and the head of the Fifth Division 2nd Directorate of Karpov stated that "it is important to ensure that the number of nominated candidates is dominated by the agents of the NKGB, capable of holding the line that we need at the Council."[41][42]

On 13 December 2018 a priest of the church, Volodymyr Maretsky, was sentenced in absentia to 6 years of imprisonment for hindering the Armed Forces of Ukraine in 2014 during the War in Donbass.[43] In November–December 2018, Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) carries out raids across the country targeting the UOC (MP) churches and priests.[44][45][46]

In the week following the creation of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine on 15 December 2018, several parishes announced they would leave the UOC (MP) and join the new church.[47]

On 20 December 2018, the Verkhovna Rada passed a legislation to change the UOC-MP's registered name. Ukrainian deputy Aleksandr Mikhailovich Briginets [uk] described the law as stipulating if "the state is recognized as the aggressor state, the church whose administration is based in the aggressor state must have in its title the full name of the church to which it is subordinate". The Russian Orthodox Church, which the UOC-MP is part of, is based in Russia, which is considered by Ukraine as an aggressor state following the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. The law also gave it "no right to be represented in military units on the front line".[19] On 11 December 2019 the Supreme Court of Ukraine allowed the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP) to retain its name.[23]

The January, 2019 establishment of the "autocephalous" (autonomous) Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU), by final decree of the Eastern Church's Ecumenical Patriarch, Bartholomew I, of Constantinople, joined the major existing Ukrainian Orthodox jurisdictions: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and a part of the UOC-MP.[30]

The remaining UOC-MP hierarchy continued to dismiss the independence decree, and remained loyal to Moscow, and initially retained many of its parishes. A May 2019 report by the European Council on Foreign Relations noted that the Moscow Patriarchate claimed 11,000 churches in Ukraine, while the new OCU claimed 7,000.[30]

On 24 February 2022, Metropolitan Onufriy said the Russian invasion of Ukraine "is a repetition of the sin of Cain, who killed his own brother out of envy. Such a war has no justification either from God or from people."[48] In April 2022, after the Russian invasion, many UOC-MP parishes signaled their intention to switch allegiance to the Orthodox Church of Ukraine.[49] The attitude and stance of Patriarch Kirill of Moscow to the war is one of the oft quoted reasons.

Administrative divisions

Eparchies of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) in 2011
Eparchies of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) in 2011

Further information: Eparchies and Metropolitanates of the Russian Orthodox Church § Ukraine

In October 2014 the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine was subdivided into 53 eparchies (dioceses) led by bishops. Also there were 25 vicars (suffragan bishops).

In 2008 the Church had 42 eparchies, with 58 bishops (eparchial - 42; vicar - 12; retired - 4; with them being classified as: metropolitans - 10; archbishops - 21; or bishops - 26). There were also 8,516 priests, and 443 deacons.[50]

Notwithstanding the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) kept control of its eparchies in Crimea.[13] In January 2019 the head of the Information and Educational Department of the UOC-MP, Archbishop Clement, stated that "from the point of view of the church canon and the church system, Crimea is Ukrainian territory."[51]

List of Primates

Gedeon Mitropolit.jpg
Metropolitan Gedeon
Варлаам Ясинский.jpg
Metropolitan Varlaam
Иоасаф Кроковский.jpg
Metropolitan Joasaph
Варлаам (Вонатович).jpg
Archbishop Varlaam
Metropolitan Raphael
Metropolitan Timothy
Арсений (Могилянский).jpg
Metropolitan Arseniy
Портрет митрополита Антония (Храповицкого).jpg
Metropolitan Antony
Михаил (Ермаков).jpg
Metropolitan Michael
Митрополит Константин (Дьяков).jpg
Metropolitan Constantine
Епископ Николай (Ярушевич).jpg
Metropolitan Nicholas
Metropolitan Alexis
Metropolitan John
Joasaph (Lelyukhin).jpg
Metropolitan Ioasaph
Onuphrius Berezovsky.jpg
Metropolitan Onuphrius

See also: List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Kyiv

Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galich, and all Little Russia

Note: in 1770 the office's jurisdiction was reduced to a diocese's administration as Metropolitan of Kyiv and Galicia. The autonomy was liquidated and the church was merged to the Russian Orthodox Church.

Exarch of Ukraine

Due to emigration of Metropolitan Antony in 1919, until World War II Kyiv eparchy was often administered by provisional bishops. Also because of political situation in Ukraine, the Russian Orthodox Church introduced a new title in its history as the Exarch of Ukraine that until 1941 was not necessary associated with the title of Metropolitan of Kyiv and Halych.

Metropolitan of Volyn and Lutsk, Exarch of West Ukraine and Belarus

Metropolitan of Kyiv and Halych, Exarch of Ukraine

Metropolitan of Kyiv and all Ukraine

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "UOC publishes statistics for 2018: The number of parishes increased".
  2. ^ Cathedral of Resurrection of Christ and Spiritual-Enlightning Center of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church
  3. ^ Yearbook of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, Year 2022, pp. 1007-1026
  4. ^ "73% of parishioners of the UOC-Moscow Patriarchate no longer identify with this church" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-04-30.
  5. ^ a b "Глава X. Украинская Православная Церковь".
  6. ^ "XII. Самоуправляемые Церкви".
  7. ^ "XI. Автономные Церкви".
  8. ^ "Журнали засідання Священного Синоду Української Православної Церкви від 7 грудня 2018 року".
  9. ^ Synaxis of Hierarchs of The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA
  11. ^ Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew: “As the Mother Church, it is reasonable to desire the restoration of unity for the divided ecclesiastical body in Ukraine” (The Homily by Patriarch Bartholomew after the memorial service for the late Metropolitan of Perge, Evangelos) The official website of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, 2 July 2018.
  12. ^ ЖУРНАЛЫ заседания Священного Синода от 19 марта 2014 года // ЖУРНАЛ № 1: «2. Включить в состав Священного Синода на правах постоянного члена митрополита Черновицкого и Буковинского Онуфрия, <…> с определением по протокольному старшинству места, занимаемого Блаженнейшим митрополитом Киевским и всея Украины — первым среди архиереев Русской Православной Церкви.»
  13. ^ a b (in Russian) Статус епархий в Крыму остался неизменным, заявили в УПЦ Московского патриархата NEWSru, 10 March 2015.
    (in Russian) The Ukrainian Church of the Moscow Patriarchate demanded the return of the Crimea, RBK Group (18 August 2014)
  14. ^ a b Церковь, Українська Православна Церква / Ukrainian Orthodox Church / Украинская Православная. "Блаженніший Митрополит Володимир: "Помісна Церква в Україні вже існує"".
  15. ^ "On the state and tendencies of expansion of the religious situation in government-church relations in Ukraine". State Committee of Ukraine in Religious Affairs (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 2004-12-04. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
  16. ^ d'Anieri, Paul J.; Kravchuk, Robert S.; Kuzio, Taras (22 October 1999). Politics and Society in Ukraine. Paul J. D'Anieri, Robert S. Kravchuk, Taras Kuzio. ISBN 9780813335384. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  17. ^ Rubin, Barnett R.; Snyder, Jack L. (1998). Post-Soviet Political Order. Barnett R. Rubin, Jack L. Snyder. ISBN 9780415170697. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  18. ^ Pospielovsky, Dimitry (January 1998). The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia. Dimitry Pospielovsky. ISBN 9780881411799. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  19. ^ a b Ukraine's parliament passes bill on renaming UOC-MP, UNIAN (20 December 2018)
  20. ^ Верховна Рада перейменувала УПЦ МП на РПЦ в Україні. Релігійна правда (in Ukrainian). 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  21. ^ "Ukraine passes law forcing Moscow-backed church to identify as Russian; fight erupts in parliament | KyivPost - Ukraine's Global Voice". 20 December 2018.
  22. ^ УПЦ МП під Радою влаштувала акцію проти перейменування церкви на РПЦ. Релігійна правда (in Ukrainian). 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  23. ^ a b c Supreme Court of Ukraine rules in favor of Moscow Patriarchate, UNIAN (16 December 2019)
  24. ^ Переход Киевской митрополии к РПЦ в XVII веке был абсолютно законным, попытки оспорить это нельзя воспринимать всерьез - богослов Interfax, 5 July 2018.
  25. ^ Khomenko, S., Denysov, M. Constantinople: Moscow Patriarchate does not exist in Ukraine any longer (Константинополь: Московського патріархату в Україні більше немає). BBC Ukraine. 2 November 2018
  26. ^ Constantinople Constantinople justified its decision to provide Ukraine with autocephaly. Ekho Moskvy. 28 September 2018
  27. ^ In ROC commented report of Constantinople on history of church in Ukraine (В РПЦ прокомментировали отчет Константинополя по истории церкви на Украине). RIA Novosti. 27 September 2018
  28. ^ Arseniy at the Orthodox Encyclopedia
  29. ^ "К 20-летию Благословенной Грамоты Святейшего Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Алексия II о даровании Украинской Православной Церкви самостоятельности в управлении / Статьи / Патриархия.ru". Патриархия.ru.
  30. ^ a b c Liik, Kadri; Metodiev, Momchil; and Popescu, Nicu: "Defender of the faith? How Ukraine’s Orthodox split threatens Russia," May 30, 2019, policy brief, European Council on Foreign Relations, retrieved January 26, 2022
  31. ^ Pravoslvieye v Ukraine Retrieved on 10 February 2007 Archived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Stratfor: The World's Leading Geopolitical Intelligence Platform". Archived from the original on January 18, 2012.
  33. ^ "What religious group do you belong to?". Sociology poll by Razumkov Centre about the religious situation in Ukraine (2006) Archived 2014-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Younger, Katherine (8 November 2019). "The changing dilemmas of Ukrainian Orthodoxy". Retrieved 2019-12-27.
  35. ^ Ukrainians shun Moscow Patriarchate as Russia’s war intensifies in Donbas, Kyiv Post (23 Januari 2015)
    The War and the Orthodox Churches in Ukraine, The Jamestown Foundation (18 February 2014)
  36. ^ (in Ukrainian) UOC MP called on militants to lay down arms, Ukrayinska Pravda (14 September 2015)
  37. ^ "Ukrainian legislation about religion will finalize divorce between Kyiv and Moscow". 19 May 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  38. ^ a b Rudenko, Olga (4 April 2018). "Ukrainian Orthodox switch allegiance from Moscow to Kiev-linked churches". National Catholic Reporter.
  39. ^ COYLE, JAMES J. (April 24, 2018). "Ukraine May Be Getting Its Own Church, but Not as Fast as Poroshenko Thinks". Atlantic Council.
  40. ^ "Report by Metropolitan Onufry of Kiev and All Ukraine to the Russian Orthodox Church Bishops' Council (November 29-December 2, 2017)".
  41. ^ "Московський патріархат створювали агенти НКВС, - свідчать розсекречені СБУ документи".
  42. ^ "СБУ рассекретила архивы: московского патриарха в 1945 году избирали агенты НКГБ".
  43. ^ (in Ukrainian) A priest of the UOC-MP received 6 years in absentia for the support of militants, Ukrayinska Pravda (13 December 2018)
  44. ^ "Ukraine's security service raids home of Russian-backed monastery head". Reuters. 30 November 2018.
  45. ^ "Ukraine raids Orthodox churches with Russia ties". France 24. 3 December 2018.
  46. ^ "Ukraine set to establish new church, secure split from Russia". Al-Jazeera. 15 December 2018.
  47. ^ (in Ukrainian) In Chernivtsi, the Old Believers came out of the subordination of Moscow, Ukrayinska Pravda (23 December 2018)
  48. ^ "Moscow Patriarch Kirill, Ukrainian Orthodox leaders issue calls for peace". Religion News Service. 24 February 2022.
  49. ^ Maqbool, Aleem (15 April 2022). "'I'm shocked by my church leaders in Moscow' - priest in Ukraine". BBC News. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  50. ^ "Statistical data". Ukrainian Orthodox Church (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
  51. ^ (in Ukrainian) According to the church canons, the Crimea is the territory of Ukraine - the UOC-MP, Ukrayinska Pravda (16 January 2019)
  52. ^ Metropolitan Onufriy of Chernivtsi and Bukovyna elected head of Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), Interfax-Ukraine (13 August 2014)